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must be distinguished from that with which we are principally concerned. The history of this I will first determine, as writers have been led into great mistakes, from their not properly distinguishing these two places; but speaking of them as one and the same. The Lower Sais was in the vicinity of the sea-port Naucratis, upon the Canobic and western branch of the Nile; and was esteemed the capital of that part of Egypt, 'Ἡ Σαΐς μητροπολις της κατω χωρας. Sais was the metropolis of Lower Egypt. Again--- ET TO TOTALY επι ποταμῳ Ναυκρατις. από δε τα ποταμε δισχοινον διέχεσα Zais. Naucratis is situated upon the river; and Sais stands about two schoni from the same river. Cellarius quotes the Notitia. Ecclesiastica---. in quâ Saïs primæ Ægypti provinciæ, quæ proxima Alexandriæ est, ascribitur. It lay, we find, in the first province, as people ascended the river from the coast of Alexandria; and consequently was very low in the region of Delta, and to the west. By these evidences



-πολιν Ναυκράς

! Strabo, I. 17. 1153. p. Ibid. 1. 17. p. 1155. Naucratis was near the sea-port Schedia.τιν 8 πολυ της Σχεδίας ύπερθεν. Ibid. p. 1153. Aphroditis, Saïs, Naucratis. Pliny, 1. 5. p. 259. 3P. 18. Ægyptus.

the situation of this city is sufficiently ascertained. For Alexandria was a sea-port upon the Mediterranean; and the province in which Saïs stood was next in order, and collateral with the region to which the former city was ascribed.

Of the more ancient City and Province of Sais.


It is mentioned by Josephus from Manetho, that when the royal shepherds came into Egypt, they seized upon the city Avaris in the nome of Saïs, on account of its favourable situation, as it had the command of the river every way. They accordingly, for their security, fortified it, and put into it a garrison of soldiers. It is of great consequence to determine this province precisely, for it was the portion allotted to the Israelites, when they came into the country; and here was the city which was given to them, after that it had been vacated by the former shepherds. Την τότε των Ποιμένων ερημωθεισαν πολιν Αυαριν συνεχωenσev3 ev Noμw Zairn. The king of Egypt ζησεν· εν Σαιτη.



1 Contra Ap. 1. 1. p. 445. εν νόμος Σαΐτη.


Josephus, ibid. p. 460.

3 Ibid. p. 445.

gave to the Israelites the city Avaris, which had been deserted by those shepherds who had possessed it,---and which stood in the nome of Sais.

If then the ancient Saïte province can be ascertained, the region and city, which the children of Israel possessed, will be farther manifest. This region occurs under different denominations, being stiled the land of Gothen, the land of Rameses, the field of Zoan, and the Arabian nome. By some of the Egyptian writers, as we have seen, it was called the nome of Saïs. This last was the name both of the province and chief city. That it was a different place from the lower Saïs may be farther proved from Plato, who was well acquainted with it, as well as from other writers, however it may have been at times' confounded with it. The difference will appear plainly from the history of its situation. Est τις κατ' Αιγυπτον εν τῷ Δέλτα, περι κατα поди φην σχίζεται το τε Νειλε ρεύμα, Σαϊτίκος επικαλεμενος Νόμος. Τοτε δε τε Νομό μεγιση πολις Zais. There is a particular portion of Egypt at



This was owing to the city being in different ages described under different names.

* In Timæo, v. 3. p. 21.

the top of Delta, where the Nile is first divided, called the Saitic nome; to which nome the great city of Saïs belongs. Pomponius Mela, speaking of the principal cities of Egypt, says, Earum clarissimæ procul a mari, Saïs, Memphis, Syene. By this we find that it was in a position very different from the other Saïs, which stood nearer to the maritime towns of Lower Egypt. It is said to have abounded with crocodiles and river-horses, which were never seen below. Nicander, in his Theriaca, takes notice of the hippopotamus, and speaks of it as being found above this city.

1 Ιππε, τον Νείλος ὑπες Σαϊν αιθαλόεσσαν


Upon this the Scholiast observes, that these animals appeared there in great numbers. Σαΐς πολις Αιγυπτε γέμεσα ἱπποποταμων. Now it is very certain that they never frequent the part of a river near the sea, nor were they ever found in Lower Egypt among the branches of the Nile. The city is farther de

1 L. 1. c. ix.
p. 61.
3 Scholia, ibid.

* P. 40. edit. Turneb.


Pliny gives a like account of the crocodiles in these parts. Plurimi crocodili super Saïticam præfecturam. vol. 2. 1. 28. p. 463.

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scribed by Proclus, who, as well as Plato, resided much in Egypt. · « Το δε γε Δελτα γινες ται μεν το Νειλε σχιζόμενε περι τον Σαΐτικον Νόμον, απο μιας ευθείας επι δεξια και αριςερα και επιθα λartav Ežiovτos. The region stiled Delta is formed by a division of the Nile, which begins at the nome of Saïs; and instead of proceeding downward in one direct stream, now parts to the right and to the left, and thus enters the sea. From these evidences we are again taught, that there were not only two cities of the same name, but we have their situation plainly distinguished; and the superior city was in the vicinity. of Heliopolis, and corresponds exactly with the portion of country given by Pharaoh to the father and brethren of Joseph. Manetho, though he has confounded the history greatly, yet mentions the names of Rameses and Moses, and of Joseph, whom he calls Osarsip, instead of Sar-Osiph, the Lord Osiph; and between the two latter he does not make a proper distinction. Thus much we learn expressly from him, that the king of the country afforded the Israelites a settlement in the province of Saïs.

From hence it seems plain, that this pro'Proclus in Timæum, p. 30.

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