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vince was the same as Rameses and Goshen, and the field of Zoan, and the same also as the Arabian nome. It lay to the west, opposite to the Nomus Hammoniacus, in which were the chief pyramids, and where the road commenced which lay to the famous temple of Jupiter Ammon. Pliny, having enumerated the provinces to the east upon the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, proceeds to those on the opposite side westward. Reliqua (pars Egypti continet) Arabicum, Hammoniacum, tendentem ad Jovis Hammonis oraculum, &c. If this nome had been named from its situation, it should have been called from its proximity the Libyan nome: and Strabo does ascribe its chief city, under the name of Cercesura, to that part of the world. 'H μɛv ovv μεν Ηλιοπολιτις εν τη Αραβία εσιν, εν δε τη Λιβύη Κερxeσouga Toxic. The nome of Heliopolis is in Arabia, but the city Cercesura in Libya. He made the Nile the limit of the two great continents; and what he says is very consistent, when he is properly understood. We have here fresh evidence, that it was not called the Arabian nome from its situation, for it was rather to be adjudged to Libya, though by some made
* L. 17. p. 1160.
neutral. Manetho was misled by the appellation Nomos Agacias, which was substituted instead of Tabir Cushan, Nopos Agabiar, the nome of the Arabians; and he has been followed by other writers. By which means they have placed the best of the land of Egypt in a desert.
We have seen that Plato speaks of this city as one of the most respectable in Egypt, by styling it---μεγιση πολις Σαΐς. It was a strong place and of great consequence, and esteemed the key to Upper and Lower Egypt. From hence I have been induced to think, that it was the same as the city Sin in the scriptures, against which the wrath of God was denounced by the prophet Ezekiel. And I will set fire in Egypt: Sin shall have great pain. And I will pour forth my fury upon Sin the strength of Egypt. This latter verse is rendered by the authors of the Greek version, and I believe very properly---: και εκχέω τον θυμον με επι Σαϊν τον ισχυν Αιγυπτg. The former verse also in the Aldine copies is translated after the same manner---και ταραχθήσεται ἡ Σαΐς. In other copies it is idly rendered Zunvn, Syene; for which there was not the least authority. Syene, though probably a city of some con
'C. 30. v. 15.
sequence, was at too great a distance to be the object here menaced, and to be accounted the strength of Egypt.
Land of Goshen.
This situation of Goshen agrees very well with the route of the children of Israel, when they first set out from Egypt; for we find that their second station was upon the borders of Etham near the Red-sea. Had they come from the Thebaïs, they could not have arrived till after many days and several stages; nor was there any part in Lower Egypt from whence they could have arrived in so short a time, and by so direct a road. Heliopolis lay nearly under the same latitude as the place of their encampment near Etham; and from this part of Egypt they first took their journey. The writers who treat of this history, however they may vary in other articles, yet agree in this, that the scene of of these great occurrences was in this province. Hence Apion mentions Moses as a na
'It lay nearly under the tropic, and was the most remote of any city of the country.
tive of Heliopolis. Μωυσης Ηλιοπολίτης : and Manetho goes so far as to mention him --'HAISTOλITNG TO Yevos, an Heliopolitan by race. It is sufficient that he is adjudged to that city and province, where in his early days he resided, under the tuition of the princess 3 Merris, the daughter of Palmenothes, by which princess he was said to have been adopted. Joseph likewise is supposed to have resided here, and also to have obtained here a place of residence for his father and brethren. **0 βασιλευς συνεχωρησεν αυτω (Ιακωβῳ) ζην μετα των τεκνων ἐν Ηλιοπολει (forte Ηλιοπολίτη) εν εκείνη yag οι αυτε ποιμενες τας νομας ειχον. The king--granted to the patriarch Jacob, and to his family, a place for their residence in the nome of Heliopolis; for here his own shepherds took care of his pasAs the land of Goshen appears to have been contiguous, it might easily be looked upon as an appendage to Heliopolis, and is accordingly mentioned as a part of that district. For it is impossible to ascertain now how far
Josephus cont. Ap. 1. 2.
* Ibid. p. 462. He more probably alludes to Joseph, Osarsiph; which is equally to the purpose.
3 Artapanus, apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. p. 432. 4 Josephus, Antiq. 1. 2. c. 7. p. 95,
any province of Egypt may have extended in those early times.
Goshen only a Part of the Province.
But however it may have been described and adjudged, it was certainly a distinct and separate part of the province. For when the rest of the land of Egypt was punished with hail---In the land of Goshen there was no hail. Exod. ix. 26. And when there was thick darkness, the children of Israel had light in their
dwelling. chap. x. 23. And as it was the best of the land, there is no accounting for its being unoccupied but by the secession of the former inhabitants; of whose departure we have accounts in the histories of Egypt. When therefore Joseph instructs his brethren concerning the answer which they should give upon their being interrogated by Pharaoh, when he should inquire about their occupation, he tells them, Ye shall say, Thy servants trade hath been about cattle, from our youth even until now, both we and also our fathers: that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen. Gen. xlvi. 34.
'I will sever in that day the land of Goshen. Exod. viii. 22. X