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And antecedently, when he first sent a message to his father, his words were, Come down unto me, tarry not: And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me. chap. xlv. 9, 10. From hence Le Clerc collects, that it must have been in possession of shepherds; otherwise Qui colligere potuisset Josephus fratribus, arte editâ, eum tractum incolendum concessum iri, &c. The inference is good, that there must have been shepherds in those parts before; otherwise Joseph could not have foreseen, that, upon telling their occupation, the land would necessarily be given to his brethren. And when they are presented before Pharaoh, the king at once determines this place of residence for them. And he accordingly says to Joseph, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: The land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell. Gen. xlvii. 5, 6. They were undoubtedly the Arabian or Cuthite shepherds, who had been previously in possession of this land, from whence they had been lately ejected. The whole kingdom had been in subjection to their kings. But they were obliged to retire, being expelled by the

natives. The other parts of the kingdom were immediately occupied. But pasturage being contrary to the taste of the Egyptians, this particular region lay in great measure neglected. Hence we have a satisfactory reason afforded for the Israelites finding such easy access into the country, so as not only to dwell in it, but to have the land of Goshen given them for a possession, even the best of the land of Egypt.---And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they had possessions therein. Gen. xlvii. 27. AgainAnd Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. chap. xlvii. 11.

Concerning the Purport of the Name.

I once imagined, that the term Goshen was a variation of the name, >, Cushan; and that the region was so called from the sons of Chus, who once resided there. But a learned

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friend told me, that he thought the true etymology was from the Arabian word Gush, a

The reverend and learned Mr Costard.

tongue; and that the land was so denomi
nated from its tongue-like form. It is certain
that this part of Egypt was at times described
under the semblance of a 'pear and an heart,
and also of a tongue. All these objects have
some analogy in their shape, beginning at a
point, and swelling out towards their base.
Hence this region is said to have been called
Rib and Rab, a pear; and an heart over
burning coals is mentioned as its particular
emblem. It was also described as a 3 tongue,
which was a familiar image for lands pointed
and projecting, as this did.
• Cæsar speaks

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Riph.-quo nomine hodieque Delta, seu pars Ægypti triquetra Nili ostiis comprehensa, vocatur a pyri formâ. Id enim proprie est Rib. see Bochart Phaleg. 1. 1. c. 15. p. 59.

Ab Alcairo Rosetam oram vocant Erriphiam, (quasi Ai Rif) vei terra pyriformis. Leo Africanus, 1. 8. p. 666.

It is called at this day Rif by the Arabians. Niebuher Voyage, T. 1. p. 194.


2HT, Cardia. See Coptic Lexicon by Mr Woide, p.


A and He, cor.-Orus Apollo, 1. 1. c. 22. p. 39.

3 Sometimes inlets of the sea are called tongues; but generally the term is adapted to a narrow slip of land, or isthmus. De Bello Gallico, 1. 3. c. 12. p. 102.

latus angustum jam se cogentis in arctum Hesperiæ tenuem producit in æquora linguam. Lucan. 1. 2. v. 613.

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of towns situated upon such points of land, and stiles them---oppida posita in extremis linguis promontorii. The opinion therefore of my learned friend appears to be founded in truth, and the land of Goshen seems to have received this name from its form and situation, and signified a tongue-like promontory". And not only Goshen, but a great part of Lower Egypt, may have been comprehended under this emblem. This is countenanced by a passage in Isaiah, hitherto not well understood, which it explains, and at the same time is confirmed by it.The Lord shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dry-shod. Chap. xi. 15.

Tenuem linguam, terram tenuem exporrectam in linguæ formam. Sulpitii Comment. in Lucanum.

Lingua promontorii genus. Festus.

-the furthest point of Africa, called by Dionysius πυμάτην γλωχίνα. ν. 184, ακραν γλωχίνα, ὁ εςι γωνιά. Eustath. Ibid.

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2 The Nile was stiled Oceanus. Οι Αιγύπτιοι νομίζεσιν Ωχ εανον είναι τον παρ' αυτοις Νειλον. Diodorus Sic. 1. 1. p. 12.

Τον δε ποταμον αρχαιότατον μεν ονομα σκειν Ωκέαμην, Οf as some read, Ωκεανην, ὃς εσιν ἑλληνις, ωκεανος. Ibid.

p. 17.


Different Opinions considered.

Some have thought that the sea mentioned by Isaiah was the Red-sea; and among those of this opinion was the learned Bishop Lowth. But the force and peculiarity of the prophecy is greatly prejudiced by this application. The Red-sea lay at a distance from the land of the Mizraim, and was of great extent, so that it was inhabited on each side by various independent nations. The upper part was possessed by the Midianites, Edomites, and Nabatheans, also by different tribes of Arabians. In the times of the Ptolemies some towns were built near the most northern recess, but, for want of water and other necessaries, they soon sunk to ruin, and their situation cannot easily be ascertained. But, in the time of Isaiah, we have no reason to think that the Egyptians had a single town upon this part of the sinus. And if they had, yet we can hardly suppose that the inhabitants, and the nook upon which they stood, were the great objects to which the prophet alluded.

It is well known that the Nile increased in the summer, and for some months overflowed

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