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time forms a bend to the north. Herodotus gives a very just description of its course, as it passed in respect to the ancient Heliopolis upwards towards the south, and from the same point to the east in the direction before mentioned. But the passage seems to be incorrect,




• Απο δε Ηλιοπολεος ανώ ιοντὶ ξεινη εξι Αιγύπτος· τη μεν γαρ της Αραβίης όρος παρατεταται, φέρον απ' αρκτε προς μεσήμβριης τε και vorg· As people pass through the country upwards Egypt appears narrow. For the Arabian mountain extends itself all the way in a parallel direction towards the meridian and the south. All this is very plain; but he afterwards adds---ai avo τείνον εις την Ερυθρην καλεομενην θαλασσαν---the mountain all the way upwards tending towards the Red-sea. This is by no means true; for the mountain is never so near that sea as it is at the point of Delta. It is continually receding, and at its fountains in Abyssinia is at its greatest distance:

The true reading therefore seems to be this. Instead of airi avos Téivov, we should read---xa: ανατεινον εις την Ερυθρήν καλεομενην θάλασσαν. The Arabian mountain passes from a particular point upwards to the south, but from that same

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point takes another direction to the east, and to the Red-sea. This is authenticated by the words which follow. For the author adds, that it makes its turn, εν ᾧ λιθοτομίαι εισι, where the quarries were. He then subjoins---ταύτη μεν ληγον (το ορος) ανακαμπτει ες τα ειρηται. The mountain terminating at this place, immediately passes in a new direction to the part of the world before mentioned. I have taken these pains to determine the range of this mountain towards the east, as all travellers from the point above to the Red-sea are obliged to follow its direction, if they go the common and more northern road. The Israelites in particular are found to have proceeded that way.

From Succoth to the Desert of Etham.

This desert was properly a continuation of the wilderness from Egypt. But it commenced under the name of Etham at the northern extremity of the Red-sea. The distance from Babylon, and the modern Cairo, to this

point is, by travellers, estimated to be about ninety miles. If then to Succoth were thirty of these, there remain sixty from thence to

their second place of encampment. For we have been told that they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, in (or upon) the edge of the wilderness. Exod. xiii. 20.

From Etham to Phi-Hiroth.

The Israelites were now secure, being out of all fear of the Egyptians, and just ready to take shelter in a wilderness where no army, without a miracle, could subsist. The want of water and every other necessary article precluded all chance of being overtaken. But at this instant they have an order to change their route; and in consequence of it one would imagine that they would be directed to march by the left to Canaan, the land flowing with milk and honey. No: they are commanded to retire from it. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, that they TURN and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, (or Phi-Hiroth) between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon; before it shall ye encamp by the sea. Nothing can be more plain than the command of the Deity; and the situation into which they were afterwards brought

in consequence of it is equally plain. They were to turn somewhat retrograde, which is a circumstance particularly to be observed; and they were then to proceed, till they came ---xarα soμa Eigwe, to a ' mouth or opening between some mountains, at that day well known. And when they had halted, they were to have the sea on one hand, and Migdol, the castle or garrison, on the other; and over against them was to be Baal-zephon, on the opposite side of the sea. The place where the wilderness of Etham commenced was at the top of that western gulf, in which the Redsea ended. There were two of these gulfs, one of which lay to the east, and was of the least extent. This in aftertimes was called * Elanites, from the city Elana, or Elah, the Elath of the scriptures, which bordered upon it. The other was the Sinus Heroopolitanus, which extended farther inland, and was nearest to Egypt. It was thus named by the Greeks from the city Heroum, which stood at its northern extremity. Near this point the chil


Fauces Montium, D, os, apertura. See Le Clerc upon Exodus, p. 430.


* Ptolemy, l. 5. p. 162. It is by Pliny called Sinus Horoopoliticus, 1. 5. c. 11, 259.-Deut. ii. 8.

dren of Israel turned back, and passing downward with the sea on their left hand, they were brought into a defile, which consisted of a long extended coast, and was bounded by the above mentioned sinus to the east, and by the extremity of the Arabian mountain to the west. At the end was the inundation above mentioned, which from the Greeks had the name of Clysma, and supposed to be the same place which was called by the Arabians → Colsum. This inlet of water stopped the Israelites, and prevented their proceeding farther; for it directly thwarted them in their passage, so that they were on every side enclosed, and had their enemy pressing close upon their rear. For the Egyptians pursued after them, -and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon. The place of this inlet is, I believe, now for the most part dry, and is called Bedea by the

It is now called Gibel Mocatti. See Shaw, Pocock, and Niebuhr.


* Some say, that whatever similarity may have appeared in the purport of these two names, yet they are of a different signification. Clysma, Kavrua, denotes an inundation, or place inundated: but by Colsum is meant an overwhelming or submersion. It was, they say, given from the overwhelming of Pharaoh and his host.

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