Sivut kuvina

Egyptian deity called Palmytes. This deity was generally denominated Hermes; and, according to Apuleius, described with a branch of the palm in his hand; and leaves of the same tree upon his feet. The palm is an evergreen: and by this emblem was signified Victory, Honour, and Immortality.

Though Plutarch tells us that the frog was not acceptable to the Grecian Apollo; yet we may be assured, that it was a sacred representation in Egypt, by its being found in the Bembine Table sitting upon the water-lily or

lotus and that it was sacred to Osiris Helius. This deity was sometimes described upon the same lotus, and in the midst of waters, under the form of a newly-born child. Both emblems were of the same signification; and related to the prophetic god Osiris; and to his



both Παλμυς, and Παλμυτης. For the Palm was certainly a badge of victory and honour.


Παλμυς, ὁ βασιλευς. Ηesych. Ζευς Παλμυς αφθίτων. Lycoph

ron, v. 691.

Jablonsk. 1. 4. c. 1. p. 161.

* Plutarch says, that the Egyptians described the rising of the sun—-παιδιον νεογμον γράφοντας επι λωτῳ καθεζόμενον, as an infant sitting upon the lotus. De Pyth. Orac. p. 400. But it was not the rising of the luminary, but the renovation and restoration of a person, stiled Helius, Sol: who had been exposed upon the waters, and preserved: whom the Egyptians called Osiris.

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preservation, when exposed to the deep. This animal upon that particular plant is to be found among several ancient gems. We may likewise be assured, that the frog was sacred to Osiris Helius, from one of the names by which it was signified in the east. There was certainly of old a greater resemblance and conformity between the languages of neighbouring nations, than exists at present. And Bochart tells us, that among the Arabians a frog was stiled p Kura. From hence I should be led to think that it was sacred to the reputed god of light, who was distinguished by this name. This is certain, that the same term expressed Kugi, and Kugos, related to princes, and divine personages; and particularly to the Sun, or Osiris. In Greece there was a place sacred to this deity under the name of Apollo; where was an oracular temple, and * lake. The name of it was Kuppa, similar to,, Kurrha mentioned above: and he was in consequence of it stiled Koppasos, or, as we express it,' Cyrrheüs. Plutarch informs




Κυρος, Αρχων, Βασιλευς. Κυρις et Κιρις, Αδωνις. Ηλιον οι Περσαι Κυρον λέγεσιν. Hesychius.

2 Vide Lutatium in Statii Thebaïd. 1. 7. v. 347.

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3 Quid tibi cum Cirthâ? quid cum Permessidos undâ? Martial. 1. 1. epig. 77,



us, that Cyrus the Great had his name from the same luminary— ' Κυρον γαρ καλειν τες Пegσaç TOV 'Hλov: for the Persians call the sun, Curus or Cyrus. Ctesias mentions the same of Ochus, named also Cyrus: TilεTαι TO оvoμα αυτ8 απο τε Ήλιε Κυρον. He had his name from the sun, and was from hence called Cyrus.

An Emblem of Prophetic Influence.

It is to be observed, that most aquatic animals in Egypt were sacred and emblematical: and all inspiration of old was supposed to arise from fountains and streams. Hence in Greece likewise the waters of Pimplea, Helicon, Aganippe, Permessis, &c. were supposed to be gifted with a power of inspiration. The Muses, whose original history came from Hermopolis, and other places, in Egypt, were esteemed Prophetic deities, and denominated from water.---3 Καλενται δε Μουσαι απο της μώσεως. The Muses are denominated from (an Egyptian word) Mos. Phurnutus, from whom

The word in Pausanius is expressed Kippa, 1. 10. p. 893. like p of the Arabians.

' In Artaxerxe, p. 1012.


Apud Ctesiæ Excerpta. See Herod. Wesseling. p. 821.

3 Phornutus de Nat. Deorum, § 14. p. 157.


we learn this, would interpret the word inquiry, and investigation but it manifestly signified water. Το γὰρ ὕδωρ μως ονομάζεσιν Αίγυπτο T101. The Egyptians, says Philo, call the element of water Mos. When Pharaoh's daugh→ ter gave name to Moses, she said it was, because I drew him out of the water. It is sometimes expressed Mo: and is still to be found in the Coptic version of the Bible.



As frogs were of the aquatic tribe in Egypt, and sacred to Osiris Helius: and as they were engraved upon the basis of Apollo's statue at Delphi, the seat of prophecy; I am led to think, that they were originally characteristics of the

απο μωσέως, ὁ εει ζητήσεως. ibid. The Muses were supposed to have been water nymphs: and fountains were sacred to them.


* Vol. 2. p. 83,

3 Exodus ii. 10.

4 Josephus expresses it Mou, μav. cont. Ap. 1. 1. Clemens does the same-το γας ὕδωρ μων ονομάζεσιν Αιγύπτιοι. Strom. 1. 1. p. 412.

Scaliger says, that the name of Moses was from л, extraxit: and he may be right. But Mos, and Mou, still was the Egyptian term, by which water was signified: as we may be assured from the present Coptic; and from the testimony of the writers above: and nwn, Mosah was probably to draw out of water.

5 See Coptic Lexicon by Woide, p. 57.

priests, and prophets of Egypt: and that they were sacred to the Nymphs and Muses. Hence an anonymous writer in a Greek epigram stiles the frog---των Νυμφων θεραποντα, an attendant upon the deities of streams, and fountains.

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Esteemed sacred from its Inflation.

Another reason may be given for the frog being an emblem of Apollo, and Osiris; also of priests and prophets in general. All inspiration was supposed to be an inflation of the deity. Hence it was stiled surveyσis: and an inspired person εμπνευστος, both from πνεω and

VEμua; by the latter of which is signified breath and spirit. For all those, who were possessed by the prophetic divinity, are represented as swollen and enlarged, and as it were bursting through the overpowering inflation. Hence Virgil says of the Sibil at Cumæ

-subito non vultus, non color unus,

Non comptæ mansere comæ ; sed pectus anhelans
Et rabie fera corda tument, majorque videri,

Nec mortale sonans, adflata est numine quando
Jam propiore dei.

Now this animal is noted for swelling itself.


En. 1. vi. v. 46.

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