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from it towards the north---' there is a well of good water; and all about it are a great number of date-trees or palms, and several springs of salt water, especially to the south-east, where the monks have a garden. Near it are several springs (as we may infer of good water), and a bath or two, which are called the baths of Moses. The Greeks, as well as some others, are of opinion that this is Elim. To the same purpose is the evidence of the traveller Breitenbach, as he is quoted by Mr Niebuhr. Mr de Breitenbach a deja eu la meme pensée Voici ce qu'il dit en parlant du voyage, qu'il fit en 1483, de la montagne de Sinai a Kahira. Porro inclinatâ jam die; in torrentem incidimus, dictum Orondem; ubi figentes tentoria propter aquas, quæ ibi reperiebantur, nocte mansimus illâ ; sunt enim in loco isto plures fontes vivi, aquas claras scaturientes. Sunt et palmæ multæ ibi; unde suspicabamur illic ese desertum Helim.

It may perhaps be thought that these names were introduced by Christian travellers, and adopted by the later inhabitants of these parts. But this could not have been the case. Aris

I Pocock, p. 141.

* Niebuhr, vol. 1. p. 183. in the notes.

ton, Artemidorus, Agatharchides, and Diodorus, all lived before the æra of Christianity. Even Strabo was some years antecedent. The learned Abulfeda of Hamath was indeed much later; but he could have no regard for the religion of Jesus or of the Jews, nor any prejudice in favour of Moses. The names therefore have remained from the beginning unimpaired, and the situation of the places which they point out correspond so precisely with those mentioned in the scriptures, and are supported by such indisputable authority, that they appear manifestly to be the same as those mentioned by the sacred historian.

Review of the Course taken by the Children of Israel in their journeying.

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We have seen how very regular and plain the route of the children of Israel is found to be from their setting out upon the fifteenth day of the first month to their arrival at Elim. From Rameses they journeyed to Succoth, and from Succoth to Etham, to the border of that wildernesss, Then they removed from Etham, and turned again unto Piha-Hiroth, and

passed through the midst of the sea into the same wilderness. Numb. xxxiii. 7. From the place where they first halted after their passage over the sea, they marched for three days without water, and arrived upon the fourth at Marah, where the bitter waters were miraculously made sweet, but have now returned to their native bitterness. From hence they journeyed, as is generally supposed, in one day to Elim, though the time is not specified, and may have been longer. Here were the twelve wells of water, and the threescore and ten palm-trees; and they encamped by the waters. How long they staid in each place is uncertain, for they were not carried in a direct line to Sinai, but were led about, so that they did not reach the mount of God till after several encampments from Etham, which took up two months, wanting a few days. After they had removed from Elim, it is said that they encamped by the Red-sea. Indeed all their stations hitherto had been nearly upon that sea. But they now came to a part of the coast in the desert of Paran, where there was no way to mark the place of their encampment but by saying it was upon the sea-shore beyond Elim, They now fronted the true Red-sea, for they



were before only upon a bay of it; which sea extended from them in length southward not less than eleven hundred miles. The next course which they took was to the north and more inland; for it is said, that they removed from the Red-sea, and encamped in the wilderness of Sin, which was between Elimand Sinai. This happened just one month after their departure from Egypt; and it was here that manna was first afforded them from heaven. They were now very near to the place where the law was to be given to them; but this was still delayed, and they were to be farther tried. We accordingly read in the book of the Exodus, that they pitched in ' Rephidim, having journeyed from the wilderness of Sin. But it is said in the book of Numbers, that there were two intermediate encampments; for they took their journey out of the wilderness of Sin, and encamped in Dophkah; and they departed from Dophkah, and encamped in Alush. And they removed from Alush, and encamped at Rephidim. And they departed from Rephidim, and pitched in the wilderness of This I mention


Numbers xxxiii. 11. 3 Exodus xvii. 1.

2 Exodus xvi. 1.

+ Numbers xxxiii. 12, 13, 14.




to shew how far north they must have gone to have made this circuit; for they approached to the borders of the Amalekites, who came out and pursued them to Rephidim. Here a battle was fought, and the Israelites were miraculously preserved: Here also the people murmured for want of water; when Moses was ordered to take his rod, and be: hold, saith the Lord, I will stand before thee.. there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, &c.---And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel. And he called the name of the place Massah, Meribah, because of the chiding of


1 Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. Exod. xvii. 8.

Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way when ye were come forth out of Egypt. How he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, even all that were feeble behind thee, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God. Deut. xxv. 17, 18.

2 Exodus xvii. 5, 6, 7.

3 I should think, that the name Meribah has been wrongly introduced here; and was originally the marginal note of some scribe. The chiding of the people at Meribah was many years afterwards in the desert of Zin near Cadish. It was after the death of Miriam, and just before the death of Aaron in Mount Hor. The murmuring at Massah was in the second month; but the disobedience at Meribah was in

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