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the children of Israel. From hence the Israelites were conducted to Sinai, where they abode a great while; during which time the law, amidst a wonderful display of glory and terror, was given to the people through the hands of Moses. From these circumstances, I should judge that Rephidim was to the north of Ho reb, and that Horeb was in some degree to the north of Sinai. For the people in their return downwards from Amaleck came first to Rephidim, which was before Horeb, and then pitched in the wilderness of Sinai.

Thus much I thought proper to mention concerning the journeying of the children of Israel, as far as Mount Sinai, and concerning those places through which their journies lay.

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the first. Numb. xx. 1. Aaron seems to have participated in the guilt; for it is said Aaron shall be gathered unto his people; for he shall not enter into the land which I have given unto the children of Israel, because ye rebelled against my word at the water of Meribah, ver. 24. and he died accordingly soon after his sister Miriam.

'Numb. xxxiii. 15. Mons. D'Anville places Horeb north-west of Sinai.

Farther Observations upon the Phonicon, or Grove of Palms, as it is described by Strabo.


One of the first persons, who gave an account of this part of Arabia, was Artemidorus Ephesius, who lived about the time of Ptolemy Lathyrus, and his mother Cleopatra. He is mentioned by many authors with great credit, and is copied particularly by Strabo and Diodorus. And in the description which he gives, he seems to have followed a prior writer, Ariston, who was sent out by one of the antecedent Ptolemies purposely to make discoveries upon the two coasts of the Red-sea. The account which is given by Artemidorus, concerning that part of Arabia Deserta with which we are chiefly concerned, has already been mentioned. But as the ancient geographers are not always sufficiently clear, and as there seems likewise to be a mistake in Strabo, or at least in the present copies of that excellent writer, it will be proper to rectify what.


Strabo, 1. 16. p. 1122.

* See Diodorus, l. 3. p. 175. He was sent in the time of Ptolemy Euergetes, as we find intimated by the same author, 1. 3. p. 155.

is amiss, that the history may not be left in a state of uncertainty.

After that Artemidorus has given an account of the Ethiopians, and the western coast of the Red-sea from Arsinoe at the top down to the straits, now called Babel Mandel, where it terminates, he returns to the point where he began, to the apex of the western bay of the Red-sea (' επανεισιν εις τες Αραβας) to those Arabians, who occupied the opposite region to Clysma. And as there are very few objects upon that coast which merit geographical notice, he takes the first which presents itself, though at a distance from the point from which he sets out. This is Posidium, a place sacred to the supposed sovereign of the sea, which I take to be another name for the Baalzephon of Moses. Next to this, Strabo, who copies Artemidorus, places the 3 Phoenicon, where was the palm grove-ε0 €žns દઈ દફ્ગદ્ગ εςι νησος 4 φωκων, and next in order the Insula Phocarum. All this is as precise and in as just order as can be desired. But he at the same time tells us of Posidium, the place dedicated




* Ibid.

-συνέχη τε Ποσειδιε Φοινίκωνα είναι. Ibid.

Ibid. called now Teran; and Isle de Cab.


Strabo, l. 16. p. 1122.

to Neptune---' φησι δε ενδοτέρω κεῖσθαι τετο του Ελανίτου μυχδ· It lay, as Artemidorus asserted, a good way within the Elanitic or Eastern Gulf This seems impossible, and confounds all that has been said; for the sinus upon which these places were situated was the western, and called the Heroopolitan, and directly opposite to the Elantic. Strabo however goes on to inform us, that next after this island (Phocarum) a promontory extends itself, from whence the coast tends inward towards Arabia Petræa and the Nabatheans. Ετ Ελαντις κολπος, και


Nabaraia. Then, says the author, next in order comes the Elanitic gulf, and the Nabathean region. The promontory here spoken of is that which is called Pharan by Ptolemy, of which we have spoken before. He says, that the western part of this desert reached from the city Heroum, * μεχρι το κατα φαραν ακρωτηρις : and he also mentions κωμη φαραν, a town or village of that name; from which probably the wilderness was denominated. Ptolemy adds, and with him Strabo, and all writers agree, that at this point the Sinus Ela


'Strabo, 1. 16. p. 1122.

* P. 162. Stephanus speaks also of a city-agay Tokis μεταξύ Αιγυπτε και Αραβίας.

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nitis commenced; and they certainly describe it very truly. But how can Posidium, which had been mentioned before as being within the western sinus, and one of the first objects in the desert of Etham be referred to the opposite and eastern inlet, the Sinus Elanitis. There must be a mistake in Strabo, or in Artemidorus. I make no doubt but when Ariston and other travellers described this part of Arabia, they gave those names to the places which prevailed among the natives, before they were sophisticated by later writers. Instead of placing Posidium and the Grove of Palms (φοινίκων) εν τῳ Ελανιτῳ κολπῳ, in the Elanite gulf; they placed it ev @ Exaμizw, or Exμur xoka, in the Sinus Elamitis, or gulf of Elim, so called from the natives.

There were very few places of any consideration on this coast, on account of the barrenness of the soil and the scarcity of water. The region however below Posidium near the Phoenicon, or palm groves, is described by Diodorus as being in those times populous, and frequented on account of the plenty of good water and the fertility of the soil. And it seems in still more early times to have been of repute, as an ancient altar is mentioned of

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