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by inflation and hence it probably became a representative of the god of inspiration; and of all those, who were divino spiritu afflati, et deo pleni. For as the Egyptians borrowed their emblems from moles, beetles, flies, and the most contemptible reptiles, if they found in them any analogy with the object, which they wanted to express; so it is probable, that they adopted the frog for the purpose mentioned above. Upon this account this animal was depicted upon the lotos to denote the preservation of Osiris, the prophetic god, when he was in danger from the waters. And it was found, as we have seen, upon the basis of Apollo's statue at the seat of prophetic knowledge, Delphi: where was the principal oracle of that supposed divinity in Greece. Above all things, these animals were particularly natives of those sacred streams, from whence inspiration was supposed to proceed.
Other Reasons for this Animal being a sacred Emblem,
This inference seems to be warranted by the author of the Apocalypse, who continu
Hence the name given by Homer-purryvados. Batracom.
ally alludes to symbolical characters, which prevailed of old. In the 16th chapter, ver. 13. speaking of illusions, with which the world was to be affected, he says, that he saw three unclean spirits, like frogs, come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast; and out of the mouth of the false prophet: and he adds-they are the spirits of devils, working miracles. From hence I should be farther induced to think, that these animals were of old types of magicians, priests, and prophets; particularly those of Egypt. If this be true, the miracle, which Moses at this time exhibited, was attended with a wonderful propriety in respect to Pharaoh and his wise men and at the same time afforded a just punishment upon the whole of that infatuated people, quibus res eo pervenit, ut et ranæ et culices et formicæ dii esse' viderentur.
There is another circumstance, for which I should imagine that the frog was in some degree esteemed a sacred emblem in the east. The ancients in all countries seem to have shewn their gratitude to the deity for any benefit, by reverencing the animal, or the vegetable, through which the blessing either ac
* See Lactantius de Orig. Erroris, 1. 2. c. 6. p. 135.
crued; ; or was pointed out. The rising of the sun made wild beasts retire. Hence a wolf and a lion were made emblems of the sun's efficacy: and were sacred to Sol, Mithras, and Osiris. People, who travelled in deserts, were generally much in want of water : and it is said, that they used to follow the asses of the wilderness, or trace their footsteps, in order to arrive at the pools and fountains, with which those animals were acquainted. Hence the ass, and particularly the wild ass, was held by many nations as sacred: and these animals probably upon this account were admitted into the sphere; where of old was the ovwv Qarval, as we read in Theon upon Aratus. ονων φατναι, For the very same reason I imagine, that the frog was held in some reverence; as the same discovery must have been made to people in distress by the noise he makes, and the indication he gives of water. When people in a desert were looking out for a pool, or a fountain, nothing could be a surer guide to the ear than the croaking of these animals, which may be heard at a great distance. There is an elegant epigram to this purpose by an un
' Minucius Felix, p. 260.
known hand; which deserves well to be transcribed. I have alluded to it before.
Τον νυμφών θεραποντα, φιλομβριον, ὑγρον αοιδόν,
Καυματος, εχθροτατην διψαν ακεσσαμενος.
THE THIRD PLAGUE.
Ch. viii. Ver. 16. And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
V. 17. And they did so; for Aaron stretched forth his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man and in beast: all the dust of the land became lice through out all the land of Egypt.
It has been mentioned that the Egyptians affected great external purity: and were very nice both in their persons, and cloathing: bathing and making ablutions continually. Uncommon care was taken, that they might not harbour any vermine. They were particularly solicitous upon this head; thinking it would be a great profanation of the temple, which they entered, if any animalcule of this sort were concealed in their garments. It would have been well, if their worship had corresponded with their outward appearance: but, on the contrary, it seems to have been more foul and base than that of any other nation, as far as we can obtain evidence. Their gods were contemptible, and ridiculous and their rites filthy; and to the last degree bestial and obscene. Yet they were carried on with an appearance of outward purity, and a scrupulous shew of cleanliness; in which perhaps they may have exceeded all other people. Their delicacy in this respect is taken notice of by Herodotus. Εσθητα δε φορεῦσι οι ιερεες λινέην μονην.--Again, είματα δε λινεα φορεσσιν αιει νεοπλύτα, επιτήδευοντες τετο μα AoTa. The priests wear raiment of linen only.And the linen garments which they put on, are