Sivut kuvina

augury. Herodotus says, that almost

art of :
all the names of the Grecian deities came from


Egypt. Diodorus Siculus, though he entertains some doubts about many of these ancient traditions, yet allows, from the evidence of the Athenians, that the Eleusinian mysteries were imported in the time of Erectheus: and that there was a great conformity between the religious ceremonies of 3 Attica and Egypt: and a wonderful likeness between the people of each nation. We may trace the country from whence Cadmus came, by the mysterious history, with which his arrival was attended. For it is said, that as he journeyed towards his place of settlement in Baotia, he was conducted by a cow, which had a lunar mark


· Apollodorus, 1. 1. p. 90. edit. Heynæ.

2 Σχέδον ဝဲး και παντα τα ονοματα των θεων εξ Αιγύπτε εληλυθε ες την Ελλάδα. Herod. 1. 2. c. 50. p· 128.

Προς δε τούτοις άι τελεται και τα μυτήρια ταύτης της θες τότε κατεδείχθησαν εν Ελευσίνι, τά τε περί τας θυσίας και αρχαιότητας ὡσαύτως εχειν Αθηναίες και Αιγυπτίες. Τες μεν γας Ευμολπίδας απο των κατ' Αίγυπτον ἱρεων μετενηνεχθαι, τους δε κηρυκαςτων παςοΦόρων. Την τε Ισιν μόνους των Ελλήνων ορνοείν, και ταις ιδέαις και τοῖς ἤθεσιν ὁμοιοτατους είναι τοις Αιγυπτιοις (τους Αθηναίες). Diod. 1. 1. p. 25, 26.

4 Απιοντι εκ Δελφων Καδμῳ την επι φωκίων βες γένοιτο ἡγεμων
της πορείας. -επι δε ἑκατέρας της βοὸς πλευράς
δικασμένον κύκλῳ της Σελήνης, όποτε ειη πληρης.

σημείον επείναι λευκον,
Paus. 1.9. p. 733.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


on her sides. But this, however inveloped, means only that he was directed by an oracle which oracle was properly of Egypt. For at Momemphis in that country was an oracular heifer, which had these marks: and had the same divine honours, as the Apis and Mnevis in other places. The cow and heifer were held universally by the Egyptians in great reverence, as being sacred to 3 Isis. The rites of this goddess were about this time brought into * Greece; and were kept up particularly in Attica. In other places they became in great measure effaced: but among the Athenians her name was preserved, and they used to the last to swear by Isis. In short, the far greater part of the Grecian rites. and ceremonies was imported from Egypt.





Λευκον σχημ ̓ ἑκατεςθε περίπλοκος αυτε μήνης. Scholia in Aristop. Βατραχ. v. 1256.


-τgeperaι India Cus, isga. Strab. 1. 17. p. 1155,

Εντε τῷ Δελτα, και έξω αυτό, τοις μεν αρξην, τοις δε πηλεια (σας) τρέφεται. Ibid.

At Memphis and Heliopolis. Ibid.

3 Herod. 1. 2. c. 40. p. 122. 1. 3. c. 27. p. 208.

4 According to Diodorus in the time of Erectheus. 1. 1. p. 25.

5 Diodor. 1. 1. p. 26. Tay Io-opeVVELY.

6 Πανηγύρις δε αρα, και πομπας, και προσαγωγας πρωτοι ανθρωπων Αιγύπτιοι εισι οι ποιησαμενοι· και παρα τέτων Έλληνες μεμαθηκόσι. Herod. 1. 2. c. 58. p. 131.


Concerning the Times when these Mysteries and these Forms of Worship, were introduced.

It is manifest from what has been already said, that the religion and the deities of Greece were introduced in very early times and they must have been much prior in the country, from whence they were borrowed. Hence Sir John Marsham with the greatest probability imagines, that they were established in Egypt before the time of Moses. ! Festa Ægyptiorum temporibus Mosaicis vetustiora fuisse merito videri possunt. This may be inferred from the times, in which these persons are supposed to have lived, by whom the rites. were imported into Greece. The first Grecian fathers have endeavoured to lower the dates of these transactions, in order to raise the æra of Moses, that he may be found prior to any history of Greece: as if truth depended upon priority; and the cause of religion were hurt by any foreign pretensions to antiquity. They however allow these emigrants a very early date; and place them many ages 'Chron. Canon. p. 186.

See Just. Martyr, p. 13, 14. Tatianus Assyrius, p. 274, 5. Theop. ad Autol. p. 392, 3. and 399.


before the æra of Troy: and still farther from the first Olympiad. Eusebius, who studied the chronology of the ancients with great diligence, seems to come nearest to the truth. And his system, however by some disputed, appears in respect to these very early occurrences to be the best founded.

Among the various migrations into Greece, there are three, which are particularly noticed by him, and by other writers. The first was under Cecrops. His arrival is by Archbishop Usher, from the evidence of Eusebius, adjudged to the year of the Julian period 3158, ante Christum 1556, and fifteen years after the æra of Moses, which was P. J. 3143. His birth must have been antecedent. The next colonies were brought over at different intervals by Danaus and Cadmus. The former is supposed by the same writer, according to the computation of Eusebius, to have left

[ocr errors]

See Sir John Marsham, Chron. Can. p. 15. → Chronol. p. 12.

Πρωτος Κέκροψ ὁ διφυής κατα Μαραθωνιαν βασιλευσας. κα. Το λα In his time Moses flourished. Κατα δε τέτον Μωυσης παρ ̓ Ε6gais gyvagito. Euseb. Chron. p. 27. Cecrops is referred to the most ancient times. Κατα δὲ Τριοπαν Προμηθευς, και Ατλας, και Επιμηθευς, και ο διφυής Κέκροψ, και Ιω. Clemens Alexand. Strom. 1. 1. p. 380.

Egypt in the year J. P. 3230: ante Christum 1484, about seventy-two years after ' Cecrops: and eighty-seven from the birth of Moses. Cadmus is placed somewhat antecedent, and in the time of the same patriarch. But it is probable, that he left Egypt more early: or at least, that a colony of Cadmonians left that country long before their settlement in Hellas. For it is said of Cadmus, that before he came to Greece he, together with Phoenix, resided and reigned in the region of Tyre and Sidon.

Καδμος και Φοινιξ απο Θηβω των Αιγυπτιων εξελθοντες εις την Συριαν Τυρε και Σιδωνος εβασιλευσαν. "Cadmus and Phoenix, after they "had left Thebes in Egypt, and were arrived "at Tyre and Sidon, reigned in those places." Now the Cadmonite is mentioned by Moses among the nations of Canaan, or in its vicinity, as early as the days of Abraham. Hence we may be led to form conjectures concerning the great antiquity of this people.

There is likewise an obscure history of a

[ocr errors]

' Usher's Chronol. p. 19.

Concerning these migrations see Diodorus Sic. Ecloga, p. 921.

2 Euseb. Chron. p. 27. Syncellus, p. 152.

3 Genesis, xv. 19.

« EdellinenJatka »