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in the temple of Ammon. To these may be added the goat at Mendes; though perhaps not so celebrated as the others. This judgment. therefore displayed upon the kine of Egypt was very significant in its execution and purport. For when the distemper spread irresistibly over the country, the Egyptians not only suffered a severe loss; but what was of far greater consequence, they saw the representative of their deities; and their deities themselves sink before the God of the Hebrews. They thought, that the soul of Osiris was uniformly resident in the body of the bull Apis.--- Τελευτήσαντος Οσιριδος εις τετον * (ταυρον) ἡ ψυχή μετέστη, και



upon with reverence, yet not in the same degree as the females. Τές δε 68ς της έρσενας τε Επαφε ειναι νομιζεσιν. Herod. 1. 2. c. 38. p. 121.- -Τ8ς μεν ουν καθαρους 68ς τες ερσίνας, και τις μοσχὲς 8 παντες Αιγυπτιοι θυέσι, τας δε θηλειας ου εφι εξεσι θυειν. αλλα ίξαι εισι της Ισιος. Ibid. 1. 2. c. 41. p. 123.

Of Apis see Herod. 1. 2. c. 131. p. 166. l. 3. c. 27, 28. p. 208.

Diodorus, 1. 1. p. 76. s.

Ως εύμορφον εικόνα χρη νομίζειν της Οσιριδος ψυχης τον Απιν. Plut. de Is. et Osir. 362. D.

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* Sometimes he is stiled pores. So Herodotus speaks of him- porxos Axis xxλsoμevos. Herod. 1. 3. c. 28. p. 208. Sometimes B. Bys Aπis, os esiv o autos Origis. Strabo, l. 17. p. 1160. See P. Mela, 1. 1. c. 9. p. 59. concerning this deity.

διὰ ταῦτα διατελεί μέχρι το νυν αει. κ. τ. λ. Α notion, not unlike that concerning the Deli ' Lama in Eluth, Tangut, and Thebet. But Osiris had no power to save his brute representatives. Both the Apis and Mnevis were carried off by the same malady, which swept away all the herds of deities, those Dii stercorei, who lived on grass and hay. There is reason to think, that both the camel, and ass, were held in some degree sacred; who were involved in the same calamity. Hence it is said by the sacred writer---upon their 3 gods also the Lord executed judgment. Numb. xxxiii. 4. See Exod. xii. 12.


These events, we may well imagine, had a happy influence upon the minds of the Israelites to whom the worship of the Egyptians must at this time have appeared in a most contemptible light, and their gods des

* Some say, that this very custom of worshipping a deified man, prevailed in Egypt.--Ανθρωπον σέβεσιν, κατα Ανεβίν κώμην, εν ή και τέτω θυεται, και επι των βωμων τα ἱερεια καιεταί. Porphyry περι αποχ. 1. 4. P. 374.

* The Aselli made a part of the ancient sphere.

3 In consequence of this, when the history is told to Jethro, he very truly says: Now I know that the Lord is greater than all gods; for in the thing wherein they dealt proudly, he was above them. Exod. xviii. 11.

picable. Their separation too, and exemption during the time of these evils, must have had still greater weight. It rendered them more ready to quit a people, from whom they were in so salutary a manner distinguished; and to embrace a better, and more rational religion, whenever it should be offered.



Ch. ix. ver. 8. And the Lord said unto Moses, and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it towards the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh:

V. 9. And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon beast.

V. 10. And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven: and it became a boil breaking forth with blains, upon man, and upon


V. 11. And the magicians could not stand be

* Ελκη Φλυκτίδες. Sept.

fore Moses, because of the boil: for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.

This plague, like those, which preceded, was particularly well calculated to confound the Egyptians, and to confirm the faith of the Israelites. For as the latter are not said to have been involved in the calamity, we may fairly infer, that they were exempted from it. This immunity therefore must have increased their confidence in the God of their fathers, and in his servant Moses. This instance likewise of divine punishment was of such a nature, as particularly shewed the baseness and imbecillity of the Egyptian deities, who could neither ward off the evil, when impending; nor afford any alleviation, when it was brought on. Yet the Egyptians had many gods, and those of high rank, who were supposed to preside over pharmacy and medicine: and to these the people looked up with great confidence, in all those pains and maladies to which the human frame is liable. Among these deities Esculapius was held in particular honour for his skill in this science. 'Esculapius deus medicinæ et medicorum. He was sup

* Albricus Philos. p. 928.


posed by many to have been originally a mortal, and to have first found out the art; and to have taught it in Egypt. ' Medicinam Ægyptii apud ipsos volunt repertam. -Æsculapius Memphitis inter primos hominum numeratur, qui opinione humanâ dii facti sunt. He was particularly worshipped at Memphis. Urbs Memphis præsentiâ numinis Æsculapii clara. Marcellinus, 1. 22. p. 257. Some make Apollo, the same as Osiris, to have invented medicine: and suppose Esculapius to have been his son and from hence to have obtained

his knowledge---Πολλα παρα τε πατρος των εις ιατρικην μαθοντα προσεξευρειν, την τε χειρεργιαν και τας των φαρμακων σκευασίας, και ῥίζων δυνάμεις. x. 7. λ. Diod. 1. v. p. 341. D. Others affirmed, that he learned the science of Apis.

Ιατρικην-Απιν, Αιγύπτιον αυτοχθονα,---(επινοησαι), μετα δε ταυτα Ασκλεπιον την τέχνην αύξησαι λέγεσιν. Others carried the invention of medicine much higher; and supposed that Isis contributed very much to this science. 3 Την Ισιν---φαρμακων πολλων προς ὑγιειαν ευρετην. Her salutary influence was thought to be very


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