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prevalent. Κατα γας τες ὑπνες εφισταμένην διδοναι τοις καμνουσι βοηθηματα προς τας νοσες, και τες ὑπακέσαντας αυτῃ παραδόξως ὑγιαινέσθαι, και πολλες μεν ύπο των δυσκολίαν τε νοση ιατρων δια την ματος απελπισθεντας, ὑπο ταύτης σωζεσθαι. συχνους δε παντελως πηρωθεντας τας δράσεις, η τινα αλλων των μέρων τε σωματος, όταν προς ταυτην την θεον παταφευγωσιν εις την προυπαρξασαν αποκαθίστασθαι ταξιν. For this goddess used to reveal herself to people in their sleep, when they laboured under any disorder, and afford them relief. Many, who placed their confidence in her influence, were wonderfully restored. Many likewise who had been despaired of, and given over by the physicians, on account of the stubborness of the distemper, were reinstated by this goddess. Numbers, who had been deprived of their eyes, and other organs of their bodies, recovered them by their application to Isis. She was farther reported to have found out a medicine, that would render people immortal: and to have bequeathed all her knowledge to her son Orus; who is said---> την τε ιατρικην και την μαντικήν ύπο της μητρος Ίσιδος διδαχθήναι---to have learnt the science of physic as well as of prophecy from his mother
* Diodorus, 1. 1. p. 22.
Isis. The Egyptians had many books of great antiquity upon this subject: many of which were attributed to Sesorthrus or rather Tosorthrus, who was supposed by some to have been the same as Esculapius above mentioned---' ὁς Ασκληπιος παρα Αιγυπτιοις εκληθη δια ιατρικην. There was also a king named Athoth the son of Menis, of still greater antiquity, who is thought to have been the second prince who reigned in Egypt. It is said of him, that he was greatly skilled in all branches of physic; and to have left behind him treatises upon the structure of the human body.-Ιατρικην τε εξήσκησεν, και βιβλες ανατομικάς συνεγραψεν. Euseb. Chron. p. 14. Syncellus speaks of these medicinal books of Athoth---4 φέρονται βίβλοι ανατομικαι, ιατρος γαρ ην. What are stiled books and treatises are supposed to have been originally hieroglyphical writings upon obelisks; or else in the syringes or sacred recesses, which were formed in rocks of Upper
'Eusebii Chron. p. 14. 1. 46. See Syncellus, p. 57.
Expressed sometimes Athosthis-Alwats.
3 According to Seleucus they amounted to 20,000, according to another person to 36,525. But this is a mistake of the writer, by whom we have it mentioned. See Jamblichus, sect. 8. p. 157.
* Syncellus, p. 54.
Egypt. They are by Manetho attributed to Hermes of whom we have an account given by Clemens of Alexandria, that he composed forty-two books concerning all sciences; of which six related to medicine.--' Δυο μεν ουν και τεσσαρακοντα αι πανυ αναγκαιας του Ερμη γεγονασι βίβλοι, ὧν τας μεν λς την πασαν Αιγυπ τιων περιέχουσας φιλοσοφιαν οι προειρημενοι εκμαν θανεσι, τας δε λοιπας εξ, οι πασοφόροι, ιατρικας
1 Strom. 1. vi. p. 758.
* Οι πασοφόροι (εκμανθανεσι), from hence I should judge, that the Pastophori were physicians; if the word be of Grecian etymology.
Clemens describes a sacred procession in Egypt: in which different persons have particular things to carry. Among others the * Pastophori have delegated to them the six medical books of Hermes. They are supposed to be stiled Pastophori from carrying the pastum, or robe, of Isis. But I should think, that they were so named from the things, which they, at the very time, bore in their hands, the treatises of physic. Πασα, καταπατα, επιπατα, are all terms used in physic and from hence I imagine both the books, and the priests that bore them, were denominated. Pastillus is a diminutive from pastus, παsoς ; and plainly relates to pharmacy, as we learn from Celsus. Malagmata, atque emplastra, pastiliique, quos τροχισμός Græci vocant. 1. 5. c. 17. Ουδέν ποττον ερωτα πεφύκει φαρμακον αλλο, Νίκια, ετ' εγχρισον (εμοι δοκει) ετ' επιπαςο.
ουσας, περί τε τής το σώματος κατασκευής, και περι νόσων, και περι όργανων, και φαρμάκων, και περι όφθαλμων, και το τελευταίον περι των γυναικειων There are forty-two books of great consequence, which are ascribed to Hermes. Of these thirty-six contain all the philosophy of the Egyptians; and from these the persons before mentioned get their information. With the remaining six the Pastophori are particularly concerned: for they relate to pharmacy; and are treatises concerning the management of the body; also about different distempers; about medical instruments; and medicines; and complaints of the eyes; and lastly, concerning feminine disorders.
That this learning was originally consigned to the cryptæ or sacred caverns of Egypt, and to obelisks, is mentioned by Manetho of Sebennys, which shews its great antiquity:
' Εξ αδύτων ἱερων βιβλων, βασιλευ Πτολεμαιε, Και κρυφίμων στλων, ἃς εύρατο πανσοφος Έρμης,
Μυριοισι μιτοισι ζηλον το μαθημα καθεύρον. In consequence of this the Egyptians were always famed for their knowledge in medicine;
Πασοφόριον, το τὸν παςον φέρον, Hesych. So παραφορείον, το φέρον του πασον. Suidas.
Αποτελεσματ. 1. 5. v. 1.
and their physicians were held in great repute. We find even in later times, when their country was in a manner ruined, that a king of Persia, upon a grievous hurt received, applied to the adepts in Egypt for assistance, in preference to other countries. Herod. 1. 3. p. 262. And though they did not in this case succeed; yet we learn so much from the history, that they had not yet lost their pristine reputation. They were in great numbers in Egypt each distemper having its proper physician, to which his practice was confined.---* Μιης νουσε ἕκαστος ιητρος εςι, και ου πλεονων. Παντα δε ιήτρων εςι πλέα. Each physician is confined to onedisease; and engages with no more. The whole country abounds with the professors of medicine. The people seem to have been liable to many distempers; some of which were epidemical: as we find them to be at this 3 day. The Egyptians were continually providing against disorders; and they had persons, who pretended to foretel their coming both upon man and beast. In the time of
Darius, upon a luxation of his ancle.
2 Herod. 1. 2. c. 84. p. 141.
See Prosper Alpinus, 1. 1. c. 13, 14. p. 23, 24.
ETI de νόσους κοινας άνθρωποις η βοσκήμασιν εσομένας προση-