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Let him use his own eyes in the matter, and not rely upon runners, or irresponsible agents, or advertisements, but upon himself, and he will not be deceived.
To impress on the emigrant's mind the points to which we have alluded, we will recapitulate them, as follows: First. Beware of runners.
Second. Beware of dishonest passenger-agents.
Third. Choose a ship with a good height between-decks. Fourth. Choose a ship with high bulwarks.
Fifth. A ship with proper water-closets.
Sixth. A ship with proper conveniences for cooking. Seventh. See that the ship is properly loaded.
Eighth. See that the captain and mates have a good character.
Preparations for the voyage. Bread and water, and fuel, furnished by the ship. Provisions for the voyage; hams, tongues, salmon, &c. &c., flour, hard-baked biscuits, dry toast, prepared milk, ginger-cakes, butter, cheese, potatoes, &c. &c. Dietary for emigrants to the East Indies. A guide to other emigrants. Prepare for a sixty days passage. An account of an emigrant's actual expenses in the second cabin of the packet ship Garrick. A plan for a provision chest. Cooking utensils, &c. &c.
HAVING made choice of a ship, the next step will be to make preparations for the voyage. Though this may not be deemed of very great importance, it is, nevertheless, a matter on which the comfort of the passenger will much depend.
By the laws of Great Britain, the captain is bound to furnish to each adult passenger, daily, one gallon of water, and one pound of bread stuff. Each child under twelve years and over two years of age, is entitled to half the above quantity. The Act of Parliament on this subject is an excellent one, but it is not properly enforced in many ports.
The ship is also bound to furnish the necessary fuel for cooking. Beyond these, the steerage passenger must provide for himself.
No very We can
In laying in a store of provisions, the emigrant must be governed, of course, by his means and his tastes. specific directions can be given on this point. only tell him what is good and convenient for use at sea. In the matter of eatables, he should be very particular to provide those things that are easily cooked, and which will be good to use when cold as well as when hot. It
will very often happen that cooking will be extremely inconvenient, indeed impossible, on account of the roughness of the weather. Besides this, the passenger must count on being more or less sea-sick at times; and he will then feel a great desire to keep quiet. Such meats, therefore, as relish when eaten cold, are decidedly preferable. Salted tongues, hams, pickled and smoked beef, and the like, should be selected. A very small quantity of portable soup, though somewhat expensive, it would be well to add to his stock. Smoked salmon and red herring, and a pot or two of shrimps, will taste good at sea. These smaller matters can be dispensed with, of course, but they will prove invaluable as a relish while recovering from sea-sickness. Many, and many, and many is the emigrant we have known, who would have given double the cost of these articles, could they have got them at sea. The emigrant should not fail to attend to this, if he have women and children with him.*
The emigrant should also take with him a small quantity of flour. Although the ship furnishes him bread, he will occasionally want a plain pudding and the like. We should say that fourteen or fifteen pounds would be a fair allowance for an adult, for a passage of fifty days.
*There is nothing so much desired by emigrants generally, when at sea, as a good dish of tea or coffee; and nothing is so difficult to procure. We would advise those who can do it, by all means to prepare a little cream, after the following recipe: we will warrant they will be amply repaid for the trouble.
Take fresh cream, and mix it with half its weight of white powdered sugar. When well mixed together, put it in bottles and cork them tight with new corks of the very best quality. Everything depends on the manner of corking. It will be well to put sealing wax over the corks. When the above is used for tea or coffee, it will make them sufficiently sweet without any additional sugar.
While our hand is in we will give an excellent substitute for cream, which we have used for months together on East India voyages. If the emigrant has eggs, he had better try it.
Substitute for cream in tea or coffee.
Beat the white of an egg to a froth-put to it a very small lump of butter-and mix well. Then turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may not curdle. If per fectly done, it will be an excellent substitute for cream.
A small quantity of hard-baked biscuits, will be a valuable addition to bread-stuffs, especially for women and children.
Passengers do not usually relish the ship's bread, and we would recommend to those who can do it conveniently, that they prepare a box or two of common bakers' bread, in the following way: Cut it into tolerably thin slices, toast it till it is quite dry and brown on both sides, and then pack it in a perfectly dry box; letting it stand edgewise in the box. Dry toast can thus be kept good and sweet, and it is a very agreeable substitute for the common ship's bread. It must be soaked in tea, coffee or water, before being used.
Ginger cakes, baked very dry and hard, and kept in a tin canister, will keep good for years. We have had them two years on board a ship, in tropical latitudes, and at the end of that time they were as good as at the day they were baked.
Butter and cheese, the latter particularly, should be included in the sea stock. Bread and cheese make a capital meal, and a good supply of the latter should be laid in. It is hardly necessary to say anything as to the precise quantity, as the emigrant can judge for himself. The poorer kinds of cheese are preferable to the richer, if the passage be made in the summer season, being less liable to decay. Some precaution in this particular is necessary, as the steerage of a ship is not a very airy place under the best of circumstances. Cheese packed in tin is to be prefered.
A small basket of good, sound potatoes should be taken Great care should be taken of them at sea, as the emigrant will greatly feel the want of them if he should have a long passage.
Tea, coffee, sugar, and salt per, mustard, and vinegar.
should be taken; also pep
A gallon-half a gallon
certainly of the latter, for reasons we shall hereafter If the coffee be ground, it will be more convenient. It may be kept fresh in a tin canister.
A good supply of pickles should be taken, as they will be a capital relish during the voyage; and their medicinal effect is important during the continued use of salted provisions. A very small jar of lard for frying and other purposes, may be taken if convenient. It will come in
The following Dietary for EmigRANTS to the East Indies has been established by act of Parliament. It was formed after a careful examination of the subject, and will be useful to the reader as a basis by which he can calculate for his own provisions.
It will be seen that it gives for each week the following articles and quantities.