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be provided; with a pair of blankets, and a cheap, darkcolored counterpane. Nowhere is a fresh-made bed more prized than in a confined steerage, and we would recommend that the sheets be changed as often as the nature of the case will allow.
In this connection, we would advise the emigrant to have with him a bag for dirty clothing. This he will find of real service to him. He should not omit it.
The clothing for use at sea should be of the cheapest kind. No instructions are needed on this point, as it will be understood at a glance. We would strongly recommend, however, that such of the clothing as the passenger will not require at sea, should be packed in trunks or chests separate from that which will be used on board ship. We must urge this point.
The true method is, to select the clothing which is not to be used on board ship, dry it thoroughly, pack it into clean dry trunks, or boxes, scattering among it small shreds of dry camphor; fasten the trunks securely, and mark upon them, in two or three places, the owner's name. These should be stowed away on board the ship in as dry and convenient a place as possible.
The mate of the ship, or the passenger-agent's assistant, will aid the emigrant in stowing away this species of baggage.
This baggage should not be opened until the arrival o the ship in port, unless by some accident it should get wet, which will not be likely to happen. This course will insure the arrival of the clothing in good condition.
The clothing and other little matters in daily use at sea, should be kept in a common wooden chest, properly furnished with tills, lock, and the like. This description of box has been found to be the very best for the steerage passenger. They are cheap, capacious, easily fastened to the floor, to prevent their being moved when the ship
is in motion, and they answer very well for a table and a
Before the emigrant packs this chest, (and indeed all his chests and boxes,) let him get two strips of deal, about half-an-inch in thickness, two inches in width, and of the length of the chest. Let him nail these on the bottom of the chest, lengthwise, one at the front edge, and the other at the back edge. This will keep the bottom of the chest from the damp floor, and be of great use.
remembered, very particularly.
This should be
In the till of the chest the emigrant will do well to put some towels, soap, a comb, a small hand looking-glass, shaving apparatus, and such other matters of this nature as he has been accustomed to. They should be kept in the till of the chest, so as to be at hand when wanted for use. We are thus particular in noticing these smaller matters, for the comfort of a sea voyage is very much increased by attending to them.
It is also desirable that the emigrant put into his chest, a box or two of simple purging pills, as the change of diet may render the use of them necessary. If at any time he should need other medicines, the captain will furnish them without charge, of which we shall speak more at length in another chapter.
Emigrants are very often at a loss to know, whether it is best to buy in the old country a large or a small stock of clothing, for use in America. They have an impression that clothing is so much dearer in the New World than in the Old, that they should lay in a stock to last for years. As a general rule, this is a great mistake; and not unfrequently leads to much inconvenience and loss of money.
It may be set down as certain, that all of the coarser descriptions of woollen and cotton goods are as cheap in the United States, as in any part of Europe. Fine goods
are usually cheaper in Europe than in America. So is flannel. It is good economy to lay in a good stock of flannels before sailing; also a good supply of boots and shoes, as the European leather is decidedly better than the ordinary run of American leather. With the exception of fine goods, flannel, boots and shoes, we know of no article on which any considerable saving can be made by purchasing it in Europe. We might make another exception, perhaps, and advise the emigrant to buy a thick, heavy, loosely-fitting overcoat, as he will find the American winter will require such a garment, and he can buy it cheaper in England. Women would do well to provide themselves with a thick cloak, or other outer garment.
The following are the prices of various kinds of readymade clothing and piece-goods at New-York, in the spring of 1844. The prices vary somewhat from those in the interior towns and cities: Emigrants going into the interior, will do well to lay in a convenient supply of clothing at New-York, Boston, Philadelphia, or other port at which they may arrive from sea.
Broadcloths vary in price; but the emigrant will save nothing by laying in a stock in Europe. On this point we are quite certain.
Cotton goods, by the piece, are about the following prices :
Ready-made summer clothing is exceedingly cheap.
We would caution the emigrant against taking too much luggage with him. He will be allowed to take with him on board the ship, free of charge, a reasonable quantity; indeed a large quantity; but too much will be in his way, and in the end be bad economy. We have often seen emigrants carrying with them old furniture, wagons, pots, kettles, wash-tubs, and the like; the trouble and expense of transporting which, were far greater than the value of the goods.
We have known some of the better conditioned class of emigrants, particularly females, to provide large stocks of dresses, bonnets, and so forth, which gave them a great deal of trouble to transport to their distant destination; and when they reached it, the articles were not of the style that others wore, and, consequently, were not desirable. The expense for extra luggage in the United States, is a serious one on some routes, and unless a very considerable saving can be made by purchasing a large stock of wearing apparel in the Old Country, the emigrant had better keep his money, and lay it out in America.
Having purchased all that he may require for his voyage, the emigrant will wish to know the safest and best manner of carrying what spare money he may have. On this point he will need advice, as serious losses have occurred in consequence of the want of proper information. LET HIM BE PARTICULARLY CAREFUL THAT HE TAKE NO AMERICAN BANK NOTES. Sharpers will be likely to
tell him that he cannot use British gold and Bank of England notes in America, and try to sell him American notes. Beware of them.
If the emigrant have any considerable sum to take with him, say from thirty to fifty pounds, and upward, he had better go to some reputable banker at the place where he embarks, and purchase a bill of exchange on a banker at the place to which the ship he goes in is bound. There are such bankers in London, Liverpool, Havre, Antwerp, and other shipping ports, whose names can be ascertained by inquiring of the captain of the ship, or of a respectable passenger-agent.* The Canada Company of London, will furnish bills on various places in Canada; and the New-Brunswick Land Company, London, will give letters of credit on their commissioner in New-Brunswick, payable without any charge for agency or commission. These two companies, therefore, will furnish safe remittances to Canada and New-Brunswick.
If the emigrant should take the advice we have jus given him, we would further recommend, that he pur chase what is called a sett of exchange, at three days' sight. A sett of exchange consists of three drafts for the amount, instead of one. They are all of the same date, and read the same. The object is to prevent any inconvenience in case one or more of them should be accident
ally lost. For example: Suppose an emigrant in Liverpool should purchase a single Bill of Exchange on a banker in New-York, say for fifty pounds, and by some accident this should be lost, or stolen from him on his passage. He will be put to a good deal of trouble, expense, and loss of time, in order to get his money. He will have to make proper affidavits of his loss, and send them back to
* Messrs. Harnden & Co., at either of their offices in England, France, &c. will furnish the kind of bills referred to, which may be relied on as being safe for the emigrant.