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Liverpool, duly certified by the British Consul; the person he bought the bill from will hesitate even then, and a good while must necessarily elapse before he can safely pay the emigrant the money. Now, all this difficulty may be avoided, by buying a sett of exchange, consisting of three bills.
The three bills are designated, the first, second, and third of the sett. The first of these three, the emigrant should keep in his own possession, as securely as possible: the second he should give to his wife to take care of; and the third, he should leave in the Old Country, with some really trusty friend. If he has no friend on whom he can rely, let him take the third with him, and give it in charge of the captain of the ship, till his arrival. The object of all this precaution is, to prevent the inconvenience which would arise, if the emigrant had a single bill and that were lost.
The person on whom the bills are drawn, will pay the money on presentation of either of the three, so that two might be lost, and if one were saved, the emigrant could get his money. It is extremely important not to part with either of the three, unless in the manner we have described.
On reaching his port of destination, the emigrant should present his bill immediately to the person on whom it is drawn. The emigrant should be careful to attend to this last point himself. Do not trust to anybody else to do it for you, as he may swindle you.
The other advantages of taking a sett of exchange instead of coin, are these: In case of disaster at sea, such as the passengers being obliged to take to the boats, or the ship's being stranded on any coast, the bill of exchange could be more easily carried than coin. It could also be kept more securely at sea. And if it were stolen, the thief could not use it, as it would require the owner's
indorsement before it could be paid. In every point of view, therefore, we should strongly advise an emigrant who had twenty, thirty, or fifty pounds and upward, to carry with him, to purchase a bill. We must repeat, be particular of whom you purchase it. On no account part with your money, unless you ascertain the good standing of the parties with whom you deal.
If an emigrant have less than twenty to thirty pounds, he had best take sovereigns with him. Bank of England notes are well known in the principal cities, towns, and villages of America, and can easily be disposed of; but sovereigns are known everywhere, and pass with but little trouble, and no loss. They are, therefore, a capital kind of funds for the emigrant.
The last steps in getting ready for sea. Sea-sickness. Its disagreeablenes. The emigrant regrets his embarking. A few words of encouragement. Sea-sickness not a dangerous malady. Sometimes cures other complaints. Soda-water and cider dangerous to be used. No remedy for sea-sickness, except time and pa tience. Passengers' fears in stormy weather. Never be alarmed till the captain is. A ship the safest conveyance in the world. Price of insuring a ship Thickness of a ship's sides. A ship's strength. A case in illustration of this. A ship cannot upset. Running against other vessels in the night; and against ice. Home-sickness. Encouragement at such a time. Instances of success among emigrants in America. Causes of this success. Extract from the Circular of the Irish Emigrant's Society. The western world a history of emigration. Columbus an emigrant. The Pilgrims of Plymouth emigrants. The country all first settled by emigrants. Sketch of the life of John Jacob Astor. Of Stephen Girard. Of a settlement of emigrants near the St. Lawrence river.
HAVING secured his passage, and laid in his sea-stores, the emigrant should go on board the ship a day or two before sailing, if possible. He should then prepare his bedding matters, arrange his chests, and see that the conveniences which he will need when sea-sick are at hand. In short, let him put matters to rights, as much as possible.
THE LAST THING TO DO IS TO GET A FEW LOAVES OF FRESH BREAD, AND A GOOD SIZED PIECE OF ROASTED OR
BOILED FRESH MEAT, TO EAT WHEN COLD. The emigrant had better get fresh meat of some kind, as he will have enough of salted provisions before he gets to the end of his journey. It is of some little importance that the suggestions just made be attended to; for, during the first few days at sea, he will have no disposition to cook.
The ship having sailed, sea-sickness will be pretty sure to pay the emigrant a visit; and of all maladies, this
is one of the most disagreeble. No one can fancy its disagreeableness, but those who have experienced it. It comes at a time when one is apt to be home-sick, too; and when everything around is new to the passenger— companions, sleeping arrangements, sights, sounds, and smells.
The strange smell of tar, of bilge-water, of all sorts of victuals which his fellow-passengers may be using; with other strong flavors which may be likely to exist, do not help his stomach to keep its balance, and when he little expects it, the most resolute man will feel his mouth beginning to water; which is a sure sign that his turn to give up is at hand.
Great indeed is the suffering, both of mind and body, which is experienced in the steerage of a ship during the first week or ten days of the passage. Seldom is it that the emigrant has duly estimated this painful portion of his journey. No wonder, then, that so many regret having left the quiet land for the unquiet sea. Almost every
emigrant wishes himself back again to his old home, no matter how homely it may have been. We have known instances in which persons would have cheerfully given their all to be placed on shore again; but who, on recovery, were glad that they had embarked. At such times as these, a few words of encouragement are of great value; and having repeatedly seen the comfort they have imparted, we will briefly notice them here. Feeble women, especially, need a cheering word.
In the first place, sea-sickness is not a dangerous malady. On the contrary, it often does the patient much good. It clears out his stomach, thoroughly; and prepares it for the new diet to which he will be subjected on arrival. If he have a tendency to certain diseases of the liver and the lungs, it may thoroughly cure him. A person was scarcely ever known to die of sea-sickness.
Instances have occurred, it is true, but so exceedingly seldom as to be worthy of no consideration.
It is important during sea-sickness not to use sodawater, or other drinks which may contain fixed air; as the latter may produce spasms in the empty, weakened stomach. The only instance of death from sea-sickness with which the writer is personally acquainted, was that of a little girl who was returning from the United States to her mother in England. She was very ill, and had vomited a great deal, leaving her stomach very empty. Feeling thirsty, and fancying that a glass of soda-water would taste good, the steward gave it to her; and in an hour or two after using it, she died in great agony.
We will not undertake to explain the philosophy of the matter. Such was the fact; and our own experience has satisfied us of the impropriety of using the kind of drinks referred to during sea-sickness. We notice this particularly, because cider is often recommended at such times, and the patient often desires it. Beware of it.
We repeat, there is no danger in this malady. Keep up a good heart, and in a few days you will be perfectly well.
The question is often asked, is there no remedy for seasickness? There is; namely, time and patience. There is none other. There are quack medicines advertised which promise to cure it; and people have all sorts of recipes to the same end. One man says eat red herring; another says drink raw brandy; another, tie a handkerchief tight around your waist; another, do this; another, do that. They are all of no avail. It is a sickness which can neither be driven nor coaxed away. The true philosophy is to submit to it, with all possible cheerfulness; and a few days will generally set the patient to rights.
The fresh air of the deck is, of course, better than the