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great importance, especially in warm weather; and no one should complain of the inconvenience to which it puts him. Besides this, each person should thoroughly sweep his own premises every day; and give it an occasional scrubbing with a damp mop, not a wet one; for the latter might make the steerage uncomfortable. In our list of sea-stores, we have advised a large supply of vinegar; and if the floor be occasionally sprinkled with it, the air will be much improved.
In fine weather, the bed and bedding of the passenger should be taken on deck for a few hours. Permission to do this should always be obtained of the captain or some of the officers, for there are times when it would interfere with the business of the ship, as when painting is going on, or tacking ship often.
The steerage passenger should particularly remember that the quarter-deck is a privileged place, belonging exclusively to the captain and cabin passengers.
The quarter-deck is that part of the upper deck which is abaft the mainmast. The mainmast is the middle mast of the ship, and the steerage passengers are not expected to go farther aft (nearer the stern) than this. In most of the liners, and some of the larger transient. ships, the quarter-deck is elevated above the rest of the deck, and is called a poop. On this the steerage passengers have no right to go, unless they have special business with the captain.
This is right; for the cabin passengers pay a much larger sum for their accommodations than do the steerage passengers. Second cabin passengers are entitled to the use of the quarter-deck, but they should always remember that they, too, pay much less than those in the first cabin, and if the vessel be crowded, they should give way to those who pay the most.
While on this subject, it may be well to say that the utmost respect should be paid by the passengers to the captain and officers. This is sadly lost sight of by some persons. The captain and officers have so many opportunities of adding to the comfort of passengers, that it is for the interest of the latter to keep in their good graces. Aside from this, they are entitled to great respect, not only because they occupy most honorable stations, but that they are every way worthy of it. With rare exceptions, they are a noble-hearted class of men, accomplished in their profession, and ready to do a passenger a good turn at any time.
Never trouble the captain or officers as to when the ship will probably arrive, nor ask questions as to her latitude and longitude. It is ill manners to do so. Some captains make out a sort of bulletin of the ship's position at twelve o'clock each day, and stick it up where the passengers can have access to it at any time. This is very kind on the part of the captains, as passengers are always anxious to know whereabouts the ship is.
It is a strict rule on board a ship, that no one but an officer shall speak to the man at the helm. The steerage passengers will not be likely to need this caution, but as this book will probably be read by second cabin and cabin passengers, we notice it.
Emigrants can often render themselves serviceable at sea, by helping the sailors to haul upon the ropes, particularly the tacks and sheets, the braces and haulyards. You will soon lean which these ropes are, if you wish to, and it will be good amusement and exercise to pull them. It will please the officers also.
The change of diet, and other causes, may render it occasionally necessary to use medicine. If the appetite is not quite as good as it usually is; if there is a bad
taste in the mouth in the morning, with slight head-ache and constipated bowels, a smart dose of cathartic pills, (which are put down in the list of sea-stores,) will generally set these matters to rights. If the bowels be constipated, without the bad taste and the head-ache, a dose of salts is all that is necessary. On the first appearance of these symptoms the pills or the salts should be taken.
Children are very apt to suffer from a loose state of the bowels. This can be cured by a pill or two, and by a few doses of medicine which the captain will furnish.
Every ship is provided with a good medicine chest. The law, both of the United States and England, is very strict on this point. Generally speaking, the captains of the better classes of ships are quite good medical men, and if the passenger is much unwell, he should at once apply to the captain, who will cheerfully attend to him, without charge. They can extract teeth, too, very well; and in some instances have set fractured limbs. The accidents and diseases to which sailors are liable, lead the masters of ships to learn something of such matters. A captain of one of the London liners once set the bones of a very badly fractured leg, during quite a heavy gale of wind. When he reached port, he took the sailor to the hospital to have the bones reset; but the surgeons there told him that he had done the job as well as they could have done it.
We know another captain, of one of the Liverpool liners, who performed a still more difficult operation with great success. One of his sailors fell from aloft to the deck, and fractured his skull badly, and was taken up for dead. The captain saw that the skull was beaten in and pressed upon the brain, thereby depriving the man of consciousness. How to go to work at this job puzzled him; but something was to be done, and to work he went. He first caused the man's head to be shaved. He then
took the end of a spoon handle and delicately inserting it in the crevice of the cracked skull, lifted the depressed part up from the brain, and by some contrivance which we now forget, kept it in its place, and the man rapidly recovered. On reaching port, the surgeons highly complimented him for his nerve and skill.
Children are often born on board ship. If ladies take it into their head to add to the population of the New World thus early, we would advise that they give the captain notice of their intention in tolerably good season. We have known a great deal of inconvenience and suffering to arise from not making some little preparation for such an occurrence. If the captain is given to understand that such an event may happen, he will very cheerfully prepare a separate apartment for the person; and will see that the stewardess is prepared for any little attentions that may be required. Women under these circumstances, need feel no extraordinary alarm or anxiety. Hundreds of children have been born at sea, and the mothers have done as well as those on shore. The deaths from child-birth at sea are exceedingly few. We repeat our advice: if such an event is likely to take place, let no improper delicacy prevent the captain's being informed of it.
It frequently happens that regularly educated medical men are passengers on board the better classes of vessels. They always esteem it a pleasure to be called upon by their fellow-passengers, whether of the cabin or steerage. They invariably render their services without fee or charge.
THE VOYAGE CONTINUED.
Look out for sharpers among the passengers. Money often stolen at sea. Form no business engagements until arrival. Kindness and charity to those fellowpassengers who are very poor. Distance from Liverpool, London, Havre, &o. to various ports in America. Description of the Banks of Newfoundland. Fishing vessels. The Gulf Stream. How the ship's latitude and longitude are ascertained. The sparkling of the water at night. Description of the Nautilus, called by sailors the Portuguese man-of-war. Whales, porpoises, and grampuses. The American sky in summer and autumn. A beautiful evening at sea. Speaking a vessel at sea. Divine service on board ship. Hints to preachers. The captain on his arrival in port will have to report each passenger and his luggage. How to make the list of what he must report. The United States Custom-House laws against smuggling. Passengers should wash clothes before arrival. Throw overboard old clothes and bedding. Anchor at Quarantine. Visit of the health officer. Health regulations at New-York.
AMONG other matters which we would suggest for the emigrant's attention during the voyage is, that he look out for sharpers among his fellow-passengers.
Your money Be particular proposals from
It not unfrequently happens on board ship, that money is stolen from those who are not careful. should, therefore, be kept very securely not to listen too greedily to any business your fellow-passengers. Dishonest men frequently take occasion of the intimacy which naturally springs up during a long passage, to engage an emigrant who has money, in some foolish scheme or other. It is not necessary to speak particularly of the various forms in which this danger will be presented to the emigrant. Let it be your rule, to make no engagements for business, of any sort, until you arrive in America. If you do, you may very seriously embarrass yourself, and lose your money.