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should not refer to this, had we not occasionally heard cabin passengers speak to those on board the vessel with which the captain was communicating. Passengers do so without reflection. It is a piece of ill manners, however. If a passenger happens to know the captain of the other vessel, or some of his passengers, he can ask his own captain to allow him the use of the speakingtrumpet, to exchange salutations with his friends on board the other vessel; although even this is improper.
Divine service is frequently held on board ships nowa-days. Whenever this is the case, the emigrant* passengers usually take pleasure in attending it. This they ought to do, no matter of what sect the preacher may happen to be. If the preacher has a different creed from the hearers, he will not be apt to introduce it in an offensive manner. By all means, fail not in attending divine service. It is not only proper in itself, but it is a mark of respect which is due to the preacher and the captain.
As we have had much experience in matters pertaining to emigration, and as we happen to be speaking of preaching, we may venture a hint or two to preachers themselves. We have seen instances in which they have provoked a smile, by their awkward attempts to use illustrations connected with the sea and with a ship-thinking, as a matter of course, that, being at sea, they must use such. No style of preaching is more difficult than the figurative, and the imagery of the sea is the most difficult of all to handle. We need only to suggest a hint on this point, in passing, and should not have alluded to it at all, had we not known of exceedingly good preachers thus making themselves ridiculous.
We once crossed the ocean in an American packet, with a dissenting minister-a most excellent man, by the way— who always prayed before his sermon for the Queen and Prince Albert, and the glory of his country's flag, without
even the slightest allusion to the welfare of the nation under whose flag he was then sailing, and whose citizens composed the majority of the crew and cabin passengers. Being on very friendly terms with him, we one day suggested the matter to him, and he at once saw the inadvertence of which he had been guilty. It was simply the want of reflection, on his part. It mortified him greatly, however.
But we weary the reader, and we will hasten the voyage to a close as speedily as possible.
A few days before reaching port, the captain will wish to make out a list of the passengers. The United States laws oblige him to report the name of the passenger, his age, the place of his birth, his last place of residence, the name of the country to which he belongs, and whether or not he intends to take up his residence in the United States. Women and children must all be included in the list, be they young or old. In addition to the above, the report must include the number of packages of luggage each person has. It will be well to have ready a little memorandum of these matters, to hand to the captain when he makes up his report. It will save time, if this be done..
It may be well to say here that the custom-house laws in the United States are very severe against smuggling. The penalty is a heavy fine in ordinary cases; sometimes imprisonment. The Custom-house officers are shrewd, sagacious men; and goods intended for smuggling are usually discovered. If goods are smuggled, it involves the ship in difficulty; and the captain and mates are therefore very vigilant. If any one intends to smuggle, he does it at great peril.
The following section in the Custom laws will explain this matter: "And be it further enacted, That if any person shall knowingly and wilfully, with intent to defraud the revenue of the United States, smuggle or clandestine
ly introduce into the United States any goods, wares, or merchandise, subject to duty by law, and which should have been invoiced, without paying or accounting for the duty, or shall make out, or pass, or attempt to pass, through the custom house, any false, forged, or fraudu lent invoice, every such person, his, her, or their aiders and abbettors, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum not exceeding five thousand dollars, or imprisoned for any term of time not exceeding two years, or both, at the discretion of the court."
A day or two before arrival, the passengers should wash as much of their soiled clothing as possible; especially if it be in the summer season. The health officers, who will board the ship on her arrival, have some discretionary powers as to the length of time the ship and passengers must remain in quarantine. If both are clean, it makes a great difference in their decision. A good deal of much worn clothing, bedding, and the like, it may be well to throw overboard before the ship comes to anchor. The expense of getting such articles properly washed on shore, and of transporting them from place to place, would be more than they are worth; and the best way is to throw them overboard.
If the ship be bound to New-York, she will have to anchor at the quarantine ground at Staten Island, six or seven miles from New-York, if it be between the first of April and the first of October. A health officer will
come on board and see what the state of health is. If there be no contagious disease on board, and the passengers and crew are in a usual state of health, he will order the dirty clothes to be washed, and the ship thoroughly cleansed and fumigated. This will take a day or two, when the passengers will be permitted to go up to the city. Sometimes the passengers are taken up to
the city in a steamer, at a very small charge; say sixpence sterling, each. Or they may go up in the ship, if they prefer to wait for her.
It may be well to say here, that if the passenger has goods on board which are insured, he should not take them out of the ship until she gets along the side of the dock at the city. If he do so it will be at his own risk.
WHAT SHALL I DO ON ARRIVAL?
WHAT SHALL I DO ON ARRIVAL? Sharpers on arrival. Mechanics, day-laborers, etc., warned of them. A case in point. Ignorance of newly-arrived emigrants as to the best places to go to get work. The case of a plumber. Case of a silk-weaver. Dishonest steamboat and canal agents. Their modes of deception. Advice to Farmers in regard to buying lands, farms, etc. etc. The rich farmer. The farmer of moderate means. The very poor farmer. Advice to each class. Land in the "southern tier" of counties in the State of NewYork. Land in the extreme northern counties. Land in the State of Maine. The buyer of land must use his own judgment. Splendid farms in central and western New-York. Special advice to the poorer classes of emigrants on buying land. Pay no attention to advertisements and hand-bills. Extract from "Cham bers's Information for the People." Difficulty of directing the emigrant in search of land. Emigrant societies may help him in this matter. The highlands of Pennsylvania. Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, the most desirable places for a farmer of small means. Their soil. Advantages and disadvantages. Price of land in these places. The principal disadvantage of the western country, namely, its bilious complaints. How to avoid bilious diseases. Extract from Dr. Combe on this subject. Hints as to the selection of a farm. Etc. etc.
THE question we have placed at the head of this chapter:-What shall I do on arrival? is one of the utmost interest to the emigrant. We have now seen him across the ocean; he has bid farewell to the home of his youth; he has endured the discomforts of the voyage. A new
world lies just before him, where he may meet with other trials and perplexities, and with other pleasures and profits. He may be successful or unsuccessful. No one can tell him what his fortune shall be.
On reaching America, he will be beset with sharpers of all kinds; men of good appearance, with large and flattering promises. He will be liable to be deceived in the selection of a boarding-house; in modes of convey