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toward securing himself against bilious diseases; still, this will not always be a preventive. If, however, he add to this precaution attention to food and personal comfort, he will be pretty safe.
TO MAKE HIMSELF COMFORTABLE should be the emigrant's aim, if he would escape the bilious tendencies of the West. The life of a new settler is usually attended with many discomforts and privations, and with real hard work. He may not get the food to which he has been accustomed; his log-house may be damp; his work may be harder than he is accustomed to; he may be homesick and anxious: all these things are unfavorable to health in any country, and predispose the person to any form of disease that may prevail. We have not the slightest doubt, that if the new settlers at the West would take pains to have nourishing and palatable food, and would keep their dwellings dry, work not too hard, and would try to be cheerful, they would be pretty secure against bilious diseases.
While on this subject, we will digress a little.
In the new countries of the West, it is important that the breakfast be eaten before the person is much exposed Lo the air. "It is well known," says Dr. Combe, “that he system is more susceptible of infection, and of the influence of cold, miasmata, and other morbid causes, in the morning before eating than at any other time; and hence it has become a point of duty with all naval and military commanders, especially in bad climates, always to give their men breakfast before exposing them to morning dews and other noxious influences. Sir George Ballinghall even mentions a regiment at Newcastle, in which -yphus fever was very prevalent, and in which, of all the means used to check its progress, nothing proved so useful as an early breakfast of warm coffee. In aguish countries, also, experience has shown that the proportion
of sick among those who are exposed to the open air before getting anything to eat, is infinitely greater than among those who have been fortified by a comfortable breakfast.”
The writer of this little volume has had a great deal of personal experience in the most sickly tropical countries, such as Batavia, Sumatra and China, and also in the forests and beside the lakes and rivers of North America; and he is convinced, that particular attention should be paid to the suggestion of Dr. Combe. Let the new settler take his breakfast before exposing himself to the morning air, and let the breakfast be as warm and nourishing as possible.
Many persons resort to the use of spirituous liquors in the morning, to protect themselves against the bad effects of the morning air. This is an extremely bad practice, as the reaction, which will speedily follow the stimulus received into the empty stomach, will leave that important organ in a weakened condition.*
This long digression seemed necessary, when considering the advantages and disadvantages of Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa, as places of settlement for emigrants.
Upon the whole, we would very confidently recommend these regions to the emigrant of straitened means.
We have said, that the emigrant in pursuit of land must use his own eyes, and make up his own mind. will be indispensable, no matter what good advice others may give him. Let him, therefore, visit the land before he buys it; let him see that it is in a dry, healthy situation; that the water near it is running water; that it is within reasonable distance of a school, a post-office, a medical man, a store, and a road. All these things he should
*Part II. of "THE EMIGRANT'S TRUE GUIDE" will contain full instructions for the prevention and cure of the diseases of the West, and other diseases, accidents, &c., to which the emigrant will be liable. It is designed to be a sort of family doctor.
take into the account. He had better pay a higher price, or buy less land with his money, with these advantages, than to have a farm given to him without them.
Where the land is timbered, the quality of the soil is ascertained by the size and kind of the trees upon it. When it produces large trees of the harder woods, such as beech, birch, maple, oak, &c., it is sure to be good. An occasional pine or hemlock tree, if it be large, is not a bad sign. If the land be of that kind called prairie, (a natural meadow,) the appearance of the soil to the eye will be a sufficient evidence of its character..
There are many portions of Ohio where land can be had cheap; but, as a general thing, the best lands are taken up, and cannot be purchased so low as in Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, or Iowa.
In Indiana, and other western States, there are government lands for sale, of the very best quality; and private individuals have other lands, both improved and unimproved, for sale. These are all desirable places of residence, and would be preferred by some. In the Second Part of the " EMIGRANT'S TRUE GUIDE," more particular information will be given in relation to them.
We close this chapter, by saying to the emigrant of small means, that either in the highlands of Pennsylvania; the southern and northern portions of the State of New-York; in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa; in Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana; he can procure cheap and fertile land; where, with industry and perseverance, he can become independent.
But let him beware of the first step. Let him take judicious advice as he goes along; and, above all, let him see the land himself before he makes a purchase.
In the Second Part of the “Emigrant's True Guide,' much more will be said on this subject, that we have not room to say here.
WHAT SHALL I do on Landing ?-continued. Clearing wild land. Advice to day-laborers. Where they can get employment. How they can get it. Prospects better for them. Georgia rail-road. Opinion of the Irish Emigrant Society on this point. Get advice on landing. Do not stay in the city of arrival over two or three days. The cities crowded with day-laborers. Push West, where labor is wanted, and land cheap. Advice to farm laborers. Scatter into the country. Push your way. Reasons for pushing. A case in point of a Shropshire man. An interesting story of an Irish lad, whose motto was "push." Advice to Mechanics. Shipwrights, caulkers, pump and blockmakers, etc. etc, etc. How to proceed. Where they can get work. Carpenters, joiners and cabinet makers, all poor trades at the present time. A good plan for some of them who have tact. General remarks on this subject. Sewing women. What they had best do. List of wages in New-York in April, 1844, for all the trades, etc. etc. etc.
THE last chapter contained such hints as may be useful to the newly arrived FARMER in search of uncultivated land or a farm. In the second part of "THE EMIGRANT'S TRUE GUIDE," the most ample and accurate information will be given on all the various modes of agriculture in the United States and Canada. The process of clearing wild land; of gradually redeeming it from a forest to fruitful fields, will be accurately shown, so that the emigrant need be at no loss how to proceed in a new country. The various modes of cultivating lands already cleared, will also be shown, so that whatever an emigrant may wish to raise on his land, whether it be wheat, rye, oats, Indian corn, broomcorn, or anything else within the province of the farmer, he shall find the best of instruction.
It will be obvious, that the limits of the present little volume will not admit of these things being considered here. We would, therefore, advise the emigrant to procure the Second Part of this work. before he commences
his farming operations. The climate and soil of the United States and Canada, render some such work of great importance to the emigrant.
We will now proceed to a few hints to other classes of emigrants.
Until within the last three or four years, the various canals, rail-roads, and the public works in different parts of the United States, furnished employment to all the emigrants that arrived, at good wages. No difficulty was found in getting employment. But a great many of these works have been completed; others have been given up entirely; and others are waiting till the times are better. The consequence of this is that many of the above-named emigrants have not got on so well as they expected to. Many have returned to the old country, and carried back the most discouraging reports. But there now (April, 1844,) seems to be a greater demand for day laborers than during three or four years back. There is, therefore, but little doubt that all those who may be seeking this kind of employment will find it; provided they take the right steps. This opinion is not expressed without much reflection, and a careful examination of the subject. The various emigrant societies in the different cities have had more applications this spring, than usual, for day laborers. The "Irish Emigrant Society" in NewYork, for instance, had an application on the 14th of February last from the State of Georgia, to send on to a railroad there, one or two hundred laborers; agreeing to employ them for the term of two years, at fifty cents a day, say two shillings and three pence, sterling, and found. We merely mention this as an evidence that the prospect for day laborers is brightening. The annual circular of the above society gives the same opinion. It says: "This