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may be imagined, he met with no success, and FRANCIS of Paulo, a Romish saint, and tvas fortunate to escape with his life, after at- founder of the order of Minims, was born at tempting to persuade the sultan to embrace Paulo, a town of Calabria, in the year 1416. Christianity. He offered, it is said, to commit In consequence of a vow made by his parents himself to the flames, in testimony of the truth to devote him to a religious life, he entered into of that religion for which he pleaded ; but the the Franciscan convent at St. Mark's, the epis. sultan would not permit him to give such a copal town in the province, where he continued proof of the ardour of his zeal, for which he for one year. Afterwards he engaged in va. appears to have respected him, by suffering rious pilgrimages, and then adopted the hermit's him to be civilly dismissed.

life, in a solitary spot not far from his native After his return to his native country, he town. Finding, however, that in this situation employed himself for some time in extending he was exposed to the intrusion of too many his institutions, and in forming regulations for visitors, he retired to a desert part of the sea new branches of his order, comprehending lay- coast, where he found means to construct for men, as well as female devotees. When he himself a cell among the rocks. The fame of Kad completed his plans, he resigned the gene- his great sanctity foon drew after him disciples, ralship of his order to one of his disciples, and who in the first instance built a chapel and a withdrew to indulge in contemplation, and small hermitage adjoining his cell ; but their practise self-denial and religious austerities, in numbers rapidly increasing, a monastery was a solitude among the Appenine mountains. In. built upon the spot, which was the first belongthis solitude it is pretended that Jesus Christing to a new order, of which the original deno. imprinted on him the marks of his five wounds, mination was that of Hermits of St. Francis. concerning which numberless strange tales are Our Francis was the founder, and nominated related by the monks of his order, who obtain- superior general, after his institute had received ed leave to dedicate a festival in honour of the approbation of pope Sixtus IV. in the year these holy prints.' Those of our readers who 1473. At a subsequent period he revised are curious to have information concerning and altered his regulations, and obtained pope some other legends which are told of him, of Alexander VIth's confirmation of them in their his devices to mortify his carnal lusts, and of new form; on which occasion the name of the the ridiculous mad actions by which he was dis- order was changed to that of Minims, betinguished, we refer to the particulars that are cause that out of his profound humility Francis selected under his article in Bayle. By the se- wished himself and followers to be distinguished vere discipline which he adopted, of which by the diminutive appellation of Fratres Minimi. repeated" flagellation and fastings formed no The rules of his order were extremely rigorous, inconsiderable part, he brought on himself a enjoining on the members a perpetual Lent, complication of disorders, which put an end to and great severity of personal discipline. Franhis life at Assisi, in 1226, when he was only. cis practised to an extreme the abstinence and forty-five years of age. He was canonised by mortifications which he prescribed to his fol. pope Gregory IX. in the year 1230. His order lowers ; on no occasion taking any wine, meaty soon rose to great splendor after the founder's fish, or milk; contenting himself with bread death, and materially contributed to support and water; never tasting food till after sunset ; the power and influence of the Roman see, by going barefoot; sleeping on the floor of his the zeal and activity with which the members cell, without any other pillow than a stone or a employed themselves in discovering and extir- block of wood; and wearing a rough hair-cloth pating heretics; the various negociations and next to his skin, under à coarse and mean upper embassies undertaken by thein for the interests dress. And because he thus unnaturally cut of the hierarchy; and their incessant labours himself off from partaking in the innocent en to enforce an implicit obedience to the Roman joyments of life, and plagued and tortured himpontiffs. But the particulars relating to it be- self, as though the God whom he wished to long to the province of the'ecclesiastical histo- conciliate had been a malignant and hateful rian. St. Francis was the author of “ Epis- demon, delighting in the misery of men, instead tola," “ Orationes," " Regulæ Monachis Præ-' of the kind and indulgent father of his creascriptæ," “ Collectiones,"°" Sermones,” &c.' tures ; so great was the ignorance and superstiwhich were collected together and published at tion of the times, that he acquired the highest Paris in 1641, by John de la Haye, in one volume character for piety and virtue by these austerin folio. Cave's Hist. Lit. vol. II. sub. sæc. Scholast. ties. His fame soon spread over Europe, in Moreri. Bagle. Mosh, Hist. Eccl.sec. XIII. M. different parts of which many monasteries were


iconied later whichicle

erected for friars of his order. So high was applied himself diligently to the study of theothe opinion entertained of his fanctity, and of logy. In the year 1537 he quitted Paris, and the prevalence of his intercessions with Heaven, went to Venice, where Loyola, who had taken that when Lewis XI. of France was attacked a journey into Spain to settle some affairs, met by a dangerous distemper, he sent for Francis him and the rest of his companions, who were out of Calabria, hoping to obtain a cure by vir- now ten in number. From Venice Francis tue of his prayers. To this journey he was Xavier and some others of the companions went much disinclined, and refused to undertake it, to Rome, where they obtained leave from pope until commanded to do so by the pope. He Paul III. to embark on a mission to the Holy was received by Lewis with the greatest ho- Land, and also to be admitted to priest's ornour, and had apartments assigned to him, and ders. They then returned to Venice, where some of his religious who accompanied him Loyola had continued, and prepared for their in the palace of Plessis-les-Tours, where the voyage to the East; but they were preking then resided. After the death of that vented from undertaking it by the restrictions : prince, his successor Charles VIII. built a con- which the grand-seignior had laid on the ad. vent for Francis and his monks in the park be- mission of pilgrims and missionaries into Paleslonging to that palace. In this convent Francis tine. Their attention was now engaged in indied, in 1507, at the advanced age of ninety- creasing their numbers from among the memone years. Commines, in his " Memoirs," bers of the different Italian universities; in while he speaks in high terms of his sanctity, preaching, and instructing young persons; and says, that he was a total stranger to literature, in laying the foundation of the famous Society and scarcely knew any thing. He was canon- of Jesus. Soon after the pope had given his ised by pope Leo X. in the year 1519. In sanction to the establishment of that new order, Paris the friars of his order were called Bons- John III, king of Portugal applied to the holyHommes, probably after the name of Bon- see for missionaries, to be sent to propagate the Homme given by the kings Lewis and Charles catholic faith in the East Indies. Francis to their founder; and in Spain Fathers of the Savier was one of the persons selected for this Victory, on account of a memorable defeat of arduous enterprise ; and he possessed an una the Moors by Ferdinand V. which it is pre. daunted resolution, together with a degree of tended was foretold by St. Francis. Moreri. genius and sagacity, of perseverance, patience, -Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M.. i

and zeal, that eminently fitted him for engaging FRANCIS XAVIER, a Romish saint, and in it. He embarked at Lisbon for the Indies in commonly called the Apostle of the Indians, was 1541, and in the following year arrived at the the son of John Jasse, a gentleman of Navarre, Portuguese settlement of Goa. For ten years and born at the chateau of Xavier, at the foot he laboured incessantly in spreading the knowof the Pyrennées, in the year 1506. He was ledge of the catholic' faith in that city, the : the youngest of a number of sons, who almost southern continent of India, Malacca, the Moall of them entered into the military profes- lucca islands, and Japan; and certainly: presion; but his inclination early prompted him vailed on vast numbers to profess themselves to embrace a studious life. After having been Christians. In the latter island, especially, he instructed in classical learning in his native with wonderful rapidity laid the foundations of country, he was sent to the university of Paris, the catholic church, which flourished for many where he went through a course of philosophy, years in that vast empire. It may be fairly and was admitted to the degree of M. A. For doubted, however, whether the number of his some time he taught philosophy in the college converts was so great, in any of those places, of Beauvais, until he became acquainted with as has been represented by the historians of the the famous Ignatius Loyola, who was pursuing society; for when we find their narration inter2 course of philosophy and theology at Paris. spersed with fabulous accounts of prodigies and With Loyola he contracted a strict intimacy, miracles performed by him, we cannot but reand was one of the seven companions who en- ceive their representations with some degree of tered into a vow in the church of Mont-Martre, hesitation and scepticism. And in appreciating in 1534, to conform themselves to a strict reli- the benefits resulting from his labours, it might gious discipline, and to embark in a new under be questioned, whether the species of Christitaking for promoting the interests of the ca-- anity introduced by him and his coadjutors of tholic faith, particularly by the conversion of the school of Loyola among the Pagans in Jainfidels. From this time he renounced all pro- pan, accommodated as it was to their former, spect of any establishment in the world, and notions apd superstitions, were much preferable

to the ancient idolatry of the country. From tion, and amiableness of his manners. His Japan, Francis Xavier departed for China, but elementary classical education he received at he was taken sick on his voyage, and died the college of Annecy; whence he was rein sight of that empire in 1552, when in the moved to the university of Paris, where he was forty-sixth year of his age. He was beatified perfected in the learned languages, and went by pope Paul V. in the year 1619; and canon- through his course of philosophy, and also ised by his successor pope Gregory XV. in the part of a theological course under the Jesuits. year 1622. He was the author of five books Among the other professors whose lectures he of “ Epistles,” published at Paris in 1631, attended was the famous John Maldonat. Afoctavo; a “ Catechism;" and some other small terwards his father sent him to the university pieces. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Mosh. of Padua, to study jurisprudence under the Hist. Eccl. Sæc. XVI.-M.

celebrated Guy Panciroli. Having taken his FRANCIS DE BORGIA, a Romish saint, degree of doctor in law, he returned into Sawas a Spaniard by nation, and born about the voy, and was admitted an advocate of the senate year 1511. He was the grandson of pope of Chamberry; but he soon renounced his legal Alexander VI. and hereditary duke of Candia. profession, and embraced the ecclesiastical. He obtained the viceroyship of Catalonia, and After having taken orders, and being made profrom his birth and connections might have ex- vost of Annecy, he speedily acquired great repected the highest honours which the king of putation as a preacher; and as he was possessed Spain had to bestow; but he grew disgusted of an ardent zeal for the conversion of those with the world, and determined to embrace the whom the catholic church was pleased to stigecclesiastical life. One circumstance that con- matise by the title of Heretics, he was sent by tributed to produce this resolution was the loss his bishop on missions into the valleys of his of his wife, by whom he had a numerous off- diocese, to endeavour to bring back the disciples spring. Relinquishing to others the care of of Zuingle and Calvin into the papal fold. His their education and welfare, he became a mem- labours are said to have been attended with ber of the society of Jesus in 1548, and in the wonderful success ; in consequence of which year 1565 was raised to the post of general of he was judged to be the most proper person to that order. He frequently refused valuable succeed to the episcopal dignity in that diocese. ecclesiastical dignities, as well as the high ho- With this view the bishop of Geneva chose nour of the cardinalate; and dedicated his him for his coadjutor : an appointment which whole time and labour to the advancement he was desirous of declining, but was obliged of the interests of his society. Pope Pius V. to accept of it by the injunction of pope Cleknowing his admirable talents for business, ment VIII. and was consecrated to it under the and entire devotedness to the Roman see, title of bishop of Nicopolis. Soon afterwards obliged him to accompany his nephew car- he had occasion to take a journey to Paris, dinal Alexandrinus, whom he sent legate into where Henry IV. made him considerable offers, Spain, and Portugal, and afterwards into France. in order to retain him in his kingdom; but he He died at Rome, in 1572, in the sixty-second preferred his humble appointment in Savoy to year of his age, and was beatified by pope Ur- the splendid bishoprics of which he might have ban VIII. in 1624, and canonised by pope Cle- had his choice in France, together with a carment X. in 1671. He was the author of several dinal's hat, and returned to his native country theological and devotional pieces, written in the in the year 1602. It was in the same year that Spanish language, and much esteemed in his the death of the bishop of Geneva called him native country. They were translated into La- to the full exercise of the episcopal functions in tin by father Alphonsus Deza, a Jesuit, and that diocese, when he applied himself with published at Brussels in 1675, in folio. Moreri. great diligence to the reformation of abuses Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M.

among the clergy, and the monastic institu. FRANCIS DE SALES, another saint of the tions, and united to the character of a vigilant Romish calendar, and founder of the religious ecclesiastical superintendant, that of the good order of the Visitation, was descended from one pastor, and beneficent friend of his flock. He of the most ancient and noble families in Savoy, visited the sick, relieved the poor, and was aland born at the castle of Sales, near Geneva, in ways ready to afford his assistance, in temporal the year 1567. In his early years his mind was as well as spiritual matters, to all who applied to strongly impressed with virtuous and pious prin- him. And he exhibited in his own life, a comciples, and he recommended himself to uni- mendable pattern of piety, purity, candour, and yersal esteem by the swectness of his disposi- unaffected simplicity and urbanity. But what principally recommended him to the Roman met with a favourable reception in the catholic see, was his zeal and activity in winning over world. The most important of them is a colthe protestants, or half protestants, to the catho- lection of theological and moral lectures, which lic faith. If we are to credit the accounts of was published after the author's death at Lyons, his catholic biographers, he was the instrument in 1557, and afterwards in other places, under of reconciling above seventy thousand heretics the title of “ Theologicæ Prælectiones XIII. to the church of Rome, during the ten years &c." in two volumes, which are analysed by Dubefore his succession to the episcopate of Ge- pin. The author died at Salamanca, in the year neva ; and after that event persevered in the 1549. Dupin. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M. same course, with equal diligence and propor- FRANCIS DE JESUS-MARIA, in Latin, tionate success. In the year 1610 he esta FRANCIS A JESU-MARIA, a learned Spanish car. blished, in conjunction with madame de Chan- melite Monk, of the reformed order of St. tal, the order of the Visitation, for female devo- Theresa, who flourished in the 19th century, tees, of which the first institution was fixed at was a native of Burgos, in Old Castille. He Annecy. In this order fewer austerities are taught theology with much applause in the unienjoined on the professed than in most other versity of Salamanca, and discharged the office monastic institutions, and it proved so popular, of definitor-general of his order with great rethat during the life of madame de Chantal, the putation. He died in the year 1677. He was. first superior, eighty-seven houses, governed by the author of “ Cursus Theologiæ moralis Salits regulations, were established in France and manticensis," published at Salamanca in 1665, Savoy, whence they soon spread into Italy, in folio, and afterwards reprinted at Lyons, and Germany, and Poland. In the year 1622 the Madrid; “ Commentaries on the Apocalypse," bishop received an order from the duke of Sa- published at Lyons in 1648, and 1649, in two' voy to proceed to Avignon, to be present at an volumes folio, &c. Moreri:-M. interview between that prince and Lewis XIII. FRANCIS, LAURENCE, a French abbé, of France; after which he went to Lyons, and various writer, was born at Arinthod in where he was cut off by a stroke of apoplexy Franche-Comté, in the year 1698, and died at in the fifty-fifth year of his age. He was ca- Paris in 1782. For some time he belonged to nonised by pope Alexander VII. in the year the order of the Chevaliers of St. Lazarus, but, 1665. He was the author of several works having quitted it, he removed to Paris, where much esteemed by devout Catholics, of which he engaged in the line of private tuition. He the most valuable is entitled “ An Introduc- was the author of several works, which, though. tion to a Devout Life,” intended to shew that not entitled to much praise for their elegance, devotion ought not to be confined to persons or correctness of style, met, nevertheless, with immured in cloisters, or the religious by profes- a favourable reception from the public, on acsion, but that its duties are perfectly compatible count of their utility. One was a treatise on with the obligations of civil and secular life. “ Geography;” 12mo. known by the name of He was also the author of a treatise “ On the Crozat, because dedicated to a lady so called, Love of God," in which there is a mixture of for whose use it was compiled. It is commenda much mysticism with his pious reflections and ed as a perspicuous, methodical; and accurate exhortations. The same remark is applicable performance, and has undergone a variety of to his “ Spiritual Letters," and other practical impressions. The most important of his other and devotional pieces. The whole of his works publications, were designed to counteract the compose two volumes in folio. Moreri. Nouv. tendency of the insidious remarks and reflecDict. Hist.-M.

tions disseminated throughout the writings of FRANCIS, or FRANCISCUS DE VICTORIA; celebrated French philosophers, and men of let: so named from a town of Navarre, in which he ters, on the subject of revealed religion; and was born, was a celebrated Spanish divine in afford proof, that if the author could not vie the 16th century. He pursued his studies in with his opponents in eloquence and wit, he frethe university of Paris, where he took his de- quently shewed himself their superior in point grees, and afterwards returned to his native of information on the subject, ingenuousness, country. Having entered into the order of and sound reasoning: Their titles are, “ The dominican preaching friars, he was appointed Evidences of the Religion of Jesus Christ,” in to the office of professor of theology, and de- four vols. 12mo; “ A Defence of Religion,” in livered lectures at Salamanca and other Spanish four vols. Izmo; “ An Examination of the Cauniversities. His merits were held in high es- techism of an honest Man;” “An Enquiry into : simation by his countrymen, and his works have the Facts on which the Christian - Religion is

mad France degree me in the his fathe

med an acous some time at from German lutheran TUS HERMAN, a

founded," in three volumes 12mo. 1767; and Pro Eloquentia, Pro Poetica, De Usu EloquenObservations on the Philosophy of History," tiæ in Sacris; and his Latin poems, viz. “Ele8vo. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M.

giarum, liber quintus; Odarum, liber tertius; FRANCIUS, PETER, a celebrated Greek Epigrammatum, liber tertius;" together with and Latin poet, was born at Amsterdam, in « Illustrium virorum ad P. Francium Epistolæ,” 1645. He was taught the rudiments of classi- being a collection of a hundred and eighteen letcal learning by Hadrian Junius, rector of the ters, written to him in Latin by different men Latin school, who advised him to take Ovid as of learning, but chiefly by Grævius, James his model. He afterwards pursued his studies Gronovius, Nicholas Heinsius, Perizonius, Gisat Leyden, under John Frederic Gronovius, bert Cuper, Huet, Ryckius and Rapin, with with whom he entered into a most intimate two from Ferdinand Furstenberg, bishop of friendship, as well as with his son James. In Paderborn. General Hist. Dictionary, by Luisa the year 1669 he made a tour to England, from cius.-J. which he proceeded to France, and while in the Bordionu o lanom "


Nere Are Hrovale latter country, he obtained the degree of doctor ed German lutheran divine, was descended of laws at Anjou. After residing some time at from respectable parents, and born at Lubeck, Paris, where he formed an acquaintance with in the year 1663. He had the misfortune to various men of learning, and particularly the lose his father when very young; but his guarLatin poet Rapin, he continued his travels to dians took care to have him well instructed in Italy. At Florence he was treated with great classical learning, preparatory to his entering on respect by the grand-duke, and at Rome, which academic studies. In the year 1679 he was he visited also, he was much noticed by the sent to the university of Erfurt, and afterwards principal men of the city. In the year 1674, to that of Kiel, in both which places he distin, the magistrates of Amsterdam appointed him guished himself by his diligence and improveprofessor of history and rhetoric. In 1692 he ment. In the year 1682 he spent some time was invited to Leyden to be professor of Greek; at Hamburgh, to perfect himself in the Hebrew but the magistrates of Amsterdam having raised language under a learned Jew in that city, and his salary, he declined this offer, and continued then went to Gotha; whence, in 1684, he proto discharge the duties of his office till the pe- ceeded to Leipsic, where, in the following year, riod of his death, which took place in the year he was admitted to the degree of M.A. During 1704. In regard to his talents, they seem to his stay in that university, he established, jointhave been held in high estimation by those who ly with some of his fellow-students, a society at that time were the best judges of literary me- for conferences on theological and biblical torit. J. G. Gronovius, Rapin, and Gisbert Cu- pics, which is said to exist to the present time, per, compliment him highly in their letters, for under the name of Collegium Philo-Biblicum. his skill in Latin poetry and oratory. His From Leipsic he went to Wittemberg, where Greek verses, however, have been by some es- he met with a friendly reception from the learnteemed more than the Latin. How much he ed men in that university; and by their perwas attached to the Greek language may be seen suasion was induced to place himself for some by an oration he composed, “ De Præstantia time at Lunenburg, under the instructions of Linguæ Græcæ ;” and hence Menage addressed the superintendant M. Sandhagent, who had to him a Greek Idyll.

acquired great reputation as a learned and critiMany of his poems were written on William cal interpreter of the sacred writings. From III. king of England, Frederic-William, elec- Lunenburg he returned to Leipsic, where he tor of Brandenburg, and his son the first king delivered public lectures on the Scriptures, in of Prussia ; and after his death a number of which he combined critical discussion with pracgold coins, and other valuable presents, which tical and useful reflections. He was so popular he had received from these and other princes, a lecturer, that his audience frequently consisted were found among his property. His works of near 300 students of the university. To are: “ Specimen Eloquentiæ Exterioris, pri- whatever cause it was owing, whether to jeamum & alterum ;" the first published in 1697 lousy of his popularity, or, according to the reand 170c, and the second in 1699; “ Poëmata," presentation of some authors, to the fanatical 1672, in 12mo. and 1697, 8vo. ; “ Orationes," tendency of his instructions, it is certain that the 1692, and 1704, 8vo.; “ Gregorii Nazianzeni leading men at Leipsic combined to subject him Homilia 'De Amore Paupertatis,'ex Græca ver- to so many mortifications, that he was obliged nacule versa & notis illustrata,” 1697, 8vo.; to relinquish his lectures, and to withdraw from “ Postuma,” consisting of three orations, viz. that university. In the year 1690, he was

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