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FREDERIC IV., king of Denmark, eldest painting, sculpture, and architecture; and sent son of Christiern V., was born in 1671. He a mission of learned men into the Levant for the succeeded his father in 1699, and immediately purpose of making discoveries in natural history. made an attack upon the dominions of the duke and antiquities. A prudent attention to econoof Holstein, expecting that he would derive my, and constant application to the duties of his little support from his brother-in-law, the young station, joined with a beneficent disposition, Charles XII. of Sweden. Frederic in person marked the whole of his reign, and distinguishlaid siege to Tonningen, while his general over- ed him as one of the wisest and most patriotic - ran the rest of the duchy; but he was soon re- monarchs of his age. On his death-bed he

called to defend Copenhagen from the attack of could console himself with the reflection that Charles, who began his wonderful career by a “ he had never injured a single individual, and spirited invasion of Zealand. Frederic found had not a drop of blood to answer for.” How it expedient to sue for peace, which he obtained few sovereigns could ever make such a boast ! by repairing all the wrongs he had done to thé He died in January, 1966. Frederic V. was duke of Holstein, and yielding him the full so- twice married; first to Louisa, daughter of vereignty of his dominions. When fortune George II. of England, by whom he had the had begun to declare against the Swedish king, present king; and then to Juliana-Maria, and he was detained as a fugitive in Turkey, daughter of the duke of Brunswick-WolfenFrederic joined the new league against him, and buttle. Univers. Hist. Nouv. Dict. Hist.--A. invaded Schonen; but his troops met with an FREDERIC-AUGUSTUS ). king of Poinglorious defeat. A subsequent invasion of land and elector of Saxony, born in 1670, was Swedish Pomerania was not much more success the son of the elector John-George III., by a ful; and though Frederic afterwards made him- daughter of Frederic III., king of Denmark. self master of the duchy of Bremen, his army, He was distinguished from his youth by great in conjunction with that of the Saxons, was en- Strength of body and dexterity in manly exertirely defeated by the Swedish general Steen- cises, and early displayed his courage in some bock, with the destruction of the town of Alcampaigns on the Rhine against the French. tena. The Danes were more fortunate in 1714 He closely attached himself to the interests of and 1715, in which they gained advantages by the house of Austria, and was the particular sea and land, drove the Swedes out of Norway, friend of Joseph, afterwards emperor. In 1692 and took several places. At length, in 1720, he married a daughter of the margrave of Branpeace was concluded under the mediation of denburgh-Culmbach. By the death of his elder England, upon terms favourable to Frederic, brother he succeeded to the electorate of Saxowho retained the duchy of Sleswick. From ny in 1694; and the magnificence and gallantry that time he governed his dominions in peace, of his disposition rendered his court at Dresden and attended to their internal prosperity. He the most splendid in Europe next to that of died in 1730, leaving the character of an able Lewis XIV. In 1695 the command of the prince, but too much addicted to enterprise, christian army against the Turks was conferred and too readily listening to the schemes of pro- upon him, and in the ensuing year he gained jectors. Univers. Hist.-A.

against them the battle of Oltatsch. At the FREDERIC V., king of Denmark, son of vacancy of the crown of Poland in 1697, amidst Christiern VI , was born in 1723, and succeeded a number of candidates who offered themselves, his father in 1746. Pursuing the wise system Frederic-Augustus declared himself, and in a of his father, he preserved his dominions in short time the competition was confined to him peace, and promoted commerce and manufac- and the prince of Conti. As a preliminary step, fures, so as to make a large increase to the he openly abjured the protestant religion, which, wealth of his people, and his own revenues. it is said, he had secretly done two years before. He formed commercial treaties with various By lavishing the Saxon treasures, he was able to powers; established a Greenland company at counterbalance the art and eloquence of the abbé Aalburg; laid open to all his subjects the trade de Polignac, the French negociator. A double to the American colonies ; encouraged agricul- election was made, and Poland was thrown into ture and the working of mines; and laid out general disorder by the efforts of the two parties. new roads. Nor was he less attentive to pro- At length, Augustus marched a German army mote the arts and sciences. He founded the into the country, and gained possession of Craacademy of Soroe, and established seminaries at cow, where he was crowned; and in fine he Bergen and Drontheim for the instruction of was universally acknowledged as lawful king by che Laplanders. He instituted academies of the Polish nation. A civil war in Lithuania, VOL. IV.

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Dithmarsh, who had made themselves independ- compelled, under the mediation of England and ent. After a brave resistance, they were forc- Holland, to make a peace upon disadvantageous ed to submit to the law of the conqueror. Fre- terms. War, however, soon broke out again, deric next engaged in a war with Eric king of and Copenhagen was closely invested by sea Sweden, whose embassadors, passing into Ger- and land. The Swedes took the fortress of many, he arrested, in violation of the safe-con- Cronenburg, and the capital was saved only by duct he had granted them. Hostilities com- the arrival of a Dutch fleet. Charles made one menced in 1563, and were carried on with great more attempt to storm it, but was repulsed with mutual detriment and cruel devastations of both loss. The mediators again interfered, but it countries, till the deposition of Eric by his own was not till after the death of Charles in 1660 subjects in 1568. Peace was then made, but that peace was concluded. Its terms were the upon terms so unfavourable to Sweden, that the restitution of all the Danish isles of the Baltic, war was renewed in 1569. A final treaty took with the district of Drontheim, while Sweden place the next year, to the advantage of Den- retained the isle of Rugen, and the provinces of mark. Frederic soon after married the daughter Bleking, Halland, and Schonen. of the duke of Mecklenburg, and thenceforth at- The great event of Frederic's reign, the tended to the preservation of peace, and pro- change of the constitution from an elective and inoting the prosperity of his dominions. He limited to an hereditary and absolute monarchy, auginented the university of Copenhagen, and followed in the same year. It was brought on patronised men of learning, among whom was by divisions between the different states of the the celebrated astronomer Tycho Brahe. His kingdom, and the insolence and selfishness of the reputation stood high among neighbouring nobles, who would not consent to take their share princes. Queen Elizabeth sent him the order with the commons, of the public burthens. The of the Garter, and James VI., king of Scotland, part acted by the king on this occasion is variously entered into a treaty with him for obtaining in represented, but it is generally thought that he marriage his daughter Anne. He died in 1588, (or rather the queen, who much surpassed him leaving behind him a high character, both public in vigour of character) secretly fomented disconand private. Moreri. Univers. Hist.-A. tents which were likely to procure an accession

FREDERIC III., king of Denmark, born in of power to the crown, or at least to weaken 1609, was son of Christian IV. He had been that of the nobles. When the arrogance of archbishop of Bremen; but the death of his this body in treating the commons as vassals elder brother, a short time before that of his had stimulated that order, in conjunction with father, caused him to succeed to the crown in the clergy, to a resolution of laying the liberties 1648. The nobility, who were become ex- of the nation at the king's feet, he gladly made tremely powerful, made terms with him at his use of the occasion, and by means of the army accession, which reduced his authority within overawed the nobles to a concurrence in the invery narrow limits; and the force of the king- considerate project. All the rights and prividom was brought to a low condition by the leges of the states were solemnly surrendered, wars of the late reign. A treaty with the and the king and royal family received the hoDutch was one of the first measures of Fre- mage of the different orders in a public theatre deric's administration. He purchased the friend- erected for the purpose. The revolution was ship of that nation by seizing in the port of entirely bloodless; and whatever stain may atCopenhagen a fleet of English merchant ships tach to the Danish nation for this dereliction of laden with naval stores ; which step, while it their liberties, few political moralists will be involved him with the republic of England, ob- found to blame the king for accepting the power tained for him a subsidy and league of alliance so unconditionally offered him. It should be from Holland. Several causes of difference added, that he never abused their gift. The soon arose between Denmark and Sweden, but remainder of his reign was spent in forming it was not till 1657 that Frederic, stimulated by political alliances, and restoring prosperity to the Dutch, declared war against that country. his country by the arts of peace. The intimate The warlike king of Sweden, Charles-Gustavus, connection between Holstein and Sweden, was though at that time engaged with other ene- the principal cause of his disquiet; and he was mies, soon repressed the progress of the Danes, preparing to support his cause by arms, when and passing over the ice to Zealand, laid siege he was carried off by a chronical disorder in to Copenhagen. That capital was in a very 1670. By his 'queen, the daughter of George defenceless state, and notwithstanding the cou- duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg, he left a nurage and vigour displayed by Frederic, he was merous posterity. Univers. Hist.-A.

it was nch, declared sweden, Charles other enes preparing toned off by me daughter ofefe a nuFREDERIC IV, kings born in 167 diately purpose of imas. " A prudent are the duties

aná buttle, DERIC-AUGUST, born in 1870, wa

FREDERIC IV., king of Denmark, eldest painting, sculpture, and architecture; and sent son of Christiern V., was born in 1671. He a mission of learned men into the Levant for the succeeded his father in 1699, and immediately purpose of making discoveries in natural history made an attack upon the dominions of the duke and antiquities. A prudent attention to econoof Holstein, expecting that he would derive my, and constant application to the duties of his little support from his brother-in-law, the young station, joined with a beneficent disposition, Charles XII. of Sweden. Frederic in person marked the whole of his reign, and distinguishlaid siege to Tonningen, while his general over- ed him as one of the wisest and most patriotic ran the rest of the duchy; but he was soon re- monarchs of his age. On his death-bed he called to defend Copenhagen from the attack of could console himself with the reflection that Charles, who began his wonderful career by a “ he had never injured a single individual, and spirited invasion of Zealand. Frederic found had not a drop of blood to answer for.” How it expedient to sue for peace, which he obtained few sovereigns could ever make such a boast! by repairing all the wrongs he had done to thé He died in January, 1766. Frederic V, was duke of Holstein, and yielding him the full so- twice married; first to Louisa, daughter of vereignty of his dominions. When fortune George II. of England, by whom he had the had begun to declare against the Swedish king, present king; and then to Juliana-Maria, and he was detained as a fugitive in Turkey, daughter of the duke of Brunswick-WolfenFrederic joined the new league against him, and buttle. Univers. Hist. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-A. invaded Schonen; but his troops met with an FREDERIC-AUGUSTUS ). king of Poinglorious defeat. A subsequent invasion of land and elector of Saxony, born in 1670, was Swedish Pomerania was not much more success- the son of the elector John-George III., by a ful; and though Frederic afterwards made him- daughter of Frederic III., king of Denmark. self master of the duchy of Bremen, his army, He was distinguished from his youth by great in conjunction with that of the Saxons, was en- Strength of body and dexterity in manly exertirely defeated by the Swedish general Steen- cises, and early displayed his courage in some bock, with the destruction of the town of Al- campaigns on the Rhine against the French. tena.. The Danes were more fortunate in 1714. He closely attached himself to the interests of and 1715, in which they gained advantages by the house of Austria, and was the particular sea and land, drove the Swedes, out of Norway, friend of Joseph, afterwards emperor. In 1692 and took several places. At length, in 1720, he married a daughter of the margrave of Branpeace was concluded under the mediation of denburgh-Culmbach. By the death of his elder England, upon terms favourable to Frederic, brother he succeeded to the electorate of Saxowho retained the duchy of Sleswick. From ny in 1694; and the magnificence and gallantry that time he governed his dominions in peace, of his disposition rendered his court at Dresden and attended to their internal prosperity. He the most splendid in Europe next to that of died in 1730, leaving the character of an able Lewis XIV. In 1695 the command of the prince, but too much addicted to enterprise, christian army against the Turks was conferred and too readily listening to the schemes of pro- upon him, and in the ensuing year he gained jectors. Univers. Hist.-A.

against them the battle of Oltatsch. At the FREDERIC V., king of Denmark, son of vacancy of the crown of Poland in 1697, amidst Christiern VI , was born in 1723, and succeeded a number of candidates who offered themselves, his father in 1746. Pursuing the wise system Frederic-Augustus declared himself, and in a of his father, he preserved his dominions in short time the competition was confined to him peace, and promoted commerce and manufac- and the prince of Conti. As a preliminary step, mres, so as to make a large increase to the he openly abjured the protestant religion, which, wealth of his people, and his own revenues. it is said, he had secretly done two years before. He formed commercial treaties with various By lavishing the Saxon treasures, he was able to powers; established a Greenland company at counterbalance the art and eloquence of the abbé Aalburg; laid open to all his subjects the trade de Polignac, the French negociator. A double to the American colonies; encouraged agricul- election was made, and Poland was thrown into ture and the working of mines; and laid out general disorder by the efforts of the two parties. new roads. Nor was he less attentive to pro- At length, Augustus marched a German army mote the arts and sciences. He founded the into the country, and gained possession of Craacademy of Soroe, and established seminaries at cow, where he was crowned; and in fine he Bergen and Drontheim for the instruction of was universally acknowledged as lawful king by the Laplanders. He instituted academies of the Polish nation. A civil war in Lithuania, VOL. IV.

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against the go in vaded the Swedes, ar dhe Ruso Lieor; though at the Czar's combats Swrite a:

to relinquom the ched king was to his

ment, faracter atas even successident, whicharles,

incursions of the Tartars, and jealousies enter- length, subdued by the calamities of his native tained by the Poles of the Saxon troops, dis- electorate, consented to sign in September, quieted the beginning of his reign. In order 1706, the treaty of Altranstadt, by which he to give a diversion to the discontents, and gra- for ever renounced all claim to the crown of tify his own ambition, he joined the league Poland, abrogated his treaties with the czar against the young king of Sweden, Charles XII., and his other allies, restored all prisoners he and in 1700 invaded Livonia. He obtained had made, and, what was the hardest condition some successes against the Swedes, and formed to a man of honour, gave up the unfortunate the siege of Riga; but the defeat of the Rus. Livonian nobleman Patkul to Charles's resenta sians before Narva caused him to relinquish ment, though at that time he was invested with the enterprise. Apprehending an attack from the character of the czar's embassador. The Charles, he thought it necessary to ally himself deposed king was even obliged to write a constill more closely with the czar Peter, with gratulatory letter to his successful competitor. whom he had an interview at Birzen, in the Augustus returned to Dresden, where he beginning of 1701. The two monarchs passed received that extraordinary visit from Charles, a fortnight together in riotous festivities carried mentioned in the life of that king. He afterto the extreme of intemperance, which did not wards joined in the alliance against France, and prevent them from settling a formidable plan made a campaign incognito in the Low-countries of warlike operations in concert. The speedy in 1708. The fatal defeat of Charles at Puladvance of the young conqueror disturbed their towa in 1709 was the signal to Augustus to projects. Charles crossed the Dwina, defeated make an effort for the recovery of his crown. the Saxon general, over-ran Courland, and en- Like almost all other princes, he considered a tering Lithuania without opposition, formed a forced resignation as binding no longer than resolution to dethrone that king who had begun while the power of compulsion existed; and he with unprovoked hostilities against him. This had the ready plea of an alleged violation of project was the more likely to succeed, as the some of the articles by the Swedes, to justify Polish diet had opposed the rupture between his own disregard of the treaty of Altranstadt. Augustus and Charles, and, together with the Preceded by a manifesto, and strengthened by Lithuanian states, wished to remain neuter. a brief from the pope liberating the Poles from Charles, however, invaded Poland. He took the obligation of their oaths to Stanislaus, he possession of Warsaw without opposition, and entered Poland with a Saxon army. His rival defeated Augustus at the battle of Clissow. and the remaining Swedish troops retired into Other successes rapidly followed on the part of Pomerania, and Augustus again ascended the the Swedes, and though Augustus exerted him- throne without opposition. For some years self with courage and vigour, the inflexible re- his reign was disquieted by jealousies on the solution of Charles prevailed. He had intended part of the Poles, who were never reconciled to to place on the throne of Poland James Sobiesky, the presence of Saxon troops in their country; son of the late king ; but Augustus caused him and several confederacies were formed for the and his brother to be carried off and confined in protection of the public liberty. At length the Germany. His own deposition, however, was civil divisions were terminated, and the re.. not prevented: the cardinal-primate, who had mainder of the reign passed in peace.* Augus-long acted a double part, at length declared tus chiefly resided in his electoral states, in against him and proclaimed a vacancy; and in which he was much beloved. He introduced July, 1704, Stanislas Leczinski, by a forced an improved code of laws, founded several pro.. election, was elevated to the throne. Augustus fessorships and a college for educating the nowas not a prince to lose a crown without a bility at Dresden, and was the author of other: struggle. He employed with skill all his re- useful and splendid establishments. Though: maining resources, and even surprised Warsaw, he had himself conformed to'the Romish reli.. whence his rival was obliged to make a preci- gion, he protected the Polish protestants from pitate retreat. The Swedish arms, however, persecution. His own consort continued in the were resistless; repeated battles were fought, profession of the 'reformed religion till her which terminated disgracefully for the Saxons death, whence she was never crowned queen and Poles of their party; and at length, in of Poland. In 1733 Augustus undertook a 1706, Charles, in order to put an end to the journey in the winter to Warsaw, whither he: war, entered Saxony. He took entire posses- had convoked a diet. This exertion so much sion of that unfortunate country, from which increased a disorder of his thigh to which he be exacted large contributions. . Augustus, at. had been some time subject, that a gangrene

supervened, of which he died soon after his Swedes were routed at every encounter, great arrival at Warsaw, at the age of sixty-three. part of their army was made captive, all Finland With the faults of ambition and love of plea- lost, and, finally, Sweden was brought to the sure, this prince possessed many amiable and necessity of making a peace upon hard condiestimable qualities. Besides his legitimate son tions. Such was the change which had been and successor, he had, by the beautiful countess. effected since the victories of Charles XII.! Koningsmark, the celebrated Maurice count Frederic died, without posterity, in 1751. Saxe. Voltaire Siècle de Louis XIV. Univers. Univers. Hist.--A. Hist. Moreri.-A.

FREDERIC-WILLIAM, elector of BranFREDERIC-AUGUSTUS II., king of Po- denburg, surnamed The Great Elector, son of land and elector of Saxony, son of the preced- the elector George-William, was born in 1620, ing, was born in 1696. He publicly declared at Berlin. He was brought up in arms, and himself a Roman-catholic at Vienna in 17172, served in the camp of Frederic-Henry prince of where he married the eldest daughter of the Orange, where the jealousy of his father's miemperor Joseph. At the death of his father, in nister Schwartzenberg detained him as long as 1733, he succeeded to his electoral and here possible. The succession to his hereditary ditary dominions. A contest arose for the estates fell to him in 1640. He found them crown of Poland, the French party having set almost ruined by the Swedes and other powers up Stanislaus-Leszinsky; but the Austrians and which had seized and ravaged them in the late Russians supporting Frederic-Augustus, he was administration. With consummate prudence crowned at Cracow in 1734, and after some he began by restoring order in the finances, contest obtained quiet possession of the king- and correcting abuses of various kinds. He dom. His reign was attended with few im- received the investiture of Prussia from the portant events, but the latter part of his life king of Poland in 1642; and in the next year was embittered by the calamities of his electoral made a truce with the Swedes, with the condidominions, of which the king of Prussia took a tion of their evacuating the greatest part of his temporary possession in 1745, after defeating states. At the treaty of Munster he ceded the Saxon and Austrian army; and which he Hither Pomerania to the Swedes, and in return again occupied in 1756, retaining them till the received some secularisations of the German peace of Hubertsburg in 1763. In October of bishoprics. In fine, he recovered the whole of that year, Frederic-Augustus died. He was a his dominions. When Charles-Gustavus king prince of many private virtues, but did not pos- of Sweden made a commencement of his amsess talents and activity sufficient to preserve bitious projects, the elector, apprehending for his rights amid powerful and ambitious neighthe security of his states, entered into a defenbours. He left several children, one of whom sive alliance with Holland, and also courted the was dauphiness of France, and mother of the friendship of Cromwell, and of Lewis XIV. unfortunate Lewis XVI. Univers. Hist. Mo- He found himself obliged, however, to conreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-A.

clude a treaty in 1655 with the Swedes, whose FREDERIC king of Sweden, prince of army he then joined in an invasion of Poland. Hesse-Cassel, born in 1676, was eldest son of Hè contributed to the victory gained near WarCharles landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. He mar- saw, and obtained for his services the entire ried for his second wife Ulrica-Eleonora, sister sovereignty of Prussia. Very soon after, in of Charles XII. king of Sweden, who, upon the consequence of a powerful league formed decease of that monarch in 1719, was elected against the king of Sweden, the elector deserted by the states his successor, upon conditions of his party, and made peace with the Poles, on great limitation of the royal authority. In 1720 the same condition respecting Prussia. If it is she obtained the consent of the states to resign necessary to justify morally the political changes the crown to her husband, who received it with of princes, it may be observed, that he was all those stipulations which rendered it the most forced into the alliance with Sweden ; and that Limited monarchy in Europe. Either his want a weak power placed between two stronger of sufficient power, or the broken spirits and ones is never, in fact, suffered to act independe strength of the Swedish nation, rendered him ently, and therefore may be allowed, in self, unable to resist the invasion of the Russians in defence, always to consult existing circum1741, who pillaged the country, and did great stances. The elector exerted himself vigourinjury to the iron and copper mines. On a ously in favour of his new allies, and the war subsequent renewal of the war, the superiority in the north subsisted with various success, till of the Russians was still more manifest. The the death of Charles-Gustavus. in 1659. This

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