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measures and tones, with rules for composing, GALLAND, AUGUsTUs, a French lawyer and other practical parts of ancient and mo- and historian of the seventeenth century, was dern music. The first book is entitled, “ Fo- attorney-general of Navarre, and a counsellor of romino, o Dialogo, nel quale si contengono le state. He was extremely well versed in legal vere & necessarie Regole di intayolare la Music and historical antiquities, as he proved by seca nel Lutto," 1569, folio. He likewise wrote a veral learned writings. One of the most celedefence of it, entitled “ Dialogo della Musica brated of these was that which he composed antica & moderna in suo Difeso contra Joseffo against the allodial rights pretended by some of Zarlino," 1602, folio. Moreri. Landi's Hist. the provinces of written law, to which he addde la Lit. d'Italie, vol. V. liv. xiii. art. 2. Mar- ed the laws given to the Albigenses by Simon tin's Biog. Phil. Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. de Montfort. This work was first published Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, B. I. ch. iii. at Paris in 1629, and he gave a much augmentHutton's Math. Dict.-M.

ed edition in 1637. He likewise published in GALLAND, ANTONY, a member of the 1637 several little treatises relative to the anAcademy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, cient banners, &c. of France. He is supposed eminent for his Oriental knowledge, was born to have died about 1644. His son, in 1648, of mean parentage at Rollo in Picardy, in 1646. published his Memoirs for the history of NaHe received his early education at the college of yarre and Flanders. A “ Discours au Roi," Noyon, whence he was taken in order to be put concerning the origin, progress, &c. of the city to some trade. But his inclination for literature of Rochelle, published anonymously in 1628 carried him to Paris, where he pursued his and 1629, is ascribed to this author. Many studies under M. Petitpied, a doctor of the Sor- genealogies of noble families drawn up by his bonne, and afterwards at the college of Maza- hand, are (or were) preserved in different librarin Becoming particularly conversant with the ries. Moreri.-A. Oriental languages, he was taken as a com- GALLE', SERVATIUS (in Latin Gallaus), a panion by M. de Nointel in his embassy to Con- learned Dutch divine, and pastor of the Walstantinople and the Levant, where he collected loon church at Haarlem, died at Campen in a rich treasure of inscriptions and drawings of the year 1709. He was the editor of a beautiantiquities. Returning to Paris in 1675, he ful and excellent edition of Lactantius, “ cum made acquaintance with Vaillant and other Notis variorum," printed by Hackius, 1660, medalists, who engaged him in a second voyage 8vo.; and the author of “ Dissertationes de to the Levant. He went thither a third time Sybillis, earumque Oraculis," 1688, 4to. ; and in 1679, partly at the expence of the French of a new impression, with enlargements and East-India company, and partly at that of Col- corrections, of Opsopæus's edition of the Sybert. In this tour he perfected his knowledge billine oracles, entitled “ Sybillina Oracula, ex of the principal modern Oriental languages, and veteribus Codicibus, emendata & restituta, &c. made numerous observations. On his return, accedunt Oracula Magica Zoroastris, Jovis, he was employed by Thevenot, the king's libra- Apollinis, &c. Gr. & Lat. cum Notis variorum, rian; and after the death of d'Herbelot he con- &c." 1689, 4to. Some time before his death tinued the publication of his Biblioth. Orien- he had also begun a new edition of Minutius tale, and wrote the preface of it. He was ap- Felix, which he did not live to complete. Fapointed royal professor of Arabic in 1709. He bricii Bibl. Grac. vol. I. lib. i. cap. 32. Moreri. died in 1915, at the age of sixty-nine. Gal Dict. Bibl. Hist. & Crit.-M. land was a man of simple manners, wholly at- GALLIENUS, P. LICINIUS, Roman emperor, tached to study, and careless about the ordinary son of Valerian, was raised to the purple by his objects of life. Of his works, none is so well father at his accession in 253, being then known as his version of the Arabian tales, call. eighteen or twenty years of age. He was imed « The Thousand and One Nights," which mediately sent to the banks of the Rhine, in has become a popular book throughout Europe. order to oppose an incursion of the Germans or Its authenticity is at present not doubted, Franks into Gaul; and with the aid of the able though he has probably taken liberties with the general Posthumus, he obtained several advanoriginal. He published various other pieces fages over them. At this period the Roman translated from the eastern languages, and se empire was invaded on all side's by the sur. veral explanations of medals and other matters rounding barbarians; and a war with the Persians of antiquity in the Mem. of the Academy of produced the defeat and captivity of Valerian Inscriptions, Mem. de Trevoux, and other col in 260. Gallienus received the intelligence of lections. Moreri.-A.

this disaster with an affectation of philosophy,

which ill concealed his pleasure at the removal pressed the incursions of the victorious Sapor of a partner and a superior. He thenceforth king of Persia, and rescued the eastern proreigned alone, and gave full display to a charac- vinces. Gallienus, through policy or gratitude, ter which has ranked him with the worst of the raised him to the rank of Augustus; and inRoman emperors. He possessed a lively genius, dulged his own vanity in a triumph on account which enabled him to succeed in a variety of of his victories. The emperor appears occapursuits, but his inconstancy and want of judg- sionally to have acted with vigour against his ment rendered him a trifler, and unfitted him numerous enemies, and either by his exertions, for the more weighty duties of his station. or those of his lieutenants, they almost all came « He was," says Gibbon, “a master of several to a violent end. He was, however, nearly curious but useless sciences, a ready orator and confined to the possession of Italy, for which elegant poet, a skilful gardener, an excellent itself he was 'at length obliged to contend cook, and most contemptible prince." He against the rebel Aureolus. Gallienus defeated amused himself with philosophy, and was, it him, and besieged him in Milan. A conspiracy is said, upon the point of giving Plotinus, the was there formed against the emperor by his Platonist, a ruined city for the purpose of mak- own officers; and upon the alarm of a sally ing the experiment of Plato's republic. He from Aureolus, as he proceeded on horseback was habitually voluptuous and indolent; yet at to the spot without his guards, he received a times, under some sudden emotion, he appear- wound from an uncertain hand, of which he ed either the intrepid warrior, or the merciless died in a few hours. The treason was comtyrant. The inconsequence of his character, pleted by the subsequent massacre of his brotogether with the circumstances of the times, ther and remaining son. Gallienus was killed produced the temporary elevation of a multi- in March 268, after a reign of fifteen years tude of competitors in different parts of the em- including his partnership with his father'; of pire; and the reign of Gallienus is the era of eight years, alone. His memory was treated that confused and turbulent period usually calle with execration at Rome, but his successor ed that of the thirty tyrants, but whose real num- Claudius honoured him with the accustomed ber was not more than nineteen. Of these, se deification. Univers. Hist. Gibbon. Crevier, veral were persons of much greater merit than -A. the regular possessor of the throne, and all ideas GALLONIUS, ANTHONY, a priest of the of hereditary right were confounded by the mie congregation of the Oratory at Rome, who litary and tumultuary election of so many em- flourished in the sixteenth century, was a native perors. It is not intended here to pursue the of that city, and died there in the year 1605. involved history of this period: it will suffice to He was the author of “ A History of Virgins," mention some of those events which more par. 1591, 4to.; “ The Lives of certain Martyrs,” ticularly display the character of Gallienus. 1597, 40.; “ The Life of St. Philip Neri," The revolt of Posthumus in Gaul, was attend- founder of the congregation of the Oratory, in ed with the murder of an infant son of the em- 8vo. ; and, “ Apologeticus Liber pro Assertis peror. He was, however, so little affected with in Annalibus Ecclesiasticis Baronianis de Mothe loss of that great province, that he said nachatu Sancti Gregoriæ Papæ, &c." 1604, 4to. with a philosophical smile, “ Is the state ruin- But the most celebrated of his works, and the ed because we are no longer to have stuffs of most interesting to curiosity, is a treatise on Arras ?” It was fortunate that the vigour of that the different kinds of cruelties inflicted by the ụsurper kept the surrounding barbarians from pagans on the martyrs of the primitive church; ilencroaching upon his frontier. The Illyrian re- lustrated by engravings of the instruments of torbellion, headed by Ingenuus, seems to have ex- ture made use of by them, taken not only from cited his utmost indignation. After its sup- the accounts of the acts of the martyrs, many pression, he vented his anger in this savage of which are of questionable authority, but also mandate to one of his ministers : “ It is not from ancient authors of indisputable credit, enough that you exterminate those who have profane as well as ecclesiastical." The first ediappeared in arms; the male sex of every age tion of it was in Italian, and entitled “ Tratmust be extirpated-let every one die who has tato de gli Instrumenti di Martirio, &c.” 1591, dropt an expression, or even entertained a 4to. with copper-plates executed by the celethought, against me-tear, kill, hew in pieces." brated Anthony Tempesta. This work the Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, by his fidelity author translated into Latin, and published it and services to the empire, stands honourably at Rome in 1994, 4to. with the title, “ De apart from the rivals of the throne. He rem Sanctorum. Martyrum Cruciatibus, &c.” illus

measures and tones, with rules for composing, GALLAND, AUGUSTU6, a French lawyer and other practical parts of ancient and mo- and historian of the seventeenth century, was dern music. The first book is entitled, “ Fo- attorney-general of Navarre, and a counsellor of romino, o Dialogo, nel quale si contengono le state. He was extremely well versed in legal vere & necessarie Kegole di intavolare la Musi- and historical antiquities, as he proved by seca nel Lutto," 1569, folio. He likewise wrote a veral learned writings. One of the most cele. defence of it, entitled “ Dialogo della Musica brated of these was that which he composed antica & moderna in suo Difeso contra Joseffo against the allodial rights pretended by some of Zarlino," 1602, folio. Moreri. Landi's Hist. the provinces of written law, to which he add. de la Lit. d'Italie, vol. V. liv. xii, art. 2. Mar- ed the laws given to the Albigenses by Simon tin's Biog. Phil. Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. de Montfort. This work was first published Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, B. I. ch. in. at Paris in 1629, and he gave a much augmentHuttori's Math. Dict.-M.

ed edition in 1637. He likewise published in GALLAND, ANTONY, a member of the 1637 several little treatises relative to the anAcademy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, cient banners, &c. of France. He is supposed eminent for his Oriental knowledge, was born to have died about 1644. His son, in 1648, of mean parentage at Rollo in Picardy, in 1646. published his Memoirs for the history of NaHe received his early education at the college of yarre and Flanders. A “ Discours au Roi," Noyon, whence he was taken in order to be put concerning the origin, progress, &c. of the city to some trade. But his inclination for literature of Rochelle, published anonymously in 1628 carried him to Paris, where he pursued his and 1629, is ascribed to this author. Many studies under M. Petitpied, a doctor of the Sore genealogies of noble families drawn up by his bonne, and afterwards at the college of Maza- hand, are (or were) preserved in different librarin. Becoming particularly conversant with the ries. Moreri.-A. Oriental languages, he was taken as a com- GALLE', SERVATIUS (in Latin Gallaus), a panion by M. de Nointel in his embassy to Con- learned Dutch divine, and pastor of the Walstantinople and the Levant, where he collected loon church at Haarlem, died at Campen in a rich treasure of inscriptions and drawings of the year 1909. He was the editor of a beautiantiquities. Returning to Paris in 1675, he ful and excellent edition of Lactantius, “ cum made acquaintance with Vaillant and other Notis variorum," printed by Hackius, 1660, medalists, who engaged him in a second voyage 8vo.; and the author of “ Dissertationes de to the Levant. He went thither a third time Sybillis, earumque Oraculis," 1688, 4to. ; and in 1679, partly at the expence of the French of a new impression, with enlargements and East-India company, and partly at that of Col- corrections, of Opsopæus's edition of the Sybert. In this tour he perfected his knowledge billine oracles, entitled “ Sybillina Oracula, ex of the principal modern Oriental languages, and veteribus Codicibus, emendata & restituta, &c. made numerous observations. On his return, accedunt Oracula Magica Zoroastris, Jovis, he was employed by Thevenot, the king's libra. Apollinis, &c. Gr. & Lat. cum Notis variorum, rian; and after the death of d'Herbelot he con- &c." 1689, 4to. Some time before his death tinued the publication of his Biblioth. Orien- he had also begun a new edition of Minutius tale, and wrote the preface of it. He was ap- Felix, which he did not live to complete. Fapointed royal professor of Arabic in 1709. He bricii Bibl. Græc. vol. I. lib. i. cap. 32. Moreri. died in 1715, at the age of sixty-nine. Gal Dict. Bibl. Hist. & Crit.-M. land was a man of simple manners, wholly at GALLIENUS, P. LICINIUS, Roman emperor, tached to study, and careless about the ordinary son of Valerian, was raised to the purple by his objects of life. Of his works, none is so well father at his accession in 253, being then known as his version of the Arabian tales, call. eighteen or twenty years of age. He was imed “ The Thousand and One Nights," which mediately sent to the banks of the Rhine, in has become a popular book throughout Europe. order to oppose an incursion of the Germans or Its authenticity is at present not doubted, Franks into Gaul; and with the aid of the able though he has probably taken liberties with the general Posthumus, he obtained several advanoriginal. He published various other pieces tages over them. At this period the Roman translated from the eastern languages, and se- empire was inyaded on all sides by the sur. veral explanations of medals and other matters rounding barbarians; and a war with the Persians of antiquity in the Mem. of the Academy of produced the defeat and captivity of Valerian Inscriptions, Mem. de Trevoux, and other col. in 260. Gallienus received the intelligence of lections. Moreri.-A.

this disaster with an affectation of philosophy,

jous other pieces tempire was invaded and a war with the Valerian ment rendered is inconstancy and want ariety of of his victorien vanity in a triumphus; and in

which ill concealed his pleasure at the removal pressed the incursions of the victorious Sapor of a partner and a superior. He thenceforth king of Persia, and rescued the eastern proreigned alone, and gave full display to a charac- vinces. Gallienus, through policy or gratitude, ter which has ranked him with the worst of the raised him to the rank of Augustus; and inRoman emperors. He possessed a lively genius, dulged his own vanity in a triumph on account which enabled him to succeed in a variety of of his victories. The emperor appears occapursuits, but his inconstancy and want of judg- sionally to have acted with vigour against his ment rendered him a trifler, and unfitted him numerous enemies, and either by his exertions, for the more weighty duties of his station. or those of his lieutenants, they almost all same “ He was," says Gibbon, “a master of several to a violent end. He was, however, nearly curious but useless sciences, a ready orator and confined to the possession of Italy, for which elegant poet, a skilful gardener, an excellent itself he was at length obliged to contend cook, and most contemptible prince.” He against the rebel Aureolus. Gallienus defeated amused himself with philosophy; and was, it him, and besieged him in Milan. A conspiracy is said, upon the point of giving Plotinus, the was there formed against the emperor by his Platonist, a ruined city for the purpose of make own officers; and upon the alarm of a sally ing the experiment of Plato's republic. He from Aureolus, as he proceeded on horseback was habitually voluptuous and indolent; yet at to the spot without his guards, he received a times, under some sudden emotion, he appear- wound from an uncertain hand, of which he ed either the intrepid warrior, or the merciless died in a few hours. The treason was comtyrant. The inconsequence of his character, pleted by the subsequent massacre of his brotogether with the circumstances of the times, ther and remaining son. Gallienus was killed produced the temporary elevation of a multie in March 268, after a reign of fifteen years tude of competitors in different parts of the em- including his partnership with his father'; of pire; and the reign of Gallienus is the era of eight years, alone. His memory was treated that confused and turbulent period usually calle with execration at Rome, but his successor ed that of the thirty tyrants, but whose real num- Claudius honoured him with the accustomed ber was not more than nineteen. Of these, se deification Univers. Hist. Gibbon. Crevier. veral were persons of much greater merit than -A. the regular possessor of the throne, and all ideas GALLONIUS, ANTHONY, a priest of the of hereditary right were confounded by the mie congregation of the Oratory at Rome, who litary and tumultuary election of so many em- flourished in the sixteenth century, was a native perors. It is not intended here to pursue the of that city, and died there in the year 1605. involved history of this period: it will suffice to He was the author of “ A History of Virgins, ' mention some of those events which more par. 1591, 4to.; “ The Lives of certain Martyrs,” ticularly display the character of Gallienus. 1597, 4to. ; « The Life of St. Philip Neri," The revolt of Posthumus in Gaul, was attend- founder of the congregation of the Oratory, in ed with the murder of an infant son of the em. 8vo.; and, “ Apologeticus Liber pro Assertis peror. He was, however, so little affected with in Annalibus Ecclesiasticis Baronianis de Mothe loss of that great province, that he said nachatu Sancti Gregoriæ Papæ, &c.” 1604, 4to. with a philosophical smile, “Is the state ruin. But the most celebrated of his works, and the ed because we are no longer to have stuffs of most interesting to curiosity, is a treatise on Arras ?” It was fortunate that the vigour of that the different kinds of cruelties inflicted by the usurper kept the surrounding barbarians from pagans on the martyrs of the primitive church; il-. encroaching upon his frontier. The Illyrian re- lustrated by engravings of the instruments of torbellion, headed by Ingenuus, seems to have ex. ture made use of by them, taken not only from cited his utmost indignation. After its sup- the accounts of the acts of the martyrs, many pression, he vented his anger in this savage of which are of questionable authority, but also mandate to one of his ministers : “ It is not from ancient authors of indisputable credit, enough that you exterminate those who have profane as well as ecclesiastical. The first ediappeared in arms; the male sex of every age tion of it was in Italian, and entitled “ Trate must be extirpated let every one die who has tato de gli Instrumenti di Martirio, &c.” 1591, dropt an expression, or even entertained a 4to. with copper-plates executed by the celethought, against me-tear, kill, hew in pieces." brated Anthony Tempesta. This work the Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, by his fidelity author translated into Latin, and published it and services to the empire, stands honourably at Rome in 1994, 4to. with the title, “ De apart from the rivals of the throne. He rem Sanctorum Martyrum Cruciatibus, &c.” illus

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GAL measures and tones, with rules for composing, GALLAND, AUGUsTUs, a French lawyer and other practical parts of ancient and mo- and historian of the seventeenth century, was dern music. The first book is entitled, “ Fo- attorney-general of Navarre, and a counsellor of romino, o Dialogo, nel quale si contengono le state. He was extremely well versed in legal vere & necessarie Kegole di intavolare la Musi- and historical antiquities, as he proved by seca nel Lutto," 1569, folio. He likewise wrote a veral learned writings. One of the most celedefence of it, entitled “ Dialogo della Musica brated of these was that which he composed antica & moderna in suo Difeso contra Joseffo against the allodial rights pretended by some of Zarlino," 1602, folio. Moreri. Landi's Hist. the provinces of written law, to which he addde la Lit. d'Italie, vol. V. liv. xiii. art. 2. Mar- ed the laws given to the Albigenses by Simon tin's Biog. Phil. Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. de Montfort. This work was first published Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, B. I. ch. iii. at Paris in 1629, and he gave a much augmentHutton's Math. Dict.-M.

ed edition in 1637. He likewise published in GALLAND, ANTONY, ? member of the 1637 several little treatises relative to the anAcademy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, cient banners, &c. of France. He is supposed eminent for his Oriental knowledge, was born to have died about 1644. His son, in 1648, of mean parentage at Rollo in Picardy, in 1646. published his Memoirs for the history of NaHe received his early education at the college of varre and Flanders. A “ Discours au Roi," Noyon, whence he was taken in order to be put concerning the origin, progress, &c. of the city to some trade. But his inclination for literature of Rochelle, published anonymously in 1628 carried him to Paris, where he pursued his and 1629, is ascribed to this author. Many studies under M. Petitpied, a doctor of the Sor- genealogies of noble families drawn up by his bonne, and afterwards at the college of Maza- hand, are (or were) preserved in different librarin. Becoming particularly conversant with the ries. Moreri.-A. Oriental languages, he was taken as a com GALLE', SERVATIUS (in Latin Gallaus), a panion by M. de Nointel in his embassy to Con- learned Dutch divine, and pastor of the Walstantinople and the Levant, where he collected loon church at Haarlem, died at Campen in a rich treasure of inscriptions and drawings of the year 1709. He was the editor of a beautiantiquities. Returning to Paris in 1675, he ful and excellent edition of Lactantius, “ cum made acquaintance with Vaillant and other Notis variorum," printed by Hackius, 1660, medalists, who engaged him in a second voyage 8vo.; and the author of “ Dissertationes de to the Levant. He went thither a third time Sybillis, earumque Oraculis," 1688, 4to.; and in 1679, partly at the expence of the French of a new impression, with enlargements and East-India company, and partly at that of Col- corrections, of Opsopæus's edition of the Sy. bert. In this tour he perfected his knowledge billine oracles, entitled “ Sybillina Oracula, ex of the principal modern Oriental languages, and veteribus Codicibus, emendata & restituta, &c. made numerous observations. On his return, accedunt Oracula Magica Zoroastris, Jovis, he was employed by Thevenot, the king's libra. Apollinis, &c. Gr. & Lat. cum Notis variorum, rian; and after the death of d'Herbelot he con- &c.” 1689, 4to. Some time before his death tinued the publication of his Biblioth. Orien- he had also begun a new edition of Minutius tale, and wrote the preface of it. He was ap. Felix, which he did not live to complete. Fapointed royal professor of Arabic in 1709. He bricii Bibl. Græc. vol. I. lib. i. cap. 32. Moreti. died in 1715, at the age of sixty-nine. Gal Dict. Bibl. Hist. & Crit.-M. land was a man of simple manners, wholly at GALLIENUS, P. LICINIUS,Roman emperor, tached to study, and careless about the ordinary son of Valerian, was raised to the purple by his objects of life. Of his works, none is so well father at his accession in 253, being then known as his version of the Arabian tales, call. eighteen or twenty years of age. He was imed “ The Thousand and One Nights," which mediately sent to the banks of the Rhine, in has become a popular book throughout Europe. order to oppose an incursion of the Germans or Its authenticity is at present not doubted, Franks into Gaul; and with the aid of the able though he has probably taken liberties with the general Posthumus, he obtained several advanoriginal. He published various other pieces tages over them. At this period the Roman translated from the eastern languages, and se- empire was inyaded on all sides by the sur. veral explanations of medals and other matters rounding barbarians; and a war with the Persians of antiquity in the Mem. of the Academy of produced the defeat and captivity of Valerian Inscriptions, Mem. de Trevoux, and other col in 260. Gallienus received the intelligence of lections. Moreri.-A.

this disaster with an affectation of philosophy,

lectionations, Methe Meml.abs and others and sem

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