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measures and tones, with rules for composing, GALLAND, AUGUsTUs, a French lawyer and other practical parts of ancient and mo- and historian of the seventeenth century, was dern music. The first book is entitled, “ For attorney-general of Navarre, and a counsellor of romino, o Dialogo, nel quale si contengono le state. He was extremely well versed in legal vere & necessarie Regole di intayolare la Music and historical antiquities, as he proved by seca nel Lutto," 1569, folio. He likewise wrote a veral learned writings. One of the most cele. defence of it, entitled “ Dialogo della Musica brated of these was that which he composed antica & moderna in suo Difeso contra Joseffo against the allodial rights pretended by some of Zarlino," 1602, folio. Moreri. Landi's Hist. the provinces of written law, to which he addde la Lit. d'Italie, vol. V. liv. xiii. art. 2. Mar- ed the laws given to the Albigenses by Simon tin's Biog. Phil. Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. de Montfort. This work was first published Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, B. I. ch. ifi. at Paris in 1629, and he gave a much augmentHutton's Math. Dict.-M.
ed edition in 1637. He likewise published in GALLAND, ANTONY, a member of the 1637 several little treatises relative to the anAcademy of Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, cient banners, &c. of France. He is supposed eminent for his Oriental knowledge, was born to have died about 1644. His son, in 1648, of mean parentage at Rollo in Picardy, in 1646. published his Memoirs for the history of NaHe received his early education at the college of varre and Flanders. A “ Discours au Roi," Noyon, whence he was taken in order to be put concerning the origin, progress, &c. of the city to some trade. But his inclination for literature of Rochelle, published anonymously in 1628 carried him to Paris, where he pursued his and 1629, is ascribed to this author. Many studies under M. Petitpied, a doctor of the Sor- genealogies of noble families drawn up by his bonne, and afterwards at the college of Maza- hand, are (or were) preserved in different librarin. Becoming particularly conversant with the ries. Moreri.-A. Oriental languages, he was taken as a com- GALLE', SERVATIUS (in Latin Gallaus), a panion by M. de Nointel in his embassy to Con- learned Dutch divine, and pastor of the Walstantinople and the Levant, where he collected loon church at Haarlem, died at Campen in a rich treasure of inscriptions and drawings of the year 1709. He was the editor of a beautiantiquities. Returning to Paris in 1675, he ful and excellent edition of Lactantius, “ cum made acquaintance with Vaillant and other Notis variorum," printed by Hackius, 1660, medalists, who engaged him in a second voyage 8vo.; and the author of “' Dissertationes de to the Levant. He went thither a third time Sybillis, earumque Oraculis," 1688, 4to.; and in 1679, partly at the expence of the French of a new impression, with enlargements and East-India company, and partly at that of Col. corrections, of Opsopæus's edition of the Sybert. In this tour' he perfected his knowledge billine oracles, entitled “ Sybillina Oracula, ex of the principal modern Oriental languages, and veteribus Codicibus, emendata & restituta, &c. made numerous observations. On his return, accedunt Oracula Magica Zoroastris, Jovis, he was employed by Thevenot, the king's libra. Apollinis, &c. Gr. & Lat. cum Notis variorum, rian; and after the death of d'Herbelot he con- &c.” 1689, 4to. Some time before his death tinued the publication of his Biblioth. Orien- he had also begun a new edition of Minutius tale, and wrote the preface of it. He was ap- Felix, which he did not live to complete. Fapointed royal professor of Arabic in 1709. He bricii Bibl. Grac. vol. I. lib. i. cap. 32. Moreri. died in 1915, at the age of sixty-nine. Gal Dict. Bibl. Hist. & Crit.-M. land was a man of simple manners, wholly at GALLIENUS, P. LICINIUS, Roman emperor, tached to study, and careless about the ordinary son of Valerian, was raised to the purple by his objects of life. Of his works, none is so well father at his accession in 253, being then known as his version of the Arabian tales, call. eighteen of twenty years of age. He was imed “ The Thousand and One Nights," which mediately sent to the banks of the Rhine, in has become a popular book throughout Europe. order to oppose an incursion of the Germans or Its authenticity is at present not doubted, Franks into Gaul; and with the aid of the able though he has probably taken liberties with the general Posthumus, he obtained several advanoriginal. He published various other pieces tages over them. At this period the Roman translated from the eastern languages, and se- empire was invaded on all sides by the surveral explanations of medals and other matters rounding barbarians; and a war with the Persians of antiquity in the Mem. of the Academy of produced the defeat and captivity of Valerian Inscriptions, Mem. de Trevoux, and other col- in 260. Gallienus received the intelligence of lections. Moreri.-A.
this disaster with an affectation of philosophy,
together. Wthe tempora different pas
which ill concealed his pleasure at the removal pressed the incursions of the victorious Sapor of a partner and a superior. He thenceforth king of Persia, and rescued the eastern proreigned alone, and gave full display to a charac- vinces. Gallienus, through policy or gratitude, ter which has ranked him with the worst of the raised him to the rank of Augustus; and inRoman emperors. He possessed a lively genius, dulged his own vanity in a triumph on account which enabled him to succeed in a variety of of his victories. The emperor appears occapursuits, but his inconstancy and want of judg- sionally to have acted with vigour against his ment rendered him a trifler, and unfitted him numerous enemies, and either by his exertions, for the more weighty duties of his station. or those of his lieutenants, they almost all came “ He was," says Gibbon, “a master of several to a violent end. He was, however, nearly curious but useless sciences, a ready orator and confined to the possession of Italy, for which elegant poet, a skilful gardener, an excellent itself he was ‘at length obliged to contend cook, and most contemptible prince.” He against the rebel Aureolus. Gallienus defeated amused himself with philosophy; and was, it him, and besieged him in Milan. A conspiracy is said, upon the point of giving Plotinus, the was there formed against the emperor by his Platonist, a ruined city for the purpose of make own officers; and upon the alarm of a sally ing the experiment of Plato's republic. He from Aureolus, as he proceeded on horseback was habitually voluptuous and indolent; yet at to the spot without his guards, he received a times, under some sudden emotion, he appear. wound from an uncertain hand, of which he ed either the intrepid warrior, or the merciless died in a few hours. The treason was comtyrant. The inconsequence of his character, pleted by the subsequent massacre of his brotogether with the circumstances of the times, ther and remaining son. Gallienus was killed produced the temporary elevation of a multi. in March 268, after a reign of fifteen years tude of competitors in different parts of the em- including his partnership with his father; of pire; and the reign of Gallienus is the era of eight years, alone. His memory was treated that confused and turbulent period usually call with execration at Rome, but his successor ed that of the thirty tyrants, but whose real num- Claudius honoured him with the accustomed ber was not more than nineteen. Of these, se deification. Univers. Hist. Gibbon. Crevier. veral were persons of much greater merit than -A. the regular possessor of the throne, and all ideas GALLONIUS, ANTHONY, a priest of the of hereditary right were confounded by the mie congregation of the Oratory at Rome, who litary and tumultuary election of so many em- flourished in the sixteenth century, was a native perors. It is not intended here to pursue the of that city, and died there in the year 1605. involved history of this period: it will suffice to He was the author of " A History of Virgins," mention some of those events which more par- 1591, 4to.; “ The Lives of certain Martyrs,” ticularly display the character of Gallienus. 1597, 4to.; “ The Life of St. Philip Neri," The revolt of Posthumus in Gaul, was attend- founder of the congregation of the Oratory, in ed with the murder of an infant son of the em. 8vo.; and, “ Apologeticus Liber pro Assertis peror. He was, however, so little affected with in Annalibus Ecclesiasticis Baronianis de Mothe loss of that great province, that he said nachatu Sancti Gregoriæ Papæ, &c." 1604, 4to. with a philosophical smile, « Is the state ruin- But the most celebrated of his works, and the ed because we are no longer to have stuffs of most interesting to curiosity, is a treatise on Arras ?” It was fortunate that the vigour of that the different kinds of cruelties inflicted by the ụsurper kept the surrounding barbarians from pagans on the martyrs of the primitive church; ilencroaching upon his frontier. The Illyrian re- lustrated by engravings of the instruments of torbellion, headed by Ingenuus, seems to have ex- ture made use of by them, taken not only from cited his utmost indignation. After its sup- the accounts of the acts of the martyrs, many pression, he vented his anger in this savage of which are of questionable authority, but also mandate to one of his ministers : “ It is not from ancient authors of indisputable credit, enough that you exterminate those who have profane as well as ecclesiastical. The first ediappeared in arms; the male sex of every age tion of it was in Italian, and entitled “ Tratmust be extirpated-let every one die who has tato de gli Instrumenti di Martirio, &c.” 1591, dropt an expression, or even entertained a 4to. with copper-plates executed by the celethought, against me-tear, kill, hew in pieces.” brated Anthony Tempesta. This work the Odenathus, prince of Palmyra, by his fidelity author translated into Latin, and published it and services to the empire, stands honourably at Rome in 1594, 4to. with the title, “ De apart from the rivals of the throne. He rem Sanctorum. Martyrum Cruciatibus, 8cc.” illus
trated with wooden prints. Afterwards it un- Propertius, Martial, and other ancients, also .derwent different impressions at Paris, Ant- mention him with applause. His Lycoris is werp, &c. Moreri. Bayle. Dict. Bibl. Hist. supposed to have been the Cytheris who capEs Crit.-M.
tivated Mark Antony, and was carried about GALLUCCI, John-Paul, a learned Italian by him in such indecent triumph. Gallus astronomer, who flourished in the sixteenth was intimately connected with Asinius Pollio ; century. He was a fellow of the Academy at and he was employed by Augustus in his war Venice, and contrived an instrument, which against Antony and Cleopatra, and so well apwas found serviceable in observing the celestial proved his valour and conduct that he was af. phenomena before the invention of the telescope. terwards appointed to the government of all He was the author of several astronomical Egypt. But this elevation proved his ruin ; works, and some on physic, which display a for, being charged with peculation, and, as some considerable acquaintance with the state of assert, with conspiracy, he was deprived of all science as it existed in his time, and a com- his property, and condemned to exile. Unable mend. ble ardour for its improvement; but not to bear this disgrace, he put an end to his life unmixed with the fanciful notions which then in his forty-third year. None of his writings prevailed concerning the influence of the hea- have reached modern times; but Servius affirins venly bodies, in their different positions, on the that there are several of his lines inserted in the human frame and constitution. The principal eclogue of Virgil above mentioned. Some eleof them are: “ Theatrum Mundi & Temporis," gies, which were published under his name in 1589, folio ; “ De Themate Erigendo, Parte the beginning of the sixteenth century, are unFortunæ, Divisione Zodiaci, Dignitatibus Pla- doubtedly supposititious. Besides bis pieces on netarum & Temporibus ad Medicandum Ac- Lycoris, it is known that he translated into commodatis, &c.” 1584, folio; “ Speculum Latin verse some books of the Greek poet Uranicum,” 1593, folio; “ Cælestium® Corpo- Euphorion. Vossii Poet. Lat. Moreri. Tirarum, & Rerum ab ipsis pendentium, Explicatio," boschi.-A. 1605, folio; “ Della Fabrica del nuovo Oro. GALLUS, C. VIBIUS TREBONIANUS, one logio universale, e Uso di nuovo Stromento per of the short-lived emperors of Rome, was a fare gli Orologi solari," 1590, 460.; and “ Della native of Meninx, an island on the coast of Fabrica & Uso di diversi Strometi di Astrono- Africa, now Gerbi ; and a principal officer mia & Cosmographia," 1597, 4to. To the under Decius at the time when that emperor above might be added, translations from the lost his life in an action with the Goths. Galworks of Reisch, Albert Durer, &c. of which lus is accused by some historians of contriving the titles may be found in Mortri. Bayle. his destruction by means of a correspondence Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M.
with the Goths, but such a supposition is GALLUS, CORNELIUS, a Roman poet and unnecessary to account for the even: A miman of rank, was born about B.C. 69, at Forum litary election immediately conferred the vacant Julii, which may be either Frejus in Provence, purple upon Gallus, A.D. 251. His age at his or Friuli in Italy. Of his life few incidents elevation, according to one account, was fiftyare known. One of the most interesting cir- seven, according to another, forty-five. He cumstances in it was his intimacy with Virgil, displayed his attachment to the memory of his whom he was probably the means of introducing former master by placing him in the rank of to Mæcenas. "That poet has inscribed his tenth Gods, and more substantially by associating his eclogue with the name of Gallus, whose deser- surviving son Hostilianus with him in the emtion by his mistress Lycoris is the subject of the pire. He found himself obliged to purchase composition. Gallus himself wrote four books the retreat of the victorious Goths by suffering of elegies to the honour of this mistress, which them to retain their booty and captives, and raised him to a high rank among the poets of agreeing to pay them an annual tribute. He this class, and appear to have been extremely then returned to Rome, where he gave himself popular. Thus Ovid, enumerating the poets, up to an effeminate and voluptuous life, which, to whom he predicts immortality, says
together with the ignominy he had brought
upon the empire, rendered him contemptible Gallus & Hesperiis, & Gallus notus Eois, and odious to his subjects. The public cala: Et suo cum Gallo nota Lycoris erit.
mities were aggravated by a terrible pestilence, AMOR, I. 13.
which carried off numbers of people, and Gallus from East to West shall spread his name, among them probably the young emperor HosAnd fair Lycoris share ber poet's fame.
tilianus, though the hatred to Gailus ascribed
GAL his death to poison administered by his orders. seized, bound, and after being dragged through A revival of the Decian persecution of the the streets of Antioch, to be thrown into the Christians in this reign was probably owing to river. After this step he had nothing to expect a superstitious notion of thereby conciliating but punishment from the imperial court; he the favour of the gods, and averting the evils was therefore very reluctant to comply with which pressed upon the empire. One of these the artful invitation of Constantius to come was a new irruption of the barbarians into the and visit him at Milan. The death of Conbordering provinces, which eventually proved stantina, who was going to appease her brother, the destruction of Gallus. Æmilianus, governor aggravated his danger. At length he set out of Masia and Pannonia, gave a signal defeat to with a numerous train ; but he soon found the invaders on that part, in consequence of himself closely watched by the imperial miniswhich success he was proclaimed emperor by ters; and upon his arrival at Adrianople, an his troops. Upon the news of this revolt, Gal- order met him to leave behind him his retinue lus marched to oppose his rival, and they met and proceed with a few post-carriages. When near Interamna, in Italy. A civil war was he came to Petovio in Pannonia, he was arprevented by the murder of Gallus and his son rested by a military officer, stript of his ensigas and partner Volusianus, by his own troops, and of dignity, and carried away to imprisonment
Emilianus succeeded without opposition. This at Pola in Istria. There he underwent a severe was in 253, after Gallus had reigned about two interrogation from an eunuch, his enemy; and, years. Univers. Hist. Crevier. Gibbon.-A. after confessing the charges brought against
GALLUS, CASAR, son of Julius-Constan- him, he was beheaded like a common maletius, the brother of Constantine the Great, was factor. This catastrophe took place in 354, born about 326. His true name was FLAVIUS the fourth year after his elevation. Univers. CLAUDIUS CONSTANTIUS, nor is it known why Hist. Gibbon.-A. historians have called him Gallus. He, with GALLY, HENRY, a learned English divine, his brother Julian (afterwards emperor), were was born at Beckenham in Kent, in the year the only princes of the collateral Flavian race 1696, and admitted a pensioner of Bene't colwho were spared in the massacre which took lege, Cambridge, in 1714, of which house he place after the death of Constantine. After an became a scholar in the following year. He education in a state of honourable imprisonment, took his degree of M.A. in 1721; and was in Gallus was suddenly, in his twenty-fifth year, the same year chosen lecturer of St. Paul's, A.D. 351, raised by his cousin the emperor Covent-garden, in London, and instituted to the Constantius to the rank of Cæsar, and married rectory of Wavenden, or Wanden, in Bucking, to his sister Constantina. Antioch was ap- hamshire. In 1725 he was appointed his do. pointed for his residence, and he was charged mestic chaplain by the lord-chancellor King, with the government of the eastern provinces, who preferred him to a prebend in the cathedral and their defence against the Persians. In this church of Gloucester, in 1728. In the year he was successful; and he is likewise praised last mentioned, he was admitted to the degree. for the zeal with which he promoted the Christ- of doctor of divinity at Cambridge, when king ian worship at Antioch, and his substitution of George Il. honoured that university with his the bones of St. Babylas to the shrine of Apollo presence. In 1730 the lord-chancellor prein the celebrated grove of Daphne. But either sented him to the rectory of Ashton in Northhis own bad natural disposition, or that of his amptonshire, and not long afterwards promoted wife (who is described as a female fury), soon him to a prebend in the cathedral church of plunged him into great extravagancies, and his Norwich. Dr. Gally's next preferment was administration became detestable for its cruelty, the rectory of St. Giles's in the Fields, in 1732; pride, and rapacity. He was violent and su. and in 1735 he was nominated chaplain in orspicious, and sometimes condescended himself to dinary to his majesty. He died in the year assume the character of a spy under a disguise. 1769. Besides " Two Sermons on the Misery of Many persons of rank were put to death in Man," published in 1723, and “A Sermon consequence of his jealousy and enmity. At preached before the House of Commons upon length the emperor Constantius was apprised the Accession," in 1739, he was the author of of his conduct, and sent two delegates to ad- a translation from the Greek of “ The Morals of monish him and reform his government. Their Theophrastus, with Notes, and a Critical Essay haughty behaviour so irritated the violent tem- on Characteristic Writing," 1728, 8vo.; “ The per of Gallus, that he caused them both to be Reasonableness of Church and College Fines VOL. IV.
1728. the cash sing,
asserted, and the Right which Churches and the phenome:son, she immediately went to inColleges have in their Estates defended," 1731, form her husband of it. He came and repeated 8vo.; “ Some Considerations upon Clandestine the experiment; and soon found that the conMarriages," 1750, 8vo.; "A Dissertation vulsion only took place when a spark was drawn against pronouncing the Greek Language ac- from the conductor at the time the scalpel was cording to Accents, 1754, 8vo.; and “ A in contact with the nerve. It would be tedious, Second Dissertation on the same Subject, in and in this place unnecessary, to mention the Answer to Mr. Forster's Essay on the different long series of experiments, most ingeniously Nature of Accent and Quantity," 1763, 8vo. varied, by which he proceeded to investigate Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer.-M.
the law of nature of which accident had thus GALVANI, Lewis, a modern physiologist, given him a glimpse. His conclusion from the who has had the honour of giving his name to whole was, that all animals are.endued with an a supposed new principle in nature, was born electricity of a peculiar nature, and inherent in in 1737 at Bologna, where several of his rela- their economy, to which he gives the name of tions had distinguished themselves in juris animal electricity; that it is contained in most prudence and theology. From his early youth parts, but chiefly manifests itself in the nerves he was much disposed to the greatest austeri- and muscles; and that it is secreted by the brain ties of the catholic religion, and particularly and distributed by the nerves to the different frequented a convent, the monks of which at- parts of the body. He compares each muscular tached themselves to the solemn duty of visit fibre to a small Leyden phial, and endeavours to ing the dying. He shewed an inclination to explain the phenomena of muscular motion by enter into this order, but was diverted from it analogies drawn from the charging and disby one of the fraternity. Thenceforth he de- charging of that instrument. He applies his voted himself to the study of medicine in its theory to explain various facts in pathology, different branches. His masters were the doc- relative to rheumatic, convulsive, paralytic, and tors Beccari, Tacconi, Galli, and especially the other nervous affections. The first publication professor Galeazzi, who received him into his of Galvani on this new subject was, “ Aloysii house, and gave him his daughter in marriage. Galvani de Viribus Electricitatis in Motu MusIn 1762 he sustained with reputation an in- culari Commentarius," 1791, 4to. printed for augural thesis, “ De Ossibus,” and was then the institute of Bologna. It immediately excited created public lecturer in the university of the notice of philosophers both in Italy and Bologna, and appointed reader in anatomy to other countries, and was followed by numerous the institute in that city. His excellent method publications in which new experiments were of lecturing drew a crowd of auditors; and he related, and different opinions supported. In employed his leisure in experiments and in the particular, the celebrated Volta took up the study of comparative anatomy. He made a subject, and adduced many arguments to prove number of curious observations on the urinary that Galvani’s notion of a peculiar animal elecorgans, and on the organ of hearing in birds, tricity is erroneous, and that the phenomena which were published in the Memoirs of the are derived only from the general electric matInstitute. His reputation as an anatomist and ter of the atmosphere, of the action of which physiologist was established in the schools of the nerves are more sensible tests than any Italy, when accident gave birth to the discovery other substances. This latter opinion seems to which has immortalised his name. His beloved have been gaining ground among philosophical wife, with whom he lived many years in the enquirers, though the notion of a peculiar galtenderest union, was at this time in a declining vanic fluid still meets with supporters. Galstate of health. As a restorative she made use vani still proceeded in his enquiries, and made of a soup of frogs; and some of these animals, many experiments upon the innate electricity in skinned for the purpose, happened to lie upon a the torpedo, as a subject intimately connected table in her husband's laboratory, upon which with his discovery. He also examined with was placed an electrical machine. One of the minuteness into the different effects of the assistants in his experiments chanced carelessly homogeneity and heterogeneity of the metals to bring the point of a scalpel near the crural employed in forming the arch of communication nerves of a frog lying not far from the con- by which the galvanic phenomena are excited; ductor. Instantly the muscles of the limb were a circumstance which promises much future agitated with strong convulsions. Madame information of the nature of electricity, and has Galyani, a woman of quick understanding and been particularly pursued by M. Volta. On a scientific turn, was presents and struck with the whole, though Galvani adhered to his first