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profound erudition, extensive research, and Dr. Geddes; nor did he believe that many of acute reasoning, displayed in this work, excited, the higher clergy belonging to the papal church however, the respect and admiration of the truly could have rivalled him in these branches of learned, candid, and liberal, of every sect, howe study. By the bigotted in his own communion ever dissonant their opinions were from the au- he was disclaimed as a brother, and they united thor's. In the year last mentioned Dr. Geddes with many among the protestant sects in republished, but without his name, “ A modest presenting him to have been almost, if not enApology for the Roman-catholics of Great tirely, an infidel. Such a representation, how. Britain, addressed to all moderate Protestants, ever, is totally irreconcileable with his own and particularly to the Members of both Houses repeated declarations: and he was of too honest of Parliament,'' 8vo. In this work the author's and frank a temper to disguise his sentiments, learning, accurate knowledge of ecclesiastical however obnoxious they might be ; and he history, liberality, and moderation, appear to possessed such an ardent attachment to the ineminent advantage ; and it affords such a view terests of what he considered to be truth and of the creed of the more enlightened part of liberty, that he disdained the mean artifice of the modern British Catholics, as shews that courting the good opinion of any man by apthey neither merit proscription nor persecution; proving, or seeming to approve, any principles while it ably and satisfactorily establishes their which he did not really hold. A Catholic he claims, on the footing of justice and policy, to a was “absolute, a Roman-catholic only secundum share in every privilege which the most favour- quid.If, by the epithet Roman, be only meant ed of their fellow-subjects enjoy. It was Dr. holding communion with the see of Rome, and Geddes's next intention to present to the public acknowledging the primacy of its bishop, so far a new translation of the Book of Psalms; but, he certainly was a Roman-catholic ; but papai during the last year of his life, his studies and infallibility he maintained to be “ as absurd in literary labours were greatly interrupted by at- itself, as it is pernicious in its consequences : tacks of a painful disease, which indicated the the spurious child of arrogance and ignorance, approach of his great change. During every fostered by credulity, and nurtured by servile interval of ease, however, he applied to the adulation.” In the preface to his Critical Rework which he had at heart, and had printed, marks he makes an explicit avowal of his faith. in an octavo size, one hundred and four of the “The Gospel of Jesus,” says he, “is my reliPsalms, and completely prepared for the press gious code : his doctrines are my dearest deas far as the 118th. His disorder now baffled light : his yoke to me is easy, and his burden all remedies or palliatives, and terminated his light : but this yoke I would not put on ; these life on the 26th of February, 1802, when he doctrines I could not admire ; that Gospel I was in the sixty-fifth year of his age. His re- would not make my law; if reason, pure reason, mains were followed to the grave by a nuinber were not my prompter and preceptress. 'I willof respectable friends, of very opposite senti- ingly profess myself a sincère, though unworthy, ments. Catholics and Protestants, churchmen disciple of Christ. Christian is my name, and and dissenters, whigs and tories, united in pay- Catholic my surname. Rather than renounce ing their common tribute of unfeigned respect these glorious titles I would shed my blood : to the memory of a man to whom they had all but I would not shed a drop of it for what is been zealously attached during his life, which neither catholic nor christian. Catholic Christhad been consecrated to labours in which they ianity I revere wherever I find it, and in whatwere all deeply interested. Of Dr. Geddes's soever sect it dwells : but I cannot revere the profound and various learning, acute and pe- loads of hay and stubble which have been blendnetrating genius, and indefatigable application, ed with its precious gems; and which still, his numerous productions, and particularly his in every sect with which I am acquainted, grand work, and the pieces which bear a rela- more or less tarnish or hide their lustre.” Dr. tion to it, afford a very ample testimony. With Geddes's disposition was truly philanthropic and respect to such subjects as were more particu- benevolent, and his wit and vivacity contributed larly connected with the profession to which he greatly to the delight of the social parties in was educated, a learned Italian has declared, which he mixed. Sometimes, it is true, he disa that he never knew, out of the papal dominions, covered too great irritability of temper ; but a person more deeply learned in ecclesiastical this weakness had no mixture in it of malignity, history, the canon law, the liturgy of the church, or ill-nature. He was also often led, by his and the diplomacy of the court of Rome, than zeal for what he conceived to be truth, into an eagerness in the assertion and maintenance of fession; but they were unhappily frustrated by his opinions, which, by persons ignorant of the his being carried off in a decline when between man, was sometimes mistaken for an overbearing thirty and forty years of age. He retained and dogmatical spirit. No person, however, through life that relish for ancient literature was a more strenuous and uniform advocate for which he had imbibed in his youth ; and deuncontrolled freedom of opinion, and freedom voted what time he could spare from the duties of discussion, than Dr. Geddes; and he was, of his profession and the necessary affairs of his in the strictest sense of the word, a genuine family, to the study of the ancient poets, phiCatholic, extending his good-will to all of every losophers, and historians. The treatise, from sect and party, and disposed to grant to others the preface of which these particulars are taken, every privilege which he claimed for himself. affords honourable evidence of an extensive acBesides the articles mentioned in the preceding quaintance both with their language and sennarrative, Dr. Geddes was the author of the timents. His private character was amiable following anonymous productions : “ A Letter and worthy in all respects; and he died sinto a Member of Parliament,” 1787, 8vo. on the cerely lamented by all who knew him, as a expediency of a general repeal of all penal friend to learning, virtue, and truth. The only statutes that regard religious opinions ; « Epis- production of his pen which has been published tola macaronica ad Fratrem de iis quæ gesta is posthumous, and entitled “ An Essay on the sunt in nupero Dissentientium Conventu, &c." Composition and Manner of Writing of the 1790, 4to.; “ Carmen Seculare pro Gallica Ancients, particularly Plato," 1748, 8vo. SeGente, Tyrannide aristocratica erepta,” of the veral other papers were left behind him in an same date, 4to.; “ Ver-vert, or the Parrot of unfinished state, which were designed to form Nevers, a Poem, in four Cantos, freely trans- another volume.--M. lated from the French of J. B. Gresset," 1793, GEDDES, Michael, a learned English di4t0.; “ The Battle of B-ng-r, or the Church vine, who flourished in the seventeenth and the triumphant, a comic-heroic Poem, in nine beginning of the eighteenth century. We have Cantos," 1797, 4to.; and several other light not been able to collect any information repoetical pieces, satirical or sprightly, written specting the time or place of his birth, or where by way of relaxation from his severer studies. he received his education. The first notice of Monthly Magaz. for April, 1802. New Annual him which we have seen was when he was setRegister, 1786-1701.-M.

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tled at Lisbon, in the capacity of chaplain to GEDDES, James, a learned Scotch advo- the English factory in that city, the duties of cate and philosophical writer, was descended which he discharged from the year 1678 to from a respectable family in the county of 1688, excepting during the interval about to be Tweedale, and born about the year 1710. He mentioned. In the year 1686 he was summonearly afforded evidence of a good natural capa- ed to appear before the court of the Inquisition. city, and a desire of knowledge, which his father When he came into the presence of the judges, took care to encourage, and provided him with they received him at first with great affectation proper tutors in his own house. Under their of civility and courtesy, desiring him to sit down instructions he made a rapid progress in the and to be covered, before they proceeded to learned languages and the elements of philoso- examine him. After this ceremony was over, phy, and soon entered with remarkable spirit they sternly asked him how he dared to preach, into the sentiments of the ancient writers, disor exercise his function, in that city? He ancovering a manly thirst for a more thorough swered, that he enjoyed that liberty by virtue of acquaintance with them. At a proper age he an article in the treaty between the crowns of was sent to the university of Edinburgh, where Portugal and England; that it was a privilege he studied the different branches of philosophy, which had never been called in question ; and and made great proficiency in the mathematical that he had resided at Lisbon for eight years, sciences under the tuition of the celebrated during which time he had served the English Colin Maclaurin. After he had finished his factory in the capacity of chaplain, as many philosophical course, his attention was directed others had done before him. To these declar. to the law, for which profession he was de- ations they replied, not without being guilty signed ; and when he had gone through the of the grossest falshood, that they were entirely usual preparatory studies, he was admitted an ignorant till lately that any such liberty had been adyocate. For several years he practised at the assumed by him or others, and that if they had bar with growing reputation, and afforded flat- known it they would never have suffered it. iering hopes of rising to eminence in his pro- They then strictly forbade him to minister ant

early alle, and bones family ten was descadyo

destructioners in this sce, and on which his capa

more to his congregation; and, after threatening of Spain and Portugal, and to the catholic him with their vengeance if he should venture controversy ; and a posthumous volume, ento disobey them, gare him his dismission. It titled “ Several Tracts against Popery, together is said, and not without probability, that they with the Life of Don Alvaro de Luna," 1715, were encouraged to take this step by the catholic 8vo. Preface to the piece last mentioned. Bur. party in England, where active measures were net's Hist. Reform. vol. III. b. iv.-M. now pursuing for the re-establishment of the GEDOYN, NICHOLAS, abbé, was born of a popish religion. Upon this interdiction, letters good family at Orleans in 1667. He was eduof complaint were addressed by the factory to cated at the Jesuits' college in Paris, and afterthe bishop of London ; but as they did not wards entered into the society, in which he reach England before the suspension of his continued ten years. He then quitted it, and lordship, all hopes of speedy redress were lost. appeared in the world in the character of a wit Until the arrival of Mr. Scarborough, the Eng- and man of letters. In order to improve himlish envoy, the English Protestants in Lisbon self in politeness he frequented the school of were wholly debarred the exercise of their reli- the celebrated Ninon de l'Enclos, who had the gion; and they were then obliged, for a time, to credit of forming so many other persons of Shelter themselves under the privileges of his taste and fashion. It has been asserted, that he character as a public minister. In this state of obtained favours from this lady when she was things Mr. Geddes thought it advisable to re- four-score, but this is probably a fiction in the turn to his native country, which he did in the annals of gallantry. His way of life did not beginning of the year 1688. We learn no far- injure his fortune, for he was presented with a ther particulars concerning him after his arrival canonry of the Holy Chapel in 1711, and an in England, than that he was created doctor of abbacy some time after, which he exchanged laws, and made chancellor of the diocese of for the abbacy of Notre-Dame de Beaugency Sarum ; and that he employed much of his time in 1732. His literary reputation opened to in preparing different works for the press, which him the doors of the Academy of Belles-lettres are interesting both to divines and historians. in 1711, and of the French Academy in 1719. He died some time before the year 1715. Bi- He died in 1744. The abbé Gedoyn was a shop Burnet, who was his acquaintance and man of great urbanity and candour, and of friend, says, that “ he was a learned and wise strict integrity. He was a passionate admirer .man. He had a true notion of popery, as a of antiquity, and held all modern attempts in political combination, managed by falshood and poetry and eloquence as greatly inferior to the cruelty, to establish a temporal empire in the master-pieces of the ancients. He obtained persons of the popes. All his thoughts and great applause by two translations, that of studies were chiefly employed in detecting this; “ Quintilian,' and of “ Pausanias.” The first of which he has given many useful and curious is accounted one of the most elegant performessays in the treatises he wrote, which are all ances of the kind; but in avoiding a servile highly valuable.* Many of the materials for transcription of his author, he has sometimes these treatises he collected during his residence indulged himself. in deviations from his sense. at Lisbon, and had others communicated to The translation of Pausanias is also elegant, him by bishop Stillingfleet, which the doctor and is enriched with learned notes; its exacte translated out of the original Spanish into Eng- ness has, however, been called in question. He lish. They consist of “ The History of the likewise published “ Euvres Diverses," 1745, Church of Malabar, from the Time of its being 12mo., a collection of dissertations on moral discovered by the Portuguese in the Year 1501, and literary topics : and he left in MSS. seand of the Synod of Diamper, celebrated in the veral curious dissertations, among which is an Year 1599,” 1694, 8vo. ; " The Church History Examination of Milton's Paradise Lost, which of Ethiopia, including an Account of the two he decides to be a gloomy, barbarous, and disgreat Roman Missions into that Empire, &c." graceful work-a sentence which an Erglish1696, 8vo.; “ The Council of Trent no free man will easily bear from a critic of his country. Assembly ; more fully discovered by a Collec- Moreri. Voltaire, Siècle de Louis XIV.-A. tion of Letters and Papers of the learned Dr. GEER, CHARLES DE, commander of Vasa Vargas, and other great Ministers, who assisted and knight of the Polar Sear, member of the at the said Synod in considerable Posts, &c.” academies of Stockholm and Upsal, and a ce1697, 8vo. ; " Miscellaneous Tracts," in three lebrated naturalist, was descended from an anvolumes, 1702. 8vo., &c. relating to subjects in cient noble Dutch family, established in Swecivil and ecclesiastical history, particularly that den, in the time of Gustavus Adolpbus, an icdividual of which introduced into that country shewed their respect for his memory by a various improvements, particularly the method medal. De Geer had a strong attachment to of casting cannon, working brass, &c. and on natural history from his youth, and particularly that account was ennobled. Charles, the sub- entomology, and nature as well as good fortune ject of this article, was born in 1720, and in his enabled him to gratify this passion in the fullest fourth year accompanied his parents to Holland, manner. He caused the observations he made from which he returned to Sweden at the age to be inserted in the Transactions of learned of eighteen. He studied at Utrecht, and hav- societies; but as they daily increased, he reing conceived an early attachment to entomo- solved to publish them in separate volumes, the logy, in consequence of some silk-worms being first of which appeared in the year 1752, under presented to him, his fondness for the study of the title of “ Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire nature was confirmed by an acquaintance with des Insectes," with thirty-seven plates. NineMuschenbroek, which he kept up till 1761 by teen years after, the second volume appeared, an uninterrupted epistolary correspondence. and in 1779 the seventh and last. In this elaHis uncle, at his death, appointed him his exe- borate work the ingenious author has brought cutor; but being then too young, he was obliged forwards a great deal of new information in to discharge the duties of this office by the in- regard to insects; and many of the figures were tervention of others. In the mean time, he delineated by himself. On account of his excontinued his studies at Upsal, under Klingen- tensive knowledge of entomology, he was called stierna, Celsius, and Linnæus ; and, on account the Swedish Reaumur; and Bonnet acknowof the great progress he made, he was allowed ledges him to be an original observer. But to undertake the management of his property this work, consisting of seven large volumes four years sooner than he otherwise could have quarto, with a great many plates, was exceeddone. As he had a considerable share in the iron ingly dear; and it had also become scarce, for works of Dannemora, and it was exceedingly the greater part of the copies of the first vodifficult and expensive to keep them free of lume were destroyed by a fire. This defciency, water, he did a great service to these mines by however, was in some measure supplied by a the activity with which he promoted the im- German translation, the production of the ceprovements made in the machinery. About lebrated Goeze of Quedlingburg (see GOEZE), this period also he invented an apparatus for and by these means the work was made much drying corn by the heat of the smelting-houses, better known. The translator enriched it with which had been before lost, so that from twelve a variety of notes, and considerable additions, to fourteen thousand tons of corn were dried together with references to various other writers. annually in this manner at his works. The Professor Retzius, of Lund, has given a kind riches which he thus acquired he privately of extract from De Geer's work in Latin, for shared with the poor; he also built or repair the use of those who cannot procure the oried churches, and established various schools. ginal, and who are unacquainted with the Though the direction of so many objects re- French or the German. It is entitled “ Car. quired the greater part of his time and attention, L. B. de Geer Genera & Species Insectorum, he devoted his hours of recreation to the study e generosissimis Auctoris Scriptis extraxit, diof insectology, which, by means of his great gessit, Latinè quoad partem reddidit, & terpenetration and the helps he employed, such minologiam Insectorum Linneanam addidit, A. as works of every kind on the subject, magnify- J. Retzius," Lips. 1783, 8vo. De Geer wrote ing glasses, &c. he carried to a great degree of also, in the Swedish language, “ An Oration perfection. In the year 1961 he was appointed on the Procreation of Insects,” Stack. 17545 marshal of the court, and knight of the Polar together with various papers in the TransacStar; and in 1772 he was made commander of tions of the academies of Stockholm and Upthe order of Vasa, with the grand cross, and sal. Hirsching's Manual of eminent Persons the year after a baron. In the latter part of who died in the eighteenth Century.-). his life he was tormented with the gout, which, GEJER, MARTIN, a learned German luhaving attacked the vital parts, put an end to theran divine, was born at Leipsic, in the year his existence on the 8th of March, 1778. Two 1614, and received his education at the univerdays before his death he corrected a sheet of sity in his native city. He was created a doctor his work upon insects, which was then under of divinity, professor of Hebrew, minister of the press. The Royal Academy of Stockholm, St. Thomas's, and afterwards preacher, conwho made a present to his widow of the above fessor, and member of the ecclesiastical council. work, together with various natural productions, of the elector of Saxony. He died in 1681, when. about sixty-seven years of age. He was the submitted to the condemnation of Acacius. author of learned and useful « Commentaries," This obstinacy of the pope gave great uneasiin the Latin language, on the Psalms, Proverbs, ness to the catholic bishops of the East, who Ecclesiastes, and the Book of Daniel ; a treatise were sensible of the advantage which the euty“On the Mourning of the Hebrews,” in the chian party would derive from the continuance same language ; and many other works abound of the breach between them and Rome, and ing in erudition. They were collected together they applied to the embassador Faustus, who and printed in two volumes folio, at Amster- wrote to the pope, apprising him of the fatal dam, in 1695 and 1696. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. consequences which they apprehended to their Hist.-M.

cause, if he should persist in his resolution. GELASIUS I. pope, was an African by But Gelasius still continued inflexible, and rebirth, and admitted to the papal dignity in the turned an answer to Faustus, which not only year 492, on the death of Felix III, to whom cut off all hopes of accommodation, but prohe had been secretary. As soon as he had voked the eastern bishops to such a degree, that been installed, he wrote a letter to the emperor they separated themselves, in their turn, from Anastasius, to acquaint him with his promo- the communion of Rome, struck the name of tion, in which he recommended to his protec- Gelasius out of the dyptychs, and unanimously tion the catholic church and the faith of Chal- resolved neither to communicate with him, nor cedon. At the same time he neglected to no- with any person who should do so. Thus did tify his election to Euphemius, the patriarch of this pope, influenced by a spirit of pride, and a Constantinople, as was customary. The patri- determination to maintain, at all events, what arch, however, would not suffer that token of his predecessors had done, lose a favourable opdisrespect to prevent him from embracing the portunity of healing the great schism between opportunity which a new pontificate afforded the eastern and western churches, and conhim, of attempting to bring about measures tribute to increase the unchristian animosity for a reconciliation between the eastern and between them during the whole of his pontifiwestern churches. Accordingly, he wrote a cate. In the year 494 Gelasius wrote letters to letter to the pope, in very friendly and affec- the bishops of Dalmatia, and in the following tionate terms, entreating him to pity the dise year to those of Dardania, which are partly tracted state of the church, and to contribute, memorials, justificatory of his conduct in the as far as lay in his power, to re-unite those in business of Acacius, and partly manifestoes one communion who were united in the same against the Eutychians and Pelagians, whom he faith. He also conjured him not to imitate his exhorted them to oppose with vigour, and to predecessor, in insisting that the name of Aca- treat them as enemies to the church, and rebels cius should be erased from the sacred dyptychs, to St. Peter. In the year 494, according to since the people and clergy of Constantinople some writers, he held a council of seventy binever would submit to such an indignity on the shops at Rome, in which a decree drawn up by memory of that patriarch. To this letter, and him concerning canonical, ecclesiastical, and a second of the like import, the pope returned apochryphal Scriptures, was confirmed; but the an answer written in a most arrogant and im- genuineness of that decree is disputed or deperious style, in which he declared his fixed de nied by other writers. In the following year termination not to be reconciled to the church he held a council at Rome, consisting of fortyof Constantinople while the name of Acacius six bishops, of whose proceedings nothing has was kept in the dyptychs. In the following reached our times, excepting an account of their year, when Theodoric, the new king of Italy, having re-admitted to the communion of the sent a solemn embassy to Constantinople, at the church, and to his episcopal rank and see, Mihead of which were Faustus and Irenæus, both senus bishop of Cuma, who had been excomRomans of the first rank, Gelasius took the municated and deposed under the pontificate of opportunity of committing to their care a letter Felix III. for communicating with Acacius. addressed to all the bishops of the eastern em- Before, however, sentence of absolution was pire, in which he attempted to justify his con- pronounced in favour of Misenus, he was

ductinrefusing communion to those who per- obliged solemnly to declare that he condemned, sisted in honouring the memory of a person ex- anathematised, and for ever execrated, all who communicated by the holy see; and after de- had held communion with Acacius, or lived in scanting on its dignity and pre-eminence, repeat- communion with his successors and abettors; ed his resolution to persevere in treating them by which act the curse of the church was deas strangers to the fold of St. Peter, until they nounced against many who have since been ho

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