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noured and invoked by her as eminent and first- reader may find the most satisfactory proofs of rate saints. During the papacy of Gelasius the its genuineness. The treatise itself is inserted manichæan sect began to revive at Rome, in the eighth volume of the “ Biblioth. Patr." though in great privacy; on which occasion he and in the “ Antidotum adversus Hæreses,” issued a decree by which all persons who em- published at Basil in 1528, folio. Gelasius braced their sentiments were condemned to ba- also is thought to have been the author of the nishment, and their books ordered to be pub- « Codex Sacramentarius," which is a collection licly burnt. And as it was customary with of such forms of public prayers and adminithose who were tinctured with their opinions to stration of the sacraments as were in use in the receive only the bread at the celebration of the church of Rome in his time, digested in a new Eucharist, but to refuse the wine, he condemn- order, and including many additional forms of ed that practice in the strongest terms, order- his own. The MS. of this Codex lay hid uning that those who refused the communion in noticed for many ages, until, in the year 1562, both kinds should be excluded from both, “be- upon the dispersion of the Florentine library, it cause one and the same mystery cannot be di- fell into the hands of Paul Petau, by whose son vided without great sacrilege." It is curi- it was placed in the library of Christina queen ous to observe the dissonance on this subject of Sweden. By that princess it was entrusted between the avowed sentiment of the papal to Joseph Maria Thomasius, who printed it for church at this period, and what in succeeding the first time at Rome, in 1680, 4to. In ages was declared to be the catholic doctrine 1685 it was reprinted at Paris, under the inconcerning the Eucharist by the councils of spection of father John Mabillon, together with Constance and Trent. In the year 496 Gelasius some other ancient liturgies, and very learned died, after he had filled the pontifical chair four dissertations on the old Gallican liturgy, in years and between eight and nine months. one volume 4to. Cave's Hist. Lit. vol. I. His greatest praise, according to his catholic sub Sæc. Nest. Platina de Vit. Pont. Dupina eulogists, arose from the zeal which he display- Moreri. Bower.-M. ed in opposing heresies; his spirit in enforcing GELASIUS II., pope, was descended from canonical obedience and discipline ; and, above an illustrious family at Gaeta in Campania, of all, his boldness in endeavouring to maintain which city he was a native. His christian name the supremacy, and to enlarge the authority, of was John, and the surname by which he was the Roman see. He was the author of various commonly distinguished before his elevation to writings, still extant: among which are “ Six. the pontificate was taken from the place of his teen Letters," and several fragments of letters, birth. In early life he embraced the monastic directed to different public characters; a trea- state among the Benedictines at Monte Cassino, tise, “ De Anathematis Vinculo;" • A Dis- where he applied himself with great diligence course against the Senator Andromachus, and to his studies, and acquired a high character other Romans," who wished to restore the for learning, abilities, and virtue. Pope Urfeast called Lupercalia, which Gelasius had sup- ban II. hearing of his extraordinary endowpressed; “ A Treatise against the Pelagian He- ments, sent for him to Rome, and, having found resy;” and “ An Account of the Circumstances him admirably qualified for business, at first which took place on the Absolution of the made him his secretary, and in the year 1988 Prelate Misenus." The above-mentioned pieces preferred him to the dignity of cardinal deacona are all inserted in the fourth volume of the Not long after he was appointed chancellor of “ Collectio Conciliorum." But the most cele- the Roman church. Upon the death of pope brated of this pontiff's productions is “ A Trea- Paschal in 1118, John of Gaeta was, unanitise against Eutyches and Nestorius, concerning mously chosen his successor by the cardinals. the two Natures in Christ.” Several catholic and Roman clergy, when he took the name of writers, among others Baronius and Bellarmine, Gelasius II. The imperial party at Rome, have attempted to prove that this is not a ge- however, were greatly enraged when they heard nuine production of our Gelasius, but is to be of this choice, without the consent, and even attributed to Gelasius of Cyzicus. Their wish knowledge, of the emperorz and Cencius. Franto have it ascribed to any other author than a gipani, one of the most powerful of the Roman Roman pontiff arose, most probably, from its nobility, and then at the head of that party, as presenting us with the clearest evidence, that sembling a body of armed men, broke into the at the time when it was written the doc- church of the benedictine monastery, while the trine of transubstantiation was unknown in the cardinals. were performing the ceremony of church. In Cave and Dupin, however, the adoration; when, after falling upon and beating these defenceless men in a cruel and barbarous canonically elected ; and he also wrote to the manner, Frangipani ordered the new pope, who archbishop of Toledo, ordering him to cause an. was covered with blood, to be put into irons other archbishop of Braga to be elected in the and taken to his house, where he was thrown room of Bourdin; and to the Romans, exhortinto a dark dungeon. In the mean time the ing them to avoid him as 'an usurper and exopposite party, when they heard of the inhuman communicated person. After the emperor had treatment which the pope had met with, took continued about three months at Rome, during up arms, and surrounding in great numbers the which time he was crowned anew by Bourdin house of Frangipani, with the prefect of the as pope, having been crowned by him before city and others of the nobility at their head, only as papal legate, he returned to Tuscany. threatened to set fire to it, and to put him and Upon the emperor's retreat Gelasius returned his family to death, if the pope were not imme- privately to Rome, where he believed that his diately released. This threatening procured the party was sufficiently strong to enable him pontiff his liberty, who was immediately car- shortly to drive his rival from the throne. After ried in triumph to the Lateran, and there crowned lying concealed for some time, he was at length with the usual solemnity. But as the pope had encouraged by his friends to celebrate mass only received deacon's orders, while preparations publicly in the church of St. Praxedes. But were making forconferringon him the priesthood, the service was scarcely begun, when Frangi. and for his consecration, the emperor Henry V., pani, at the head of a body of troops, forced by a rapid march from Lombardy, arrived with his way into the church, intending to seize on an army unexpectedly at Rome, with the de- Gelasius, and to send him a prisoner to the emsign, as was supposed, of seizing the person of peror. The pope, however, was enabled to the new pontiff, and obliging him to confirm make his escape ; and, his friends flocking from the decree which he had forced his predecessor all quarters in his support, a .civil war comto sign concerning investitures. Gelasius was menced in Rome, in which numbers of lives no sooner apprised of his arrival, than he escap- were lost on both sides. But as the imperial ed with several cardinals from Rome, and, after party at length prevailed in the city, Gelasius, evading the pursuit of the imperial troops, was despairing of being ever able to expel his rival, enabled to reach Gaeta, where he was received resolved to quit not only Rome, but Italy, and with loud acclamations, and had embassadors to retire to France. Accordingly, he embarksent to him by the Norman princes, who de- ed at Ostia with six cardinals, and, after landclared themselves ready to support him to the ing at Pisa and Genoa, arrived at St. Gilles utmost of their power. When the emperor in Provence, in the month of November, 118. found that the pope was got out of his reach, Here he was received with all possible marks of he sent embassadors to him, inviting him to re- respect and esteem, and supplied by the clergy turn to Rome, and offering to confirm his elec- and nobility with large sums of money, in order tion upon the condition of his renouncing all to support him in his rank and dignity. And right to investitures; but at the same time in. no sooner did Lewis, surnamed the Gross, at forming him, that, if he did not comply with that time king of France, hear of his arrival in that condition, another person should be chosen his dominions, than he sent him rich presents, pope in his room. Gelasius returned for an- with assurances of his protection, and his sinswer, that he was unalterably determined never cere desire of seeing him firmly established to part with any of the undoubted rights of his upon the pontifical throne. After this the pope see; and that his election, being perfectly ca- visited several cities, in the exercise of his ponnonical, required no confirmation ; immediate- tifical functions, and appointed a council to ly after which he was ordained priest, and re- meet at Rheims, in the following year, to conceived consecration at Gaeta. The emperor, sult about the correction of the state of ecclesihighly provoked at the answer of Gelasius, or astical discipline in the Gallican churches. But dered a new election to take place; when, upon being in the mean time attacked by the pleurisy, his recommendation, Maurice Bourdin, arch. he caused himself to be carried to the monastery bishop of Braga, was chosen to the pontifical of Clugny, where he died in the month of Jachair, 'who took the name of Gregory VIII., nuary, 1119, when he had held the papal digand was acknowledged lawful pope by all the nity little more than one year. He bears the imperial party at Rome. No sooner was Ge- character of having been a pontiff of eminent lasius informed of what had taken place at worth, equally distinguished by his piety, and Rome, than he wrote to the Gallican bishops, the exemplary virtues of his life. There exhorting them to adhere to him, who had been are extant six « Letters of his in the tenth volume of the " Collectio Concil. ;" and " The cil of Nice were favourable to their principles, Life of Erasmus, Bishop of Gaeta," in Latin hedetermined to draw up a new history of that prose, and those of “ Anatolia" and “ Cæsa- council, with the design of confuting their rerius," in Latin verse. The pieces last nere presentations. He at first thought that it would tioned were published at Rome, with the Life be sufficient for his purpose to transcribe all the of Gelasius, by the abbot Constantine Cajetan, in acts of the council as detailed in his Ms: but, 1639. Cave's Hist. Lit. vol. II. sub Sac. Wald. finding it imperfect, he says that he was forced Platina de Vit. Pont. Moreri. Bower.--M. to add to them several things related by other

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GELASIUS, bishop of Cæsarea, in Pales- authors, particularly by Eusebius bishop of tine, was the nephew of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Caesarea, and Ruflinus. The work which he and consecrated successor to Euzoius in the see produced is divided into three books; of which of Cæsarea, in the year 380. Theodoret speaks the two first contain the History of the Counin high terms of his character, and praises a cil, and the third only three Letters of the emhomily of his on the Epiphany, of which he peror Constantine. This history, however, is has preserved a fragment in his third dialogue nothing more than a collection of treatises, and concerning Heresies. St. Jerome also classes pieces taken out of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozohim among the ecclesiastical writers of his age, men, and Theodoret. What is not borrowed and commends him for the correctness and po- from these authors, is either dubious, or malish of his style, but says, that he would not nifestly false. Dupin says, that " There is publish his works. According to father Labbé, neither order in his narrative, nor correctness in some fragments of the writings of this bishop, his observations, nor elegance in his expresexplanatory of the Apostles' Creed, and of the sions, nor judgment in his choice of matter, nor traditions of the church, are to be found in the good sense in his determinations : so that he Greek collection of testimonies, under the name must be pronounced a bad compiler, who has of John Damascenus, in the “ Codex Claro- collected without any discrimination whatever mont.” Photius assures us, that he had read a he found relating to the council of Nice, whetranslation into Greek by this author, of the two ther good or bad; not examining whether it books in continuation of Eusebius, written by were true or false." This history was publishRuflinus. Fabricius, however, maintains, that ed at Paris, by Robert Balfour, a Scotchman, the work which Photius read was no other than in Greek and Latin, with notes, in 1559, octathe History of the Council of Nice, which will vo; and it is inserted in the second volume of be noticed in the next article ; and he asks, the “ Collectio Concilior." Fabricii Bibl. Græc, how the hypothesis that this bishop of Cæsarea vol. VIII. lib. v. cap. 24. Cave's Hist. Eit. should have been the translator of Ruffinus's vol. I. sub Sæc. Nest. Dupin. Moreri.-M. History is to be reconciled with chronology? GELDENHAUR, GERARD, a divine and since the latter was not given to the public till historian, was born at Nimeguen in 1482. He the year 400, and Gelasius was dead in the received his education first at Deventer, and year 394. Fabricii Bibl. Græc. vol. VIII. lib. then at Louvain, where he contracted an intiv. cap. 24. Cave's Hist. Lit. vol. I. sub Sæc. macy with Erasmus. Being recommended to Arian. Dupin.-M.

the court of Charles V. then archduke, he was GELASIUS, surnamed CYZICENUS from for some time reader and historian to that the place of his birth, was the son of a presby- prince; but his inclination for a more settled ter of the church at Cyzicum, and flourished life caused him to accept of the post of Latin about the year 476. By some writers he is said secretary and private reader to Philip bishop of to have been bishop of Cæsarea, in Palestine; Utrecht, which he held till the death of that but others, and those particularly who appear prelate. In 1526 he was sent by Maximilian of to have examined with the greatest care the cir- Burgundy to Wittemberg, in order to examine cumstances related concerning him, make no the schools and the state of religion in that mention of his having been raised to the episco- country. He was so much impressed with pal dignity. When young, he found in his fa- what he there saw, that he openly joined the ther's possession a manuscript containing an ac- lutheran party, and went to Worms, where count of the proceedings of the council of Nice, he married, and undertook the education of which had formerly belonged to Dalmatius bie youth. His friend Erasmus was so displeased shop of Cyzicum. As the Catholics were at with his change of religion, that he wrote that time persecuted by the Eutychians, under against him, under the name of Vulturius, and the countenance of the emperor Basiliscus, and complains much of his conduct towards himas that seçt boasted that the decrees of the coun. self. Geldenhaur removed to Augsburg, and

VOL. IV.

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then to Marpurg, where he was first professor of some plays, and “ The Swedish Countess,” the history, and afterwards of thcology. He died of first original German romance worth notice. the plague in that place, in 1542. He publish- So early as 1746 his hypochondriacal affections ed Latin poems, orations, and epistles, and also had increased in an alarming degree; but this several historical works, of which the principal misfortune did not prevent him from improving are, “ Historia Batavica ;” “Historiæ suæ Æta- his plays in 1747, and publishing in 1748 the tis Lib. VII ;" “ Germanicarum Histor. Illus- second part of his Fables. On account of the tratio ;" “ Descriptio Insulæ Batavorum ;" "De infirm state of his health, he solicited for no Viris illustribus Inferioris Germaniæ ;” “Cata- public employment; but in 1751 he was obliged logus Episcoporum Traject.” He also wrote to accept the office of extraordinary professor of some pieces in controversial divinity. Freheri philosophy, with a salary which after the war Theatr. Moreri. Bayle.-A.

was considerably increased. In the year 1752 GELLERT, CHRISTIAN FURCHTEGOTT, his complaint degenerated into insuperable lowextraordinary professor of philosophy at Leipsic, ness of spirits and confirmed melancholy, which the favourite writer of the Germans, and one of filled his mind with the most gloomy ideas, and the most esteemed of their poets, was born in embittered all the joys of life. He, however, July, 1715, at Haynichen, near Freyberg, where still continued to display the same patience, rehis father was a clergyman. His poetical ge- signation, and love of mankind, as he had before nius made its first appearance at the age of thir. shewn, and which during the war from 1756 teen; but as it was observed and fostered by to 1763 excited the esteem and admiration of no friend, Gunther, Neukirch, and Hanke, were the enemy. After the war, his sufferings bethe models whom he imitated. At the school came still more poignant, till dangerous obof Meissen, where he was initiated in the sci- structions put an end to his existence on the ences, he formed a friendship with Gartner and 13th of December, 1769. By the agreeable and Rabener, which continued during their lives. simple style which Gellert employed in his In 1734 he studied theology at Leipsic; and writings, he contributed, in a great degree, to at the end of four years returned home and improve taste and morals throughout Germany, commenced preacher ; but being of a bashful and particularly among the higher and lower ortimid disposition, he made no figure as an ora- ders. He had become, in some measure, the tor. In the year 1739 he was tutor to a young instructor of the nation, and when he died, his gentleman near Dresden; and soon after, to his loss was deeply and sincerely lamented. Every sister's son, whom he accompanied to Leipsic person capable of handling a pen suddenly turnin 1741. About this period his taste began to ed writer in his praise. His likeness was cast be formed, and in this respect he derived great in gypsum, and moulded in wax; it was enbenefit from his intimacy with Ebert, Schlegel, graved on copper, and represented in sculpture and Gartner. As the natural weakness of his and painting. “A century will perhaps elapse," constitution, sickly and hypochondriac from in- says Kutner in his characters of the German fancy, forbade him to aim at extensive learn- writers, “ before we have another poet capable ing, he endeavoured to acquire only as much as of exciting the love and admiration of his conmight render him useful. His first attempts in temporaries in so eminent a degree as Gellert; poetry, called “ Belustigungen des Verstandes and of exercising so powerful an influence on und Witzes"-Amusements of Reason and the taste and way of thinking of all ranks. Wit, begun in 1742, procured him a great Though not a genius of the first class, he was deal of respect, on account of his easy and an agreeable and fertile writer; the poet of reagreeable manner of writing, as well as of the ligion and virtue; an able reformer of public goodness of heart every-where displayed in these morals, who preferred reproof to punishment, productions. The bad state of his health, and and seemed more inclined to administer consothe låbour which his sermons cost him, induced lation, than to plunge into despair. In his fahimn to lay aside his ecclesiastical views, and to bles and spiritual songs he has displayed the devote himself entirely to the academical in- whole force of his genius. In the former, he struction of youth. In this situation, he en- successfully imitates La Fontaine, and shews the deavoured not only to enrich the minds of his same delicate vein of humour, the same livelipupils with useful knowledge, but to form their ness and ease united to the keenest satire. In taste, improve their hearts, and inspire them his Tales, properly so called, he seems fond of with sentiments of religion and virtue. In 1744 the serious, didactic style, and sometimes of he took the degree of master of arts; and next the tragic. His ridicule always appears in the year published the first volume of his Fables, garb of innocence, while the irony is concealed under the finest veil; his verses are exceedingly German editions : “ Leben der Schwedischen soft and harmonious, and it may be easily seen Gräfinn"--Life of the Swedish Countess, Leipthat many of them are the fruit of long study sic, 1745, 8vo. ibid. 1758: “ Lustspiele Comeand meditation. His prose is not destitute of dies," ibid. 1747, 8vo. : “ Trostgründe Wider ein elegance; but it is inferior in strength and fire sicches Leben,ibid. 1747, 8vo. : “ Tables and to his more juvenile productions, and in some Tales," ibid. 1748; there is a Hebrew transof his latter works the plaintive tone of infirm- lation of these fables by Abraham, a Jew : ity and age seems to prevail. The talent of “ Briefe nebst einer praktischen Abhandlung making excellent verses, of suiting the expres- von dem guten Geschmak in Briefen"-Letters, sion to the idea and at the same time presery- together with a practical Treatise on good Taste ing the measure and rhyme, Gellert possessed in Letter-writing, ibid. 1751, 8vo.:“Lehrgedicht more than any of the German poets ; and no- und Erzälungen"-Didactic Poems and Tales, thing perhaps has more contributed to produce ibid. 1754: “ Sammlung vermischter Schriftthat general interest excited by his fables. Ti- en"- Collection of Miscellaneous Pieces, ibiit. midity rendered him exceedingly modest. No 1757, 8vo. “ Geistliche Oden und Lieder" --Saliterary man was ever readier to allow the su- cred Odes and Hymns, ibid. 1757, 8vo. : “ Gelperior merit of others. He set the greatest va- lerts und Rabeners achtzehn Briefe"-Gellert's lue on talents which he himself did not possess; and Rabener's eighteen Letters, ibid. 1760: he preferred learning to genius. His sensual“ Von der Beschaffenheit dem Umfang und desires were naturally moderate. As he re- Nutzen der Moral”-On the Nature, Extent, and quired only a very small portion of the plea- Use of Morality, ibid. 1766, 8vo. : “ Moralische sures or indulgences which money can procure, Vorlesungen” -- Moral Essays, published after a small income was more than sufficient to sup. the author's death, by J. A. Schlegel and G. L. ply all his wants: his temper and sobriety en- Heyer, ibid. 1770, two volumes octavo : abled him to devote a considerable part of it to “Sammtliche Schriften”-Complete Collection acts of beneficence. As long as the Germans of his Works, ibid. 1766, ten volumes octavo : shall understand their present language, will this is a beautiful edition, but incomplete: a the works of Gellert be read; and his character new edition improved by some of his friends apwill be honoured while virtue is known and re- peared after his death at Leipsic, in eight vospected. Gellert's first attempt in the theatri- lumes, with engravings : “ Anhang zu seinem cal way was his comedy of “ The Mendicant Sämmtliche Schriften"-Appendix to his Works, Nun," which originated from one of the tales ibid. 1770. Hirsching's Manual of eminent Per. he was then composing. This piece gave him sons who died in the eighteenth Century.-J. afterwards great uneasiness, as he was afraid GELLI, GIAMBATISTA, an Italian poet and that his object in ridiculing hypocrisy might be man of letters, was born at Florence in 1498. misunderstood, and that some might thence He was of mean origin, and followed the trade take occasion to ridicule truc religion. On this of a shoemaker. He was not void, however, account, in each of the succeeding editions, he of the advantages of education, and he became omitted some of the strongest expressions. All distinguished for literature in his native place, his comedies abound with the most beautiful and was one of the chief ornaments of the acatraits and noblest thoughts; but they are defi- demy degli Umidi. His two prose comedies, eient in the true vis comica, continued interest in entitled “ La Sporta” and “ L'Errore,were the plan, and spirit and precision in the language. accounted the best compositions of the kind His characters are borrowed from the circle of then in the language. He translated into Itacity life, and are all truly German. In 1745 lian from the Greek, the Hecuba of Euripides. he wrote “ The Affectionate Sisters," a piece His other works are “ I Capprici del Bottaio," in three acts, which is remarkable for being the consisting of dialogues, which are said to be first affecting comedy in the German language. faulty in point of decency; other dialogues, The “ Prize in the Lottery,” of all Gellert's chiefly on physical topics, entitled “ La Circe;'! pieces, was the best received on the stage. The some remarks on the difficulty of reducing the & Sick Wife" is an after-piece, in one act, in Italian language to rule; dissertations upon which the poet converted one of his tales into the poems of Dante and Petrarch; other transa drama. Gellert's different works have gone lations, verses, &c. Gelii died in 1563. Mothrough a great many editions, and have been reri. Tiraboschi.-A. translated into almost all the languages of Eu. GELLIBRAND, HENRY, an industrious rope. As it would be tedious to enumerate English mathematician and astronomer in the them all, we shall mention here only the first seventeenth century, was born at London, in

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