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the year 1597. When he was eighteen years sure which he considered to be an unequivocal of age he was admitted a commoner of Trinity evidence of their Puritanism. But when their college, in the university of Oxford, where in cause came to a hearing, by shewing that what the year 1619 he took his degree of B.A. At they had done was no innovation, and pleading that time, Anthony Wood says, “ He was that they had no ill intention, they were acquit. esteemed to have no great matter in him ;' butted by archbishop Abbot, and the whole court, afterwards he conceived a strong inclination for Laud only excepted; which was made an article the mathematics, upon accidentally hearing one of accusation against the last-mentioned prelate: of sir Henry Saville's lectures in that science, at his own trial. This prosecution proved the and applied to it with considerable diligence and means of retarding the publication of Mr. success. Having taken orders, he settled for Briggs's work: but when Mr. "Gellibrand had some time as a curate at Chiddingstone, in escaped from the vengeance of Laud, h: again Kent; but his passion for mathematical studies applied to the completion of his friend's dedetermined him to quit that situation, and to sign, and having added to it a preface and the return to the university, where he might unin- application of the logarithms to plane and spheterruptedly pursue the bent of his mind, sup- rical trigonometry, &c. constituting the second ported by the moderate private patrimony which book of the work, the whole was printed at descended to him on the death of his father. Gouda in Holland, under the care of Adrian His sole attention was now devoted to the ma- Vlacq, in 1693. It was entitled, “ Trigono-thematics, in which he made such proficiency metria Britannica, sive de Doctrina Triangu. at the time of his taking his degree of M.A. in lorum, Libri duo, &c.” folio. Mr. Gelli1623, that he attracted the notice and friend- brand, however, though an industrious matheship of several able mathematicians who flourish. matician, had not sufficient comprehension of ed at that time, particularly of the celebrated mind to admit the evidence which Galileo had Henry Briggs, then Savillian professor of ge- lately produced in support of the Copernican ometry at Oxford. While he continued in the system. This appears from the account which pursuit of these studies, the professorship of he has given of a conversation which he had, astronomy in Gresham college, London, be- when he went over to Holland on the business coming vacant by the death of the ingenious of printing the Trigonometry, with Lansberg, Edmund Gunter, Mr. Briggs encouraged Mr. an eminent astronomer in Zealand, who insiste Gellibrand to become a candidate for that chair. ed on the truth of that system. " This, which Accordingly, he proceeded to London, with he was pleased to style a truth,” says our author, strong testimonials in his favour from the pre- “ I should readily receive as an hypothesis, and sident, vice-president, and fellows of his col- so be easily led on to the consideration of the lege, and other active friends, and was chosen imbecility of man's apprehension, as not able to fill that post by the electors, in the month of rightly to conceive of this admirable opifice of January, 1626. From that time he lived, as he God, or frame of the world, without falling had done before, in a close intimacy with Mr. foul of so great an absurdity. Yet sure I am, Briggs, who took great pleasure in communi. it is a probable inducement to shake a wayering, cating to him his mathematical opinions and understanding." From Mr. Gellibrand's situadiscoveries, and at the time of his death con- tion at Gresham college, and his intercourse fided to him the task of completing his British with the lovers of mathematical studies, he had Trigonometrv, which he did not live to finish, an opportunity of contributing some pieces, While Mr. Gellibrand was preparing that work mentioned below, to the improvement of navia for the press, he was cited, together with his gation, which science would probably have been servant William Beale, into the high-commis- farther benefited by him, had he not been imsion court, by Dr. Laud, then bishop of Lon- maturely carried off by a fever in 1636, when don, on account of an almanac for the year in the fortieth year of his age. That his may 1031, which Beale had published, with the ap- thematical knowledge was considerable, and probation of his master. In this almanac, the usefully applied, is sufficiently apparent from popish saints, usually put into the calendar, the treatises which he left behind him, and the were omitted, and the names of other saints estimation in which he was held by the most and martyrs, mentioned in Fox's Acts and Mo- respectable men of science among his contemponuments of the Church, were inserted, as they raries, both at Oxford and in London. But he. stood in Fox's calendar. This circumstance is entitled more to the praise of close and ungave great offence to the haughty prelate, and wearied industry, than of invention or genius. determined him to prosecute them for. a mea. Besides his part of the “ Trigonometria Britan
nica," he was the author of “ An Appendix con- from human sacrifices; which stipulation, cerning Longitude,” subjoined to captain Tho- though probably not long observed, suffices tomas James's Voyage for the Discovery of the prove the humanity of the victor. Gelon North-west Passage, 1633, quarto; “ A Diz- seems, indeed, to have been of a mild disposicourse mathematical on the Variation of the tion, and to have ruled with lenity after he had magnetic Needle ; together with the admirable by some acts of necessary rigour secured his Diminution lately discovered,” annexed to usurped authority. He had hitherto governed Wright's “ Errors in Navigation detected, &c.” Syracuse under the title of prætor alone; but 1635, quarto ; “A Preface to the Sciographia after this success, the people by acclamation of John Wells, of Brembridge, Esq.” 1635, 8vo.; hailed him their king, and passed a decree seta “ An Institution Trigonometrical, explaining tling the crown after his death upon his brothers the Doctrine of plane and spherical Triangles, Hiero and Thrasybulus. They were particuafter the most exact and compendious Way, by larly gratified with the confidence he manifestTables of Sines, Tangents, &c. with the Ap- ed in their affections by coming to the assembly plication thereof to Questions of Astronomy without arms and guards, and affecting to suband Navigation," 1634, octavo, and afterwards mit his conduct to their free decision; and they republished with enlargements by William Ley- caused a statue of him to be erected in the bourn, 1652, octavo; “ An Epitome of Na- simple garb of a citizen, which had the singular vigation, with the necessary Tables, &c. and fate of being spared, at the time when all the an Appendix concerning the Use of the Qua- other statues of Syracusan kings were condemndrant, Fore-staff, and Nocturnal,” octavo; ed to be melted down, at the recovery of liberty “Oratio in Laudem Gassendi Astronomiz, ha- under Timoleon. That he did not entirely rely bita in Aula Ædis Christi, Oxon."; and of se- upon the attachment of the Syracusans may, veral unpublished MSS. on the Doctrine of however, be inferred from the measure which Eclipses, Lunar Astronomy, Ship-building, &c. immediately followed his clevation to the Biog. Britan. Ward's Lives of Gresham Col- throne ; that of conferring the rights of citizenlege Professors. Martin's Biog. Philos. Hut- ship upon ten thousand foreigners who had ton's Math. Dict.-M.
served under him. We are informed that he GELON, king or tyrant of Syracuse, was employed the remainder of his short reign in descended from an ancient family settled in the laudable cares to promote the happiness and. city of Gela. He first distinguished himself in prosperity of his people, and that he died unia arms under Hippocrates tyrant of Gela, in versally regretted about B.C. 478. Herodot. whose service he defeated the Syracusans in a Diodor. Sicul. Univers. Hist.-A. battle on the banks of the Helorus, and obtain- GEMELLI CARRERI, FRANCIS, a writer ed possession of Camarina. At the death of of travels, was an advocate at Naples. He made, that prince he seized upon the sovereignty of a tour through Europe in 1683, of which he Gela, and soon after made himself master of published a relation in one volume. In 1693, Syracuse by means of some exiles. Fixing in he undertook a voyage round the world, which this city the seat of his power, he added to its he completed in 1698; and of this he publishinhabitants by the dispeopling of Camarina, ed an account in 1700, which was several times and extended its territories by conquests over re-edited, and was translated into French and che ncighbouring people. At the time when English, and admitted into various colkections Xerxes invaded Greece, the Carthaginians sent of voyages and travels. It is an entertaining a very formidable army into Sicily under Ha- pe:formance, but of dubious authority, abound milcar, with a view of recovering all the places ing with errors and-fabulous narrations. Hence they had formerly possessed in that island, and suspicions have arisen whether he really saw from some of which they appear to have been what he pretends to have seen, and did not expelled by Geion. While they were engaged merely compile from other writers; and some In the siege of Himera, they were attacked by have gone so far as to assert that he made the Gelon, and entircly defeated, with the destruc- tour of the world in his arin-chair. He is, howtion as well of their fleet, which had been ever, frequently quoted, and his book is consi-, drawn up on the beach, as of their land-army. dered as valuable for the objects of curiosity it' This event took place about B.C. 480. The points out, and the direction it gives for safe consequence was, that the Carthaginians sued and useful travelling. Tiraboschi.--A.. for peace, which Gelon granted them upon GOMINIANI, FRANCIS, an eminent musiterms highly honourable to himself. One of cian, was born at Lucca about 1680. He stum these was, that they should henceforth abstain died the theory of music under Alessandro Scars latti, and the practice of the violin under Lu- He returned in 1755 with these, and some old nati, surnamed 11 Gobbo, and finally under Co. pictures, the latter of which were his favourite relli. The reputation he obtained caused him topics of conversation. About 1756 he pubfor a time to be placed at the head of the or- lished a very singular composition, called “The chestra at Naples. In 1914 he came to Eng- Enchanted Forest,” in which he endeavoured land, where he excited great admiration by his to represent by mere sound all the events of the performances, and was patronised by many of fine episode in the thirteenth canto of Tasso's the nobility. His particular patron was baron Jerusalem. Its failure was no surprise to those Kilmanscgge, favourite of king George I., to who were aware of the defective power of muwhom he dedicated his first work in 1716, con- sic to narrate particular incidents. His other sisting of twelve solos for the violin. These works were two books of " Harpsichord were allowed to be more masterly and elabor- Pieces," and two books on the “ Art of Accomate than those of Corelli, and gave a high idea paniment," both mentioned as too difficult for of his musical talents. He afterwards formed practice. In 1761 he paid a visit to his friend twelve solos of Corelli, and six of his sonatas, and old pupil Dubourg, in Dublin, where he into concertos. In 1732 he published his six was master of the royal band. The loss of an first concertos, entitled “ Opera Seconda ;” and elaborate treatise on Music in that city, said to soon after, “ Opera Terza," a second set of be stolen from his chamber through the dishoconcertos; which works placed him at the head nesty of a female servant, is supposed to have of all living masters in that kind of composition. hastened his death, which took place in SepIt does not appear that he ever became very po- tember, 1762. Dr. Burney sums up his chapular in England, and he looked for his support racter of Geminiani as a musician by saying, rather to particular patrons, than to the public, that “he was a great master of harmony, and which kept him in a dependent state. He had very useful to our country in his day ; but also a great passion for buying pictures ; and as though he had more variety of modulation, and his knowledge of painting was not equal to his more skill in diversifying his parts, than Corelli, love of it, he incurred loss in disposing of them his melody was even inferior, and there is freagain. Necessity drove him to some unworthy quently an irregularity in his measures and artifices, and he was accused of passing off phraseology, and a confusion in the effect of the upon the ignorant, copies for originals ; yet he whole, which gives to each of his compositions was upon the whole so little successful in his the effect of a rhapsody, or extemporaneous traffic as a picture-dealer, that he was obliged flight, rather than a polished and regular proto procure himself to be enrolled as a servant of duction.” He allows, however, that his sixth the earl of Essex, in order to obtain protection concerto of the second set is the most perfect from arrests.
and pleasing composition of the kind within his . To resume the account of his musical public knowledge. Burney's Hist. of Music. Hawcations. His second set of solos, commonly kins's ditto.--A. . called his “ French Solos," appeared in 1739; GEMIST, GEORGE, also surnamed PLETHO, “ but," says Dr. Burney, “were more admired an eminent Greek philosopher and man of letthan played ;" his third set, in 1741, “was so ters, who flourished in the fifteenth century, laboured, difficult, and fantastical, as never to was born at Constantinople in the year 1390. be played, in either public place or private con- He appears to have resided principally in the cert.” In 1742 he printed a long-promised work, Peloponnesus, where he acquired a high chaentitled “ Guida Armonica, o Dizionario Ar- racter for learning, prudence, and exemplary monico, being a sure Guide to Harmony and manners. He was a zealous adyocate for PlaModulation, &c.” of which the musical critic tonism, as it was modelled in the Alexandrian above mentioned says, that “ it was a kind of schools, and maintained a violent controversy mill, in which good music was to be ground with the Aristotelians. He was also a strewith little trouble and no genius." He speaks nuous defender of the Greek church against also with little respect of Geminiani's next the Latins, and obtained so high a reputation work, a • Treatise on Good Taste, and Rules in his own communion, that the most learned for playing in Good Taste ;” but he mentions men in it were accustomed to cunsult him as as a very useful performance, his “ Art of Play- an oracle on the points in debate between them ing on the Violin," 1748. Soon after this pe- and their adversaries. When a deputation was riod, Geminiani went to Paris, where he staid sent from Greece to attend the council of some time, and had his concertos newly en Florence, in the year 1438, in order to discuss the graved by the neat artists of that metropolis. subject of an union between the Grrek and Latin churches, he was appointed a member of it, toge- sides the works already enumerated, Gemist ther with Bessarion, Gaza, and others, and was the author of a number of theological, hissustained the cause of the Greeks with an torical, rhetorical, and philosophical pieces yet acuteness of reasoning, a flow of cloquence, remaining in MS. for the subjects of which we and an unwearied zeal, that entitled him to the refer to Fabricii Bibl. Græc, vol. X. p. 744, 6c. gratitude of his countrymen, and extorted the Cave's Hist. Lit. "ol. II. sub Sec. Synod. Moadmiration and esteem of his Latin opponents. reri. Enfield's Hist. Phil. vol. 11.b. viii.-M. But his visit to Italy was memorable, not only GEMMA, REINIER, a learned Dutch phyon account of the celebrity which he acquired sician and mathematician in the sixteenth cenby his learned and able disputes in the Floren- tury, was born at Dockum in Friesland, in the tine council, but as it afforded the first occasion year 1508. He was educated to the medical for the revival of Platonism in that country. science, of which he became a professor in the Gemist lost no opportunity of expatiating on university of Louvain. But he was particuthe superior excellence of his favourite system, larly eminent for his proficiency in mathematics and defended it in public and private with great and astronomy, which he taught with distinspirit and success. He soon made many con- guished reputation, and the character of being verts from among the literary characters then one of the best astronomers of his time. The assembled at Florence, and had the honour of fame of his great scientific knowledge, and of ranking the illustrious Cosmo de Medici in the the excellent instruments which he made use list of his disciples. By his influence with that of in the illustration of it, occasioned his patron of science and literature, the foundation being frequently invited to the court of the of a platonic academy was laid at Florence; emperor Charles V.; but he always modestly and under his instructions was the first presi- declined the overtures made to him, preferring dent of that institution formed, as we have the tranquillity of his literary retreat to the already seen in the life of Marsilius Ficinus. honours which he might expect from princely After the termination of the council of Flo- favour. He died at Louvain in 1555, when rence, Gemist returned to Greece, where he only forty-seven years of age. He has somedied at the advanced age of one hundred years, times had the surname of FRISIUS given him, but at what place is not known. He was the from the country in which he was born. The author of numerous works written in the Greek most celebrated of his works were, “ Metholanguage, which afford ample evidence of his dus Arithmeticæ ;" “ De Usu Annuli astronoprofound and various erudition, and of his inti- mici;” “ De Locorum describendorum Ratione, mate knowledge of the Alexandrian philosophy. deque Distantiis eorum inveniendis ;" “ Libel
The principal of them are, “ De Gestis Græ- lus de Principiis Astronomiæ & Cosmographiæ corum post Pugnam ad Mantineam, duobus &c. ;' « Demonstrationes Geometricæ de Usu Libris digesta,” first printed in the original by Radii astronomici, &c.;” and “ De Astrolabio Aldus, together with Xenophon and Herodian, Catholico Liber." The author had a son, 1503, folio, and with a Latin version by Mark named CORNELIUS, who was born at Louvain in Ant. Antimachus, 1540 ; “ De Virtutibus 1535, and died in 1579. He was a poet, phiLibellus," first published in Greek and Latin Losopher, and physician, and taught the mathe1552, 8vo. and afterwards in various forms, matical sciences at Louvain with considerable and with the comments of different annotators ; reputation. He was the author of “ De Arte “ De Rebus Peloponnesiasis constituendis Ora- Cyclognomicæ, &c.;" “ De Naturæ divinis tiones duæ," printed by Plantin in Greek and Characterismis, seu Cosmocritico;" and “ De Latin, 1575, folio, with an Appendix, con- prodigiosa. Specie Naturaque Cometæ,” occataining a description of all the places in the sioned by the extraordinary new star in the Peloponnesus, their longitudes and latitudes, constellation Cassiopeia, in 1572, which distaken from Ptolemy, and corrected by the au- appeared after being visible for eighteen months; thor; “ De Platonicæ & Aristotelicæ Philoso- and other pieces. Moreri.-M. phiæ Differentia," printed at Paris in Greek in GENDRE, GILBERT-CHARLES LE, marquis 1541, 8vo. and with a Latin version at Basil, de St. Aubin, born in 1688, was a counsellor in 1574, 4to. ; and “ In Oracula magica Zoro- in the parliament of Paris, and afterwards a astris Commentarii,” first printed in Greek and master of requests. He died at Paris in 1746. Latin at Paris, in 1538, 8vo. in which the auHe is known by two esteemed works. These thor exhibits twelve fundamental articles of the are, “ Traité de l'Opinion, ou Mémoires pour platonic religion, and gives an elegant compen- servir à l'Histoire de l'Esprit Humain," six vols.. dium of the whole platonic philosophy. Be- izmo. 1733 ; since twice reprinted with aug
ed by the samra. Pof Paris. Gra: the Navarre, and yashati Hebrew languages
mientations : this consists of a great variety of his own life, each composed in a different style Historical examples to elucidate the power of and manner, which he directed to be made opinion in the sciences, accompanied with suit- public. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-A. . able reflections: 6 Antiquités de la Maison GENEBRARD, GILBERT, a French pre de France," 4to. 1739 : this is a work of late in the sixteenth century, and one of the deep and curious research concerning the origin most learned men of his time, was born at of the regal dynasties of France, but the new Riom in Auvergne, about the year 1537. system on the subject proposed by the author When young he entered into the benedictine has not been generally acquiesced in. Moreri. order at the abbey of Mausac, in the diocese Nouv. Dict. Hist.--A.
of Clermont, and went to prosecute his studies GENDRE, LOUIS LE, an historical writer at Paris, where he learned Greek under Turof reputation, was born of an obscure family nebius, philosophy under Carpentier, and the at Rouen in 1659. He received a literary edu- ology under Claude de Saintes. His application cation chiefly through the favour of M. de was incessant, and his progress in the different Harlai, then archbishop of Rouen, afterwards branches of learning and science proportionate, of Paris ; and being brought up to the church, particularly in the learned languages and thehe was presented by the same patron, in 1690, ology. In the year 1563 he was admitted to with a canonry in the cathedral of Paris. Gra- the degree of doctor of divinity by the college titude induced him on the death of De Harlai of Navarre, and was afterwards appointed to publish two eulogies upon him in French, regius-professor of the Hebrew language. and a life more in detail in Latin, the style of This post he filled for thirteen years with distinwhich was much approved. Though the strain guished reputation, and had, among other emiof these, as might be supposed, is highly nent disciples, the celebrated Francis de Sales, panegyrical, he is commended for not having who was accustomed to glory in having enjoyed entirely concealed the faults of his hero. He the instructions of so great a master. He was next essayed his talent at historical panegyric also preferred to the priory of St. Denys de la in “ Essays on the Reign of Louis le Grand," Chartre, at Paris, and io the priory of Semur 410. 1697, which he presented in person to the in Burgundy. In the year 1576 Peter Danes, monarch, and which were so well received by bishop of Lavaur, resigned his see into the the public as to pass through four editions in king's hands, having been led to entertain the eighteen months. They have since, however, expectation that Genebrard would be nominated sunk into the oblivion justly attached to tempo- his successor; but the latter was disappointed rary adulation. He then aimed at the rank of in his hope of that dignity by the intrigues of a proper historian, and after the separate pub- the president De Pibrac, who procured the bulls lication of part of his designs, he gave to the of institution to be issued in favour of his own world his « History of France to the Death of brother. Genebrard was so incensed at losing Louis XIII.,” Par. 1718, three vols. fol. and this see through ministerial interference, that eight vols. 12mo. This is accounted one of the from this time he became hostile to the politics most exact abridgments of French history, and is of the court, and joined the party of the League, written with elegant simplicity. A treatise upon of which he became a zealous advocate. The "TheManners and Customs of the French at dif- numerous writings which he published against ferent Periods of the Monarchy," before publish- those who supported the measures of the court ed by him, is added to this work. He also com- and the reformed religion, were uncommonly posed a “ Life of the Cardinal d'Amboise, with bitter and furious. They were so congenial, à Parallel of the celebrated Cardinals who have however, with the spirit of the league, that the governed States," 1724, 4to. and two vols. duke de Mayenne, the head of that body, 12mo. This work underwent some criticism nominated the author to the archbishopric of from the Mém. de Trevoux, to which the au. Aix, and having procured the bulls of pope thor wrote a reply. His literary merits were Gregory XIV. he was consecrated and took rewarded by the abbacy of Notre-Dame de possession of that see in the year 1593. Here Claire-Fontaine in the diocese of Chartres. He he still continued his hostility to the court, and died at Paris in 1733, at the age of seventy-four. declaimed in his sermons against the king, even By his will he left bequests for various singular when the cause of his own party was become foundations, some of which, after exciting dis- hopeless. When the league was finally broken, putes relative to their fulfilment, were applied and the whole kingdom had submitted to by authority to the institution of prizes in the Henry IV. Genebrard retired to Avignon, university of Paris. He left five histcries of where he published a treatise “ De Sacrarum