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seric, though now at an advanced age, often the ignorance and vulgarity of the jurists of liis commanded in person. He extended his ho- time. He was the first who carried his restilities to all parts of the Mediterranean, and searches into the law of nature and of nations ; not content with plunder, frequently indulged and his three books “ De Jure Belli” are much in acts of atrocity. At one time he massacred praised by Grotius, who confesses his obligafive hundred noble citizens of Zacynthus, and tions to them in the larger work which he com. threw their bodies into the sea. The eastern posed on the same subject. His political docemperor Leo at length resolved to free his do- trines were well suited to the reigns of Elizaminions from this terrible scourge, and, joined beth and James, as appears from liis disputation, by Anthemius emperor of the West, made vast“ DeVi Civium in Regem semper injusta," and preparations for an invasion of Africa. The other pieces. He also wrote three books “ De conduct of this expedition was committed to Legationibus," and several tracts relative to an. Basiliscus, who landed his troops at cape Bona. tiquities. His defence of the Latinity of the But, amused with deceitful proposals from Gen- vulgar translation of the Bible, and of the auseric, he suffered the Vandal fleet to fall upon thority of the first Book of Maccabees, proved his unawares, and in the conflict above lialf his that he was not entirely come over to the opisea and land forces was destroyed. Basiliscus nions of the Protestants. He also cultivated returned ingloriously to Constantinople with the polite literature, of which he gave an essay in Temainder, and the fruits of all this mighty ef. his "Lectiones Virgilianz.” Bayle. Tirafort were lost. Genseric put to sea, recovered boschi.-A. Sardinia which had been taken from him, re- GENTILI, SCIPIO, brother of the preceding, duced Sicily and all the islands between Italy born in 1563, was clandestinely conveyed from and Africa, and became a greater terror to the Italy by his father, while a child, and sent to empire than ever. In 476, however, he made study at Tubingen. He there greatly distina peace with Odoacer king of Italy, to whom he guished himself in Latin poetry, and also purrestored Sicily, but on the condition of receiv- sued the study of Greek and of jurisprudence, ing tribute. He also came to an agreement which he afterwards cultivated with increasing with the emperor Zeno, who relinquished to success at the universities of Wittemberg and him and his successors all claim to the African Leyden. He received the degree of doctor at provinces. This ferocious conqueror died in Basil in 1989, and then went to Heidelberg as peace, full of years and the glory of success, in a public expounder of law. After a short abode 477. Univers. Hist. Gibbon.-A.

in that city, he removed to Altdorf, where he GENTILI, ALBERICO, an eminent jurist, was was first colleague to Donellus, in the professorborn in 1550, at Castel S. Genesio in the marche ship, and afterwards principal professor of law. of Ancona, where his father Matteo practised He was made a counsellor to the city of Nuas a physician. He graduated in law at the remberg; and such was his reputation that he university of Perugia, and was prætor or judge was invited to several universities, and even is at Ascoli, when his father, becoming a convert said to have received liberal offers from pope to the reformed religion, resolved to leave Italy, Clement VIII, to settle at Bologna, all which and take with him his eldest son Alberico, and he declined. He died at Altdorf in 1616. his youngest, Scipio. Alberico went to England, Scipio Gentili was accounted not inferior to his and in 1582 obtained the chair of jurisprudence brother Alberico in extent of erudition and in the university of Oxford, which he held with acuteness of argumentation, and he much surmuch reputation till his death in 1608. He passed him in elegant literature. He taught was a man of vast and comprehensive erudi- with great clearness, and relieved the dryness tion, and published various works, most of them of legal topics by a mixture of belles-lettres. in his own profession. From his “Six Dia. He wrote several works, of which the principal logues on the Interpreters of Law,” dedicated to are: “ De Jure publico Populi Romani ;” “ De his patron the earl of Leicester, it might be Conjurationibus ;" “ De Donationibus inter supposed that he was the idolater of the jurists Virum & Uxorem ; " “ De Bonis maternis & of the preceding ages, and their barbarism, secundis Nuptiis ;" * In Apulei Apologiam which he defends against the politer and more Comment. ;" * De Jurisdictione ;" “ De Erliberal method of Alciatus, but in a style and roribus Testamentorum ; " " Comment, in Pauli manner obviously imitating that of Alciatus Epist. ad Philemonem." He also wrote several himself, so that some have supposed that the elegant Latin poems, among which were Paradialogues were meant as an ironical satire upon phrases of various Psalms, and a Translation of VOL. IV.

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the two first cantos of Tasso's Jerusalem. All mit it to have any weight on behalf of a supposed his works were lately reprinted at Naples in erring brother. From his prison he addressed eight tomes 4to. Bayle. Tiraboschi.-A. several writings to the magistrates, endeavour

GENTILIS, JOHN-VALENTINE, a martyr ing to shew the inoffensiveness of his opinions, to protestant persecution in the sixteenth cen- and at length, to pacify Calvin, declared his tury, was born at Cosenza in Calabria. Hav- readiness to abjure whatever should be proing become a convert to the principles of the nounced erroneous. Upon this he was senReformation, he was obliged to fly from his tenced to make the amende honorable, to throw native country towards the middle of the six- his writings into the fire, and to take an oath teenth century, and to take refuge at Geneva, not to go out of Geneva without the leave of where several Italian families had already form- the magistrates. Being now at liberty, and ed a congregation. In the course of his, en- fearful of the effects of the jealous and vindictquiries he became dissatisfied with the orthodox ive spirit which prevailed in Geneva against doctrine of the Trinity, and together with the persons who had afforded any ground of sucelebrated George Blandrata, John Paul Alciati, spicion concerning their orthodoxy, he satisfied a Milanese, and an advocate named Matthew himself that he was justifiable in breaking an Grimbaldi, formed a private society, in which oath which had been extorted from him by terthe sense of the passages of Scripture produced ror, and withdrew into the country of Gex, in support of that doctrine was discussed, both where he joined his friend Matthew Grimbaldi. in conversation and writing. The result of Afterwards he went to Lyons, and then wan. their discussions was a conviction, that the dered from place to place in Dauphiné and terms co-essential, co-equal, and co-existent, Savoy; but finding that he was safe no-where, were improperly applied to the Son and Spirit, returned again to Gex. As soon as he was and that they were subordinate in nature and known there, he was sent to prison; but was dignity to the Father. But however privately liberated within a few days, when, upon the their meetings were held, such information was bailiff's demanding from him a confession of conveyed to the Italian consistory as led them faith, that he might cause it to be examined by to suspect that the associates had departed from some ministers, and sent to Bern, Gentilis the orthodox creed ; upon which, in conformity printed the same, with a dedication to the to the inquisitorial system which Calvin had bailiff. This step the latter resented, as it was established against heresy, they drew up articles taken without his permission, and occasioned of faith, subscription to which was demanded his being suspected at Bern of favouring the from all the members of their communion. principles in the Confession; on which account, These articles consisted of Calvin's confession he afterwards became the instrument of subof faith, which had been lately approved of by jecting Gentilis to the iniquitous proceedings to the ministers, syndics, councils, and general which he fell a sacrifice. From Gex, Gentilis assembly of the people; to which a promise was went again to Lyons, where he was imprisoned annexed, never to do any thing directly or in- for his opinions ; but he was not long before he directly, that should controvert the doctrine of obtained his liberty, having had the address to the Trinity as therein defined. Gentilis is said shew, if we are to credit the accounts which at first to have refused signing these articles ; are given of him, that he had only opposed but afterwards he was prevailed upon to com- Calvin, and not the doctrine of the Trinity. ply, influenced, not improbably, by his recol- Afterwards he went to Poland, where he joined lection of the late tragical fate of Servetus, and Blandrata and Alciati, who were very successnot finding himself sufficiently courageous to ful in propagating their opinions, until in the hazard the like barbarous treatment. In pri- year 1566 the king of Poland, at the instigation vate, however, he still avowed and maintained of the Calvinists as well as Catholics, published his change of sentiment; which coming to the an edict, by which all strangers who taught ears of the magistrates, they committed him to doctrines inconsistent with the orthodox notion prison. The charge preferred against him was, concerning the Trinity, were ordered to quit that he had violated his subscription : and the kingdom. From Poland, Gentilis withdrew when he endeayoured to excuse himself by into Moravia, whence he went to Vienna, and urging that he had only obeyed the sug- then resolved to return to Savoy, where he gestions of his conscience, those very men who hoped still to find his friend Grimbaldi, and had no other plea to offer in defence of their flattered himself that he might be suffered to sevolt from the yoke of Rome, would not pere remain unmolested, as Calvin, his most dreaded

and implacable adversary, was no more. It was religion, he was driven into exile. In the year either after his return to Savoy, or on his jour. 1578 he published “ An Apology" for the ney thither, that he went to Gex, where his Protestants, which passed through several edizeal for the propagation of his principles led tions, and appeared ten years afterwards in an him to apply to the bailiff to permit a public enlarged form, in French, and also in Latin, disputation to be held, in which he offered to under the title of “ Apologia pro Christianis defend his notions against any persons who Gallis Religionis Evangelicæ seu Reformatæ, might be deputed by the ministers and consis. qua docetur hujus Religionis Fundamenta in tories in the neighbourhood. The bailiff, who Sacra Scriptura jacta esse, &c.” 8vo. In 1586 was the same person whom Gentilis had of- he published a work entitled “Le Bureau du fended by dedicating his Confession to him, no Concile de Trente, &c." and in the same year sooner found that the obnoxious person was a Latin edition of the same, entitled “ Examen within his reach, than he ordered him to be Concilii Tridentini, &c." of which there afterseized and imprisoned. He then delivered him wards appeared several impressions at different to the magistrates of Bern, to which canton places. The design of it is to shew, that many the country of Gex at that time belonged ; by of the decrees of that council were contrary to whom Gentilis underwent a tedious trial, and the ancient councils and canons, and violations being convicted of obstinately oppugning the of the regal authority. He was also the author mystery of the Trinity, was sentenced to lose of the “ Antimachiavel, or Discourses on the his head. To the indelible disgrace of those Means of well governing a Kingdom," 1547, magistrates, and the clergy who prompted them, 12mo.; and the “ Anti-Socinus," 1612, 4to. this sentence was carried into execution; when Bayle. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M. Gentilis triumphed over his enemies by the GEOFFREY OF MONMOUTH, a writer of fortitude with which he met it, rejoicing that early British history, flourished under king he suffered for asserting and vindicating the Stephen, about the year 1150, and was first supremacy and glory of the Father. His hy- archdeacon of Monmouth, and then bishop of pothesis concerning the person of Christ was St. Asaph. On account of some tumults in that of the arian school. His history affords a Wales, he quitted his diocese, and retired to striking evidence that the first reformers, when king Henry II., who gave him the abbacy of they renounced the communion of Rome, enAbingdon in commendam. Upon an applicatertained but imperfect and contracted notions tion from the clergy of St. Asaph to return to of christian freedom and toleration ; and it ex- his see, he refused it, thinking to keep his abhibits persecution for religious opinions in a bacy; but this was bestowed upon another peculiarly odious light, because practised by person, so that he was left without a title. He men who professed a more strict adherence wrote various works, of which the most noted t'an others to the genuine spirit of the Gospel, was his “ Chronicon sive Historia Britonum," and yet glaringly violated its most distinguish- supposed to be translated from an ancient history ing and fundamental obligations. Bayle. Mo- in the Welsh language, brought from Britany. reri.-M. ::

It contains a pretended genealogy of the kings GENTILLET, VALENTINE,a learned French of Britain from the time of the fabled Brutus writer in defence of the protestant cause, was a the Trojan, and enumerates above seventy ilnative of Vienne in Dauphiné, who flourished lustrious monarchs before the invasion of Julius in the sixteenth century; but we are not in- Cæsar. The marvellous relations concerning formed when he was born, or died. He was a prince Arthur (see his article) are chiefly taken civilian by profession, and according to some from this author. Notwithstanding the maniwriters was at first an advocate in the parliament festly fabulous nature of Geoffrey's work, naof Toulouse, and afterwards syndic of the re- tionality, and the love of wonder, have given it public of Geneva. From the preface to one of popularity, so that it has passed through several his works it appears, that he had been at one impressions, and has been epitomised by Pontime president of the parliament of Grenoble. ticus Virunnius, an Italian. . It is the opinion He distinguished himself by his writings, which of judicious critics that a foundation of truth in rendered him a favourite author with the Pro- it is buried under a superstructure of monkish testants, for the zeal which they displayed forgeries. Bayle. Piis. Morori. Vicholson's against popery, and the learning and abilities Hist. Libri--A. with which they maintained the principles of . GEOFFROY, STEPHEX-FRANCIS, a phythe Reformation. By the edicts that were pub- sician eminent for chemical and botanical knowlished in France against those of the reformed ledge, was born in 1672 at Piris, where his

father kept an apothecary's shop, and had pass- a place in the Royal Academy of Sciences from. ed through the principal offices of magistracy: 1699, and was assiduous in his attendance upon His education was conducted upon a very lie their meetings. His health at length gaye way beral plan, and while he was engaged in the under his toils, and he died in January, 1731, study of physic, conferences were held at his As a chemist, Geoffroy is known by the table father's house attended by Cassini, du Verney, of affinities which in 1718 he gave to the pubHomberg, and other men of professional emiliç, and which was the first of the kind. The nence. At the age of twenty he was sent to utility of such concise views of the mutual rean eminent apothecary at Montpellier, and there lations of different substances was so apparent, attended upon the lectures of the celebrated that many of the ablest chemists have employed professors of that school of medicine. He then themselves in drawing them up in an enlarged travelled into the southern provinces of France, form. His principal work in medicine was a and viewed every object worthy of curiosity. “ History of the Materia Medica," published In 1698 he accompanied the count de Tallard after his death in three volumes 8vo. 1741, in his embassy to England, where he became in Latin, and since translated into French, known to the principal men of science, and English, and German. Though an unfinished obtained admission into the Royal Society. work, it was the most complete, as far as it Thence he passed into Holland ; and in 1700 went, that had hitherto appeared. The first he attended the abbé de Louvois in a tour in volume contains all the mineral part; the sea Italy. Upon his return he quitted his original cond, the exotic vegetables; the third, the indestination, which was that of pharmacy, and digenous. He also wrote several papers, cheentered upon the higher order of the profes- mical and botanical, in the Memoirs of the sion, for which his education had so well qua- Academy of Sciences. Eloge par Fontenelle, lified him. He was created bachelor of physic Halleri Bibl. Botan.--A. . in 1702, and doctor in 1704. The subjects of GEORGE, surnamed THE CAPPADOCIAN, his theses were all curious: one of them “ An either from his parents or his education, was Hominis Primordia Vermis ?" was thought so made bishop of Alexandria when Athanasius interesting by some ladies of high rank, that it was driven from that see by the persecutions of was necessary to translate it into French. In the emperor Constantius. He was born at this, he asserts the sexes of plants, and supposes Epiphania in Cilicia, where his father pursued the stamina to be the male organs.

the employment of a fuller. From this obscure Geoffroy was in no haste to commence prace and servile situation George raised himself by tice. He continued his studies in retirement meanly practising the talents of a parasite, and for some years, and seems never to have pushed obtaining through the influence of the persons himself forwards, though his merit caused him whom he flattered, a lucrative commission to to be consulted by his brethren in important supply the army with bacon. This appointment cases. His extreme anxiety for his patients afforded him the opportunity of accumulating gave him a melancholy and anxious air which wealth by the basest arts of fraud and corrupa at first alarmed them, till they were able to tion, until his malversations became so notorious make due allowances for temper. In 1709 the that he was compelled to fly from the pursuits. king nominated him to the post of professor of of justice. After this disgrace, in which he physic in the College-royal, vacant by the appears to have saved his fortune at the expence death of the celebrated Tournefort. He began of his honour, he withdrew to Alexandria, his functions by a course of Materia Medica, where he professed great zeal for the principles for which he had long been collecting materials. of Arius, and acquired considerable influence M. Fagon, in 1712, resigned to him his office with his disciples in that city. He likewise, of professor of chemistry in the royal garden, either from the love or ostentation of learning, which he had some time already filled as his collected a large and valuable library of history, substitute. After this appointment, he joined thetoric, philosophy, and theology, which the lectures on the Materia Medica to those of che- emperor Julian afterwards made the foundation mistry, so that both together occupied him four, of the noble library established by him in the and sometimes five, hours in continuance; but temple erected in honour of the emperor Trajan his zeal and industry were equal to the fatigue. at Antioch, but which, to the great loss of the The faculty of Paris chose him twice to the republic of letters, was malignantly permitted to office of dean, which was at that time particu- be burnt by the emperor Jovian. When about larly laborious on account of their disputes with the year 356 Athanasius was obliged to abscond the company of surgeons. He also occupied from the fury of the savage military, who had

the inhabithers intoleir priest na .

received directions from the emperor Constan- circumstance of time and place, assumed the tius to expel him from his see, George was mask of a martyr, a saint, a christian hero; elected bishop by the prevailing party. His and the infamous George of Cappadocia has conduct in this station was in the highest de- been transformed into the renowned St. George gree oppressive, cruel, and infamous. The of England, the patron of arms, of chivalry, Catholics he persecuted with unrelenting rage, and of the Garter." Fabricii Bibl. Græc. vol. X. plundering their houses, burning their mona- p. 599, &C. Moreri. Gibbon's Decline and Fall steries, putting great numbers of their priests to of the Roman Empire, vol. II.-M. the sword, and sending others into exile. Nor GEORGE, called also AMIRA, a learned did the rest of the inhabitants of his extensive Maronite, who flourished towards the latter diocese escape the effects of his tyranny and end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the avarice. The merchants of Alexandria were seventeenth century, came to Rome under the impoverished by an unjust, and almost universal pontificate of Clement VIII. He there pubmonopoly,which he acquired of nitre, salt, paper, lished “A Syriac and Chaldee Grammar," &c. ; and he incensed the inhabitants in gene 1596, 4to. which is much esteemed in the ral, by suggesting an invidious tax upon all the learned world. On his return to his native houses of that city. The Pagans, likewise, who country he was elected patriarch of the Marone had been flattered with the hopes of freedom ites, among whom he introduced the use of the and toleration, excited his rapacity; and the gregorian calendar, and died about the year rich temples of Alexandria were either pillaged 1641. Moreri.-M. or insulted by him, who exclaimed, in a haughty GEORGE-LEWIS I. king of Great Britain and threatening tone, “ How long will these and elector of Hanover, was the son of the sepulchres be permitted to stand ?" The re- elector Ernest-Augustus, by Sophia, daughter of sentment of the people at length rose to fury, Frederic elector-palatine, and grand-daughter and he was for a time expelled from the city; of James I. king of England. He was born in nor was it without a violent struggle that the 1660, and was early trained to arms under his civil and military powers were able to restore father. After the peace of Nimeguen he visited his authority. When, however, in the year the English court, upon some overtures of mar362, information arrived at Alexandria of the riage between him and the princess Anne, afteraccession of Julian to the empire, the public wards queen. His father, however, united him rage against the bishop again broke forth, and in 1682 to his cousin Sophia-Dorothea, only after he had been seized, together with two of daughter of the duke of Zell; a match attended the ministers of his atrocities, they were igno- with little domestic happiness. He then enminiously dragged in chains to the public prison. gaged in the service of the emperor against the When they had been confined for some days, Turks, and signalised his valour in three camthe pagan populace, fearful lest they should paigns in Hungary. In the ensuing, war beescape their vengeance, forced open the prison, tween the empire and France, he commanded and with cruel insults massacred the vile the Lunenburg troops. In 1700, on his father's wretches, who would otherwise, most probably, death, he succeeded to the electorate. In the have fallen under the sword of public justice. next year he marched to the assistance of the After their lifeless bodies had been carried in duke of Holstein, attacked by the king of Dentriumph through the streets, according to some mark, and obliged the Danes to raise the siege accounts they were burnt, but according to of Tonningen. He joined the alliance against others thrown into the sea ; "and the popular France in the succession-war, and marching leaders of the tumult,” says Gibbon,“ declared into the country of Wolfenbuttle, forced the their resolution to disappoint the devotion of princes of that house to quit their alliance with the Christians, and to intercept the future ho- the French. The command of the army of the nours of these martyrs,who had been punished, empire was conferred upon him in 1907, after like their predecessors, by the enemies of their the battle of Blenheim ; but the usual backreligion. The fears of the Pagans were just, wardness of the princes and states prevented and their precautions ineffectual. The meri- him from being able to do more than act upon torious death of the archbishop obliterated the the defensive. He therefore resigned his commemory of his life. The rival of Athanasius mand at the end of three campaigns, but left was dear and sacred to the Arians, and the his own troops in the service of the allies. At seeming conversion of those sectaries introduced the peace of Rastadt, Lewis XIV. solemnly his worship into the bosom of the catholic recognised the electoral dignity in the house of church. The odious stranger, disguising every Lunenburg ; as he had before, at the peace of

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