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Jena, after which his collegiate studies were during Mr. Fordyce's absence on his continental chiefly employed on biblical and theological tour; and upon the melancholy death of that learning. In the year 1646 he was appointed gentleman, in 1752, was appointed his sucassistant professor of philosophy at Wittemberg; cessor. At that period it was the practice in the and in 1652 nominated professor of history at colleges at Aberdeen for the same professor to Tena. In the following year he was created carry forwards a class of students for three sucdoctor of divinity; and in 1655 he was made ceeding sessions, through all the different professor in that faculty, and preferred to the branches of philosophy that were then taught rectorship of the university of Jena. He died in in them; which were logic, ontology, pneu. the year 1668, when no more than forty-seven matics, morals, politics, and natural philosophy. years of age. He was the author of “ Harmo. Matheniatics and the Greek language were nia Linguarum Orientalium ;" “ Disputationum taught by separate professors. One class was theologicarum Fasciculus ;" “ Locorum Theo- carried by Mr. Gerard through the extensive logicorum Epitome;" “ De Sepultura Mosis course allotted to his department. About the Diss. ;" “ Consensus & Dissensus religionum year 1754, however, a very judicious alteration profanarum ;" “ De Ecclesiæ Copticæ Ortu, was made in the order of teaching philosophy Progressu, & Doctrina ;'' and other works of in the university of Aberdeen ; and in the Magreat erudition and merit. The subject of this rischal college each professor was restricted to article had a son, named JOHN ERNEST GE- one department of science. On this occasion RARD, who was brought up to the theological the principal and professors in that college enprofession, and became doctor and professor of gaged Mr. Gerard to draw up, for general indivinity at Giessen, where he died in 1707, formation, a view of the reasons which had dewhen he was about forty-five years of age. He termined them to deviate from the arrangement was the author of some learned productions, that had been before observed. This task he both in the Latin and German languages, of performed in a small pamphlet, which satisfacwhich we have not seen any enumeration ; and torily points out the inconveniences of the old, he published a considerably enlarged edition of and the advantages of the new, plan of academihis father's “ Loc. Com. Epitome.” Moreri. cal study; and furnishes at the same time a Nouv. Dict. Hist.--M.

proof of our professor's abilities, and of the esGERARD, ALEXANDER, a learned Scotch timation in which he was held by his colleagues divine and professor in the eighteenth century, at a very early period of life. Mr. Gerard's was born at Garioch, in the county of Aber- department was now confined to moral philodeen, in the year 1728. The earlier part of his sophy and logic, the duties of which he disclassical education he received under an excel- charged with conscientious and unwearied dililent master at Foveran, in the same county; gence, and with equal success and reputation. but upon the death of his father when Alexan- He was not a friend to very early, any more der was only ten years of age, and his mother's than to very late, studies; but during the day removal with her family to Aberdeen, he was his application was generally so very intense sent to the grammar-school in that city. So and laborious, that he could with difficulty be rapid was the proficiency which he made in persuaded to take any bodily exercise. He was these schools, that when twelve years old he a member of a literary society at Aberdeen, to was judged qualified for the university; and as which Drs. Blackwell, Gregory, Reid, Campit is the custom in Scotland to admit young per- bell, Beatie, and other men of learning and abisons into the universities much earlier than in lities, belonged. This society met regularly England, he was accordingly entered a student every fortnight during the winter, when the in Marischal college. Here, after deyoting four members communicated their sentiments with years to the study of Greek, Latin, the ma- the utmost freedom, and received mutual imthematics, and philosophy, he was admitted to provement from their literary discussions. In the degree of M.A. and then commenced his the year 1759 Mr. Gerard was ordained a mitheological studies, which he prosecuted in the nister of the church of Scotland; and in the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh.. In following year he was appointed professor of di1748, just after he had completed his twentieth vinity in the Marischal college, and minister of year, he was licensed to preach in the church the Grayfriars church, in Aberdeen. About the of Scotland, and in 1750 was chosen assistant same time, it is supposed, he was created docto Mr. David Fordyce, professor of philosophytor of divinity. As a clergyman, his conduct in the Marischal college at Aberdeen. In this was marked with prudence, gravity mingled capacity he discharged the duties of professor with cheerfulness, exemplary manners, and the

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in the castle of St. Angelo. He was at that of the sick, the management of which he gave time much debilitated by age, yet he lived many to Gerard. The chapel of that hospital was years longer, and survived his faculties. The consecrated to St. John, because of a tradition year of his decease is not exactly known, but it among the inhabitants of Jerusalem, that Zewas probably about 1480.

charias, the father of St. John, had lived on the George of Trebisond was a very voluminous spot where it was built. After the conquest of writer, and contributed largely towards the in Jerusalem by the Christians, under Godfrey of troduction of Greek literature in the West. He Bouillon, Gerard projected the foundation of a translated into Latin Eusebius's Evangelic Pre new religious order, in which the ecclesiastical paration ; several works of Cyril of Alexan. and military characters were to be blended. dria, of Gregory Nyssen, of Nazianzen, and This design he began to carry into execution in of John Chrysostom; many pieces of Aristotle, the year 1100, when numbers of persons assoPlato on Laws, Ptolemy's Almagest and Con- ciated with him under the denonination of tiloquium, and an oration of Demosthenes. “ Hospitalers of St. John of Jerusalemn," who, His translations were at first in great esteem; besides the three vows of chastity, poverty, and but since a more accurate knowledge of the obedience, took a particular vow to devote themGreek has obtained, they have been found very selves to the relief of all Christians in distress. deficient in exactness and fidelity, the writer This order, and the rules drawn up for its gofrequently omitting, altering and adding, at his vernment, were approved and confirmed by pleasure, without regard to his original. He pope Paschal II., who, by a bull which he is also composed many works; of which are “ De sued, granted it various considerable privileges, Arte Rhetorica, Lib. V;" first printed at Ve and recognised Gerard as the first grand-manice in 1470; Reflections and Commentaries ster. Gerard died in the year 1120. Such was on some Orations of Cicero;" “ Letters," "Ora- the commencement of that order which in suctions,” and many pieces in controversy. He ceeding times became so celebrated in history, was a warm advocate for the re-union of the when its members were commonly known by Greek with the Latin church. His “ Compa- the name of Knights of Rhodes, and afterrison of Aristotle and Plato" is full of vehe- wards by that of Knights of Malta. Ma ment invective against the latter, by which he reri.-M. gave great offence to the Platonists, particular. GERARD, JOHN, a learned and celebrated ly to cardinal Bessarion, who wrote an answer German lutheran divine who flourished in the to him. Many of his writings still remain in seventeenth century, was born at Quedlinburg in MS, His Latin style was impure, and much Saxony, in the year 1582. He filled the chair inferior to that of his rival Gaza. Hodii Græc. of theological professor at the university of Jena illustr. Tiraboschi.-A.

for many years, with distinguished success and GERARD, surnamed according to some reputation, and died in the year 1637. He was authors THOM, and according to others Tung the author of a great number of works, the or Tengue, the founder and first grand-master principal of which were : “ Commentaries,” on of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, was a Genesis, Deuteronomy, the Epistles of St. native of the isle of Martigues, on the coast of Peter, and the Apocalypse : “ The Catholic Provence. While Jerusalem was in the hands Confession :" " A Harmony of the Four Eyanof the Saracens, some merchants of Amalfi, a gelists,” in three volumes folio, left by him in town in the Neapolitan territory, obtained per- an unfinished state, and completed by MM. mission from the sultan of Egypt and Syria, in Chemnitz and Lyserus, who published it in the year 1050, to erect a benedictine monastery 1646: a collection of « Common Places," in near the holy sepulchre, for the convenience of theology; a work in which he has treated of the the numerous pilgrims who came to visit it. lives and writings of the authors of the primitive Among others, Gerard arrived to pay his devo- church, &c. Moreri, Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M. tions in the holy city, where he acquired a high GERARD, John, another learned German character with the Christians for his piety and lutheran divine and professor, was born at prudence. The fanaticism of the times occa. Jena, in the year 1621. He was educated in sioning the number of pilgrims to increase his native place, where he went through the every year, by which means the treasury of the usual course of academic studies, and then monastery received considerable supplies, the went to Altdorf, in 1640, for the sake of reabbot was enabled, in the year 1080, to build a ceiving farther instructions in the Oriental lanhospital for the reception of the poorer pil- guages. In the year 1643 he had the degree of grims, and with accommodations for the relief M... conferred upon him at the university of Jena, after which his collegiate studies were during Mr. Fordyce's absence on his continental chiefly employed on biblical and theological tour; and upon the melancholy death of that learning. In the year 1646 he was appointed gentleman, in 1752, was appointed his sucassistant professor of philosophy at Wittemberg; cessor. At that period it was the practice in the and in 1652 nominated professor of history at colleges at Aberdeen for the same professor to Jena. In the following year he was created carry forwards a class of students for three sucdoctor of divinity; and in 1655 he was made ceeding sessions, through all the different professor in that faculty, and preferred to the branches of philosophy that were then taught rectorship of the university of Jena. He died in in them; which were logic, ontology, pneue the year 1668, when no more than forty-seven matics, morals, politics, and natural philosophy. years of age. He was the author of “ Harmo. Matheniaiics and the Greek language were nia Linguarum Orientalium ;' “ Disputationum taught by separate professors. One class was theologicarum Fasciculus ;" " Locorum Theo. carried by Mr. Gerard through the extensive logicorum Epitome;" “ De Sepultura Mosis course allotted to his department. About the Diss. ;' “ Consensus & Dissensus religionum year 1754, however, a very judicious alteration profanarum ;" “ De Ecclesiæ Copticæ Ortu, was made in the order of teaching philosophy Progressu, & Doctrina ;' and other works of in the university of Aberdeen; and in the Magreat erudition and merit. The subject of this rischal college each professor was restricted to article had a son, named John ERNEST Ge- one department of science. On this occasion RARD, who was brought up to the theological the principal and professors in that college enprofession, and became doctor and professor of gaged Mr. Gerard to draw up, for general indivinity at Giessen, where he died in 1707, formation, a view of the reasons which had dewhen he was about forty-five years of age. He termined them to deviate from the arrangement was the author of some learned productions, that had been before observed. This task he both in the Latin and German languages, of performed in a small pamphlet, which satisfacwhich we have not seen any enumeration ; and torily points out the inconveniences of the old, he published a considerably enlarged edition of and the advantages of the new, plan of academihis father's “ Loc. Com. Epitome.” Moreri. cal study; and furnishes at the same time a Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M.

proof of our professor's abilities, and of the esGERARD, ALEXANDER, a learned Scotch timation in which he was held by his colleagues divine and professor in the eighteenth century, at a very early period of life. Mr. Gerard's was born at Garioch, in the county of Aber- department was now confined to moral philodeen, in the year 1728. The earlier part of his sophy and logic, the duties of which he disclassical education he received under an excel- charged with conscientious and unwearied dililent master at Foveran, in the same county; gence, and with equal success and reputation. but upon the death of his father when Alexan- He was not a friend to very early, any more der was only ten years of age, and his mother's than to very late, studies; but during the day removal with her family to Aberdeen, he was his application was generally so very intense sent to the grammar-school in that city. So and laborious, that he could with difficulty be rapid was the proficiency which he made in persuaded to take any bodily exercise. He was these schools, that when twelve years old he a member of a literary society at Aberdeen, to was judged qualified for the university; and as which Drs. Blackwell, Gregory, Reid, Campit is the custom in Scotland to admit young per- bell, Beatie, and other men of learning and abisons into the universities much earlier than in lities, belonged. This society met regularly England, he was accordingly entered a student every fortnight during the winter, when the in Marischal college. Here, after deyoting four members communicated their sentiments with years to the study of Greek, Latin, the ma- the utmost freedom, and received mutual imthematics, and philosophy, he was admitted to provement from their literary discussions. In the degree of M.A. and then commenced his, the year 1759 Mr. Gerard was ordained a mitheological studies, 'which he prosecuted in the nister of the church of Scotland ; and in the universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh.. In following year he was appointed professor of di1748, just after he had completed his twentieth vinity in the Marischal college, and minister of year, he was licensed to preach in the church the Grayfriars church, in Aberdeen. About the of Scotland, and in 1750 was chosen assistant same time, it is supposed, he was created docto Mr. David Fordyce, professor of philosophy tor of divinity. As a clergyman, his conduct in the Marischal college at Aberdeen. In this was marked with prudence, gravity mingled capacity he discharged the duties of professor with cheerfulness, exemplary manners, and the

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punctual diligent discharge of his ministerial his memory to such a degree, that, in little duties. And his pulpit services, notwithstand more than an hour, he could get by heart any ing the unavoidable labour of preparing prelec- sermon of ordinary length. In domestic life he tions for his theological pupils, were distin- was amiable and exemplary ; in his friendships guished by that excellence and accuracy of com- steady and disinterested ; and in his intercourse position which secured the approbation of the with society hospitable, benevolent, and unasablest judges, while by their plainness and sim- suming ; uniting to the decorum proper to the plicity they were well adapted to promote the character of a christian pastor the good breed. edification of the meanest capacities. In the ing of a gentleman, and the cheerfulness, affayear 1771 he resigned his professorship in Ma- bility, and ease, of an agreeable companion. Berischal college, together with his church living, sides several single sermons preached on occaand was preferred to the theological chair in sional subjects, he was the author of “ An Esthe university of King's college.“ As a pro- say on Taste," 1759, 8vo. to which the Philofessor of divinity,” says Mr. Skene Ogilvy in a sophical Society of Edinburgh adjudged in 1756 sermon on the occasion of his death, “ he will the prize of a gold medal, offered for the best be long and gratefully remembered by his nu- piece on that subject, and which appeared in a merous pupils. This was his peculiar depart- considerably enlarged form in 1780; " Disser. ment, and in this he shone. Possessing large tations on the Genius and Evidences of Christstores of theological knowledge, he was judi- ianity," 1766, 8vo.; “ An Essay on Genius," cious in selecting his subjects, happy and suc- 1774, 8vo.; and two volumes of excellent “ Sercessful in his manner of communicating in- mons," published in 1780 and 1782, 8vo. In struction. He had the merit of introducing a the year 1799, the author's son and successor in new, and in many respects a better, plan of the- the divinity professorship, Dr. Gilbert Gerard, ological education, than those on which it had published from his father's MSS. a part of his been formerly conducted. Liberal, but not theological course under the title of “The Pasloose, in his sentiments, his great aim was, not toral Care, &c." 8vo. which is a work of very to impose by his authority upon his pupils any considerable merit in that class of compositions. favourite system of opinions; but to impress Suppl. to Encycl. Britan.-M. them with a sense of the importance of the mi GERARÓ, John, an early English botanist, nisterial office; to teach them the proper man was born in 1545 at Namptwich in Cheshire. ner of discharging all its duties; and to enable He was educated as a surgeon, and appears to them, by the knowledge of Scripture, to form have spent some time in foreign travel. At a just and impartial judgment on controverted length he settled in London, where he was pasubjects. Solicitous for their improvement, he tronised by lord Burleigh, whose large and cuwas ever ready to encourage rising merit by his rious garden he superintended for twenty years. warmest approbation, and reluctant to damp He had also, at his residence in Holborn, a even unsuccessful efforts of genius by deserved large physic-garden of his own, which was procensure. Having a constant eye to what is bably more richly supplied than any other in practically useful, rather than to unedifying England. He seems to have enjoyed the favour speculations, he enjoined no duty which he was of the College of Physicians, and is spoken of unwilling to exemplify in his own conduct. with great commendation by some of his conHence that strict regard to the ministerial cha- temporaries. He arrived at the rank of master racter which he uniformly displayed, and hence of his company, and died about 1607. Ge his uncommon punctuality in attending the pub- rard's first publication was a catalogue of the lic ordinances of religion.He continued to plants in his own garden, entitled “ Catalogus discharge the duties of his professorship, and Arborum, Fruticum & Plantarum, tam indito prosecute his studies, until the year 1795, genarum quam exoticarum, in horto Joh. Gewhen he died without a groan on his birth-day, rardi, civis & chirurgi Londin. nascentium," just as he had completed his sixty-seventh year. 4to. 1596 and 1599. The number of species His death was occasioned by a schirrous tu- contained in it is 1033, and an attestation of its mour, which had begun to appear in the year fidelity is subjoined by the botanist Lobel. His 1794, and gradually undermined his constitu- great work, entitled “ Herbal, or General Histion, but without confining him to his house, tory of Plants," folio, was published in 1597. or, with the exception of a very few weeks, in- Its foundation was a translation into English of terrupting his usual pursuits. Dr. Gerard's at- the herbal of Dodoens (see his article), made, tainments were solid, rather than brilliant; the according to Lobel, by a Dr. Priest, which after effects of close and incessant study, and an un- his death came into the hands of Gerard, who commonly clear judgment. He had improved was not enough skilled in Latin to have under

he superi residence which was prin

merito

alimente che non

taken it himself. Its distribution, however, is which met in the year 163s, this brief was made altered, and many new plants are added from the subject of discussion ; when, after bestowLobel and Clusius. The figures were procured ing high praises on the author, they decreed from Frankfort, being from the blocks used that he should publish a new edition of his in the Dutch Herbal of Tabernæmontanus. work during the following year, with some alThough, from this account, Gerard's share in terations, for the sake of expressing their readithe work appears to have been inconsiderable, ness to enter into some compromise with the yet he has the merit of having contributed to court of Rome; which alterations were admitdiffuse a more general taste for botany through- ed into the subsequent impressions of the work. out the kingdom, and to have furnished herb. In the year 1690 M. Gerbais published “A alists with an useful book of reference. The dispassionate Treatise on the Power of the greatly improved edition by Thomas Johnson, Church, and of the Princes, as exercised in imin 1633, long continued to be a standard work, posing Obstacles to Marriage,” 4to. For the and is still valued. Pulteney's Sketches of Botany titles of his other pieces, chiefly relating to matin England.--A.

ters contested between the Roman see and inGERBAIS, JOHN, a French divine, and dividual ecclesiastical communities, or the rights esteemed writer on subjects relating to ecclesi- and regulations of particular classes among the astical discipline and the rights of the Gallican regular clergy, we must refer to the two first church, in the seventh century, was born at of our subjoined authorities. M. Gerbais died Rupois, a village in the diocese of Rheims, in 1699, when about seventy years of age. For about the year 1629. After having received some time before his death he had filled the the requisite preparatory education, he was post of principal of the college of Rheims, to sent to the university of Paris, where, as he which he was a liberal benefactor. Dupin. possessed great quickness of parts, a happy me- Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.-M. mory, and a studious disposition, he soon dis- GERBEL, NICHOLAS, a learned jurist, was tinguished himself by his proficiency in the dif- a native of Pfortzheim. He was brought up to ferent branches of literature, and became emi- the study of the law, and became a professor of nent for his knowledge of canon låw and ec- it at Vienna, and afterwards at Strasburg. He clesiastical claims and usages. In the year applied to the study of history and antiquities, 1661, he was admitted to the degree of doctor and obtained great reputation by his writings. of divinity by the faculty of the Sorbonne ; and De Thou characterises him as one equally estiin the following year was appointed professor of mable for his erudition and humanity. He died eloquence in the College-royal of France. He at a very advanced age in 1560. His works was fixed upon by the French clergy as the are: “ Isagoge in Tabulam Græciæ Nicolai Somost proper person to succeed Nicholas le phiani," 1545, afterwards augmented into seven Maître, nominated to the bishopric of Lombez, books, comprehending a complete description in editing the system of rules for the govern- of all Greece, and printed at Basil, folio, 1550: ment of the regular clergy, as decreed in the “ De Anabaptistarum ortu & progressu.” assembly of 1645, illustrated with the notes of " Vita Joannis Cuspiniani.” He corrected M. Hallier, bishop of Cavaillon. It was en- Cuspinian's Chronicle of the Cæsars, and Artitled “ Ordinationes Cleri Gallicani circa regu- rian's Hist. of Alexander. Freberi Theatr.-A. lares, cum Commentariis, &c.” 1665, 4to. GERBERON, GABRIEL, a French ecclesiFor his services in this work, that body bestow- astic, and voluminous writer in support of the ed upon him a pension of six hundred livres. jansenist principles, was born at Saint-Calais, In the year 1679 he published an able and in the diocese of Mans, in the year 1628. His spirited treatise in support of the liberties of the first religious profession was made in the conGallican church, entitled “ De Causis majo- gregation of the Oratory, which he quitted in ribus, &c.” 4to. in which he maintained that the year 1649, and entered among the Benethe causes of bishops ought to be tried in the dictines of the congregation of St. Maur. In first instance by their respective metropolitans, that connection he taught theology for some and the prelates belonging to their jurisdiction. years with considerable success, and was apThis work excited such resentment at the court pointed sub-prior of the abbey of Corbie. When of Rome, that pope Innocent XI, issued a brief the controversy on the subject of grace raged in the following year, which condemned the between the Jansenists and the Jesuits, he wrote doctrine contained in it as schismatical, su- with much zeal and ability in support of the spected of heresy, and injurious to the rights of side of the question embraced by the former ; the holy see. In the assembly of the clergy whence the Jesuits became his determined ene

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