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as his twelfth year at Trinity college, Cam- When queen Anne came to the crown, Mr. bridge; and in that year, 1679, displayed his Granville emerged from the political obscurity juvenile propensity to poetry by a copy of verses in which he had hitherto lived. His fortune to the duchess of York on her visit to the uni- was increased by the death of his father, and versity. On the accession of James II. in 1685, that of his uncle the earl of Bath, who left him his courtly muse resumed her strains to cele- an annuity. He was elected a member for the brate the new monarch, in three short pieces ; borough of Fowey in the first parliament of the of which, says Dr. Johnson, “the first is pro- new reign; and soon after, partaking of the fane, and the two others such as a boy might ardour against the ambition of Lewis XIV., be expected to produce.” They are, however, which was then common to the tories as well well versified, and much superior to the lines as the whigs, he joined in a translation of the which old Waller wrote in their praise. Loyalty, Philippics of Demosthenes, intended to rouse the hereditary passion of the Greenvilles, at this the nation to oppose the Philip of the time. time was predominant in the young poet's mind, The death of his elder brother, sir Bevil Granand he was willing to display it in a more ef- ville, in 1706, made a farther addition to his fectual manner than by his pen. When, in estate ; and he continued to serve in parliament, 1688, the invasion of the prince of Orange sitting at length as knight of the shire for the was threatened, he wrote a spirited, though county of Cornwall

. On the change of the very dutiful, letter to his father, requesting to ministry in 1710, he was appointed secretary at be presented to his majesty as one who was am- war, in the room of Robert Walpole, afterwards bitious to devote his life to his service. After earl of Orford. He married in that year Mary, the Revolution, being possessed neither of in. daughter of Edward Villiers earl of Jersey, terest nor considerable fortune, he lived in li- then the widow of Thomas Thynne, esq. He terary retirement. During this period his dra- was introduced into the house of peers by the matic works were chiefly composed or acted. style of lord Landsdown, baron of Biddeford, The first of these was “ The She Gallants," at the memorable creation of twelve peers in said in an advertisement, by way of apology (a one day, December 31, 1711; and his elevaweak apology!) “ to have been written at an tion was not one of those which appeared exage when some persons are but beginning to traordinary, as two peerages had become exspell.” He afterwards gave it in a more correct tinct in the Granville family. On account of form, under the title of “ Once a Lover and his principles and conduct he stood high in the always a Lover;" and it appears to have been favour of the queen, who conferred upon him more distinguished for licentiousness than wit. first the post of comptroller of the household, But that a young author should be corrupted by with a seat in the privy-council, and then of the example of the veterans of the stage was treasurer of the household. The accession of no wonder. His tragedy of “Heroic Love," George I. put an end to the power of his party, founded on the fable of Homer's Iliad, was acted and deprived him of his place. He remained in the same year, 1696, with great applause steady to his former connections, and protested from the wits and critics. Dryden addressed a against the bill for attainting the duke of Orcopy of complimentary verses to him on the mond and lord Bolingbroke. He was, in conoccasion, in which the old bard adopts the sequence, reckoned among those who were disyoung one as his successor in fame :

affected to the new order of things ; and, upon

the breaking out of the rebellion in 1715, was But since 'tis nature's law, in love and wit, That youth should reign, and with’ring age submit, prisonment till February, 1717, when he ob

committed to the Tower. He was kept in imWith less regret those laurels I resign, Which, dying on my brows, revive on thine. tained his liberty, and resumed his seat in the

house of lords. The stedfastness of his political Dryden, however, though a poet, was no principles was displayed in 1719, by an aniprophet; and it was beyond even his powers to mated speech against the proposed repeal of the raise mediocrity to the rank of excellence. His bill to prevent occasional conformity, which he “ Masque of Peleus and Thetis," joined to an printed. It is supposed that a derangement in alteration of Shakespear's Merchant of Ve- his affairs, owing to want of economy, was nice, and his “British Enchanters, a drama- the cause of his spending some years afterwards tic Poem," complete the list of his perform- upon the continent. During his absence, the ances in this class. They are said to have been first volume of bishop Burnet’s History of his well received on the stage, but have retained own Times making its appearance, lord Landsno place there.

down was induced to undertake the vindication


een of in a workined the libe, who

of the characters of. Mónk duke of Albemarle and secretary of the bipartite chamber on the and the earl of Bath from some aspersions part of the states-general. He died at Mechlin thrown upon them in that work. He likewise, in 1666, and was buried in the great church at in the progress of his historical researches, the Hague. He was a defender of the inde. found occasion to vindicate his great-uncle, sir pendency of particular states, but at the same Richard Greenville, from the unfavourable re- time an oppugner of popular rights. In 1634 presentations of his conduct by lord Clarendon he published a work entitled “ Libertas Veneand archdeacon Echard. Both these tracts hé tá, seu Venetorum in Se & Suos imperandi published together, on his return in 1732. They Jus ;” and in 1644 he defended the republic were esteemed as pieces of writing and reason- of Venice in a dispute with the duke of Savoy ing, but met with answerers. In the same concerning precedence. For these services that year he published a splendid edition of his républic created him a knight of St. Mark. In works ; in which, it is to be observed, that the 1642 hè published a work " De Jure Majesta offensive comedy above mentioned is omitted, tis;" designed as a confutation of the popular as well as his speech against occasional con- maxims of Buchanan. This was dedicated to formity. He was now so well reconciled to Christina queen of Sweden, a great assertor of the change in the succession, that he went to regal privileges. In a work entitled “ Maris court, where he was graciously received by Liberi Vindiciæ,” he maintained the liberty of queen Caroline, to whom he presented his the sea against a Genoese named Burgus, who works, with some elegant lines written in the had followed the steps of Selden. He wrote a last leaf. He died, a few days after his lady, treatise in 1660, entitled “ De Preludiis Justion January 30, 1735, in his sixty-eighth year. tiæ & Juris,” together with a dissertation “ De He had no male issue, but left four daughters. Fide Hæreticis & Rebellibus Servanda," in

Lord Landsdown appears to have been an tended to refute a Portuguese Jesuit. He also amiable man in private life, steady in his friend- composed various Latin poems; and he wrote ships, polite in his manners, and candid in his some works in the Dutch language, among judgments. Ile was liberal in patronising li- which was a treatise “ On the Sovereignty of terary merit, and had the credit of being one the States of Holland,” two volumes quarto. of the first to recognise the rising powers of Bayle. Moreri.-A. Pope, who amply repaid him by his dedication GRATIAN; Roman emperor, son of Va. of Windsor Forest. His own poetical talents lentinian I. by his first wife Severas, was born certainly did not rise above elegant mediocrity; in 359 at Sirmich or Sirmium. His father, and his works continue to make a part of the after a fit of illness, appointed him his partner in mass of English poetry, rather through defer- the empire, when only eight years of age. He ence to rank and the compliments of contem- was in his seventeenth year at his father's death, porary writers than because they are still read in 375; and, without communicating the event with admiration. He is chiefly known as a to him, then keeping his court at Treves, the writer of songs and short amatory pieces, most officers of the army elected as his partner in the of which are addressed to a Myra, who was empire Valentinian II, the deceased emperor's the countess of Newburgh, his youthful flame. young son, by his second wife Justina. Gratian, They are not, however, either highly poetical though he complained of this assumption of or strongly expressive of feeling. Of his other authority on their part, ratified the election, pieces, Dr. Johnson characterises his “Essay and ever treated his young brother with pater. on unnatural Flights in Poetry” as possessing nal tenderness. A division of the Western didactic merit; and his “ British Enchanters" empire was nominally made between them, but as lively and pleasing, though he acknowledges the superior age of Gratian gave him all the that it confounds the manners of different ages. real authority. Their father's brother Valens, He speaks favourably also of his Prologues and at this time, possessed the Eastern empire. Epilogues, but they appear to rise little above One of Gratian's first acts was to recal to court the usual insipidity of those compositions. his mother, who had been divorced and baBiog. Britan. Johnson's Lives of the Poets.-A. nished. It was followed by the execution of

GRASWINKEL, THEODORE, a learned some prefects, who had abused their power by lawyer and writer of the seventeenth century, cruelty and injustice. While the young emwas a native of Delft. He wrote varioŭs works peror is praised for these deeds, he is severely upon legal and political subjects; by which he censured for putting to death the renowned acquired so much reputation, that he was made general Theodosius, who fell a victim to the fiscal of the domains of the states of Holland, calumnies of some courtiers. The same fexibility of temper caused him to indulge the clergy ful to his subjects, and finally ruinous to himself. with a variety of exemptions, and to gratify the An unbounded passion for the pleasures of the orthodox by an edict for the restriction of he- chace occupied his time and attention, to the retics. The eastern empire being attacked by neglect of his imperial duties. It also led him the Goths, Gratian, who was not deficient in to entertain as his guards and attendants a body courage and activity, marched to its assistance, of Alani, recommended by their skill in huntand, in 378, obtained a victory over the Ale. ing; and he offended the people by appearing manni near Argentaria, now Colmar, in Al- in the garb of a Scythian warrior, armed with sace. Pursuing his advantage, he crossed the the bow and quiver. Discontents were upon Rhine, and penetrated into the heart of the the point of breaking out, when a revolt took enemy's country, in order to join his forces place among the legions of Britain, who inwith those of Valens. But that emperor, in vested one Maximus with the purple. Collectthe mean time, underwent a total defeat, and ing a great number of the people of the island, lost his life, at the battle of Adrianople. Gratian he transported them into Gaul, where he was immediately called from his retreat Theodosius, joined by numerous deserters from the imperial the son of the general who had suffered under troops. Gratian himself hastened from the his hasty displeasure, and placed him at the borders of Germany to Paris, in order to oppose head of a separate army, with which he de- the usurper; but his efforts were either fecble, stroyed a large body of Sarmatians who were or counteracted by treachery; for, the first time on their march to join the Goths. The em- his standard was displayed, it was abandoned peror himself went to Constantinople, where even by his household troops. With a train of he recalled the orthodox bishops who had been no more than 300 horse, the unfortunate embanished by Valens, and issued some edicts re- peror fled towards the Alps, ::]l the cities on lative to religion. He then, as Valens had leit the road refusing him admittance till he arrived no male heirs, proceeded to fill the vacant at Lyons. The governor of that place, by a throne of the East; and nobly disregarding the show of fidelity, induced him to make a fatal suggestions of personal ambition, he consulted stop; when, upon the arrival of the cavalry of the general good by raising Theodosius to a Maximus, he betrayed his master into the hands station which his talents so well fitted him to of the commander, who put him to death, A.D. occupy. This event took place at Sirmium, in 383. Gratian perished in the twenty-fifth year the beginning of 379. Gratian then returned of his age, after a reign of seven years and nine to Italy, and passing some time at Milan, listen- months, reckoning from his father's decease. ed with reverence to the instructions of the ce- He had been twice married, but left no issue. lebrated bishop Ambrose, who, while he en- Univers. Hist.


Univers. Hist. Giobon.-A. lightened the emperor's mind in the mysteries GRATIAN, an Italian benedictine monk in of the catholic faith, also obtained from him the twelfth century, famous for having formed farther advantages for the orthodox, and the the first collection of canons that was ordered revocation of a former edict allowing liberty of to be used as a text book in the public schools, conscience to the sectaries. For some time was a native of Chiusi in Tuscany, and emlonger he seems to have attended with vigilance braced the monastic life in the convent of St. to the defence of the empire ; and it is univer- Felix and St. Nabor, at Bologna. Before his sally agreed that he displayed all the amiable time there had not been wanting collections of qualities which have decorated the best so- canons, or laws of the church, compiled by difvereigns, together with many of the virtues ferent individuals ; but they were so destitute and attainments which inspire respect and of order and method, and so defective both in esteem. But his youth and pliancy of disposi- matter and form, that they could not be contion did not admit that stedfastness of 'charac- veniently explained in the schools, or made use ter which alone is a security against a change, of as systems of ecclesiastical polity. This cirand he has given room to suspect that what cumstance engaged Gratian to undertake the was most laudable in his conduct was the result task of compiling such a system; and after a of that influence which his preceptors had ob- labour, as it is said, of more than twenty-four tained over his youth, and which advancing years, he produced, in 1151, an abridgment of years continually tended to diminish. He is canon law, drawn from the letters of the ponnot, indeed, chargeable with having sunk into tiffs, the decrees of councils, and the writings those vices which degraded many of his prede- of the ancient doctors, which in the first edition cessors ; but he fell into habits of indolence and was entitled “ Concordartia discordantium Caa love of frivolous amusements that were hurt- nonum," or "the Coalition of jarring Canons,"

VOL. Iy.

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and was afterwards most commonly called Sannazaro from France. It is written with a “ Decretum Gratiani,” or “ Gratian's Decretal.” purity not unworthy of the Augustan age, but its No sooner did this work appear, than pope subject does not allow much poetry. The best Eugenius III. declared himself extremely satis- edition is that of Leipsic, 1659, 4to. ; with the fied with it, and commanded it to be publicly notes of Janus Ulitius. It is also printed in read in the schools. The professors of Bologna the collection of “ Rei Venaticæ Scriptores," were the first who unanimously adopted it as Amst. and Leyd. 1728, and in Mattaire's “ Cortheir text book in their public lectures; and pus Poetarum.” Vossii Poet. Lat. Tiraboschi. their example was soon followed by the pro- Nouv. Dict. Hist.--A. fessors of Paris, and in no long process of time GRAVEROL, FRANCIS, a lawyer and man by the professors in the greatest part of the of learning, was born at Nismes in 1635. He European colleges. It is a work, however, full was an advocate in the parliament of Toulouse of ignorance and blunders, and rests frequently and in the presidial chamber of Nismes, and on authorities which have now for centuries director and secretary of the academy in the been generally acknowledged to be supposititious. latter place. He was extremely well versed Indeed several of the most learned and eminent both in the studies belonging to his profession writers of the Romish communion allow, that and in subjects of general literature. He it abounds in errors and defects of various kinds. particularly distinguished himself in the knowBut as it was calculated to support the despotism, ledge of medals and inscriptions. His writings and to extend the authority, of the Roman consist of several dissertations on particular pontiffs, its defects were overlooked, and its medals and other monuments of antiquity : of merits exaggerated; so that for near four “ Observations on the Arrets of the Parliament centuries it was appealed to as the standard of of Toulouse,” 4to.; much esteemed: the ecclesiastical law, and in succeeding times has collection entitled " Sorberiana:" “ Notice been quoted with a degree of veneration and ou Abrégé Histoire des 22 Villes Chefs des authority, worthy only of the dark age in which Dioceseo de la Prov. de Languedoc," folio; a it made its first appearance. The abbé Fleury, posthumous work. He was well known to all in his excellent « Discourse on Ecclesiastical the learned in Europe, and was admitted a History," has passed a very dispassionate judg- member of the Ricovrati at. Padua. His ment on its merits. The first printed edition adherence to the calvinist persuasion impeded of this work was published at Mentz, in 1472, his advancement, and at length involved him folio, without the author's name; and was in persecution. He had retired to Orange in followed by impressions at Venice, in 1476, 1685, but not thinking himself safe there, he and Paris, in 1508. In 1580 an edition of it attempted to pass into Switzerland. In his was published at Rome, with the approbation way, he was apprehended at Valence, and was of pope Gregory XIII., in four volumes folio, committed to prison in the citadel of Monton which much labour had been bestowed pellier. He obtained his liberation, and died during the pontificates of his predecessors, popes at Nismes in 1694, while he had in hand some Pius IV. and V., with the view of correcting important literary works. Moreri.—A. its numerous faults. While the Roman edition s'GRAVESANDE, WILLIAM JAMES LE, was preparing for the press, the celebrated a celebrated Dutch mathematician and philosoAnthony Augustin, archbishop of Tarragona, pher, who flourished in the eighteenth century, in Spain, published a valuable treatise “ De was born at Bois-le-Duc, in the year 1688. Emendatione Gratiani," of which the most When he was about sixteen years of age he was accurate edition is that published at Paris, by sent to the university of Leyden, to study the M. Baluze, in 1672, 8vo. with notes. Cave's civil law; but the mathematics were his favourite Hist. Lit. vol. II. sub sæc. Wald. Dupin. pursuit, for which he discovered a very early Moreri. Nour. Dict. Hist. Mosh. Hist. Eccl. inclination. Soon after he was eighteen years s&c. XII. part ii.-M.

of age he composed his excellent « Essay on GRATIUS, surnamed from the place of his Perspective," by which he obtained no little birth FALISCUS, a Roman poet, was con- applause from the most eminent mathematicians temporary with Virgil; at least, both are men of his time. In the year 1707, after having tioned in one distich by Ovid (Trist, l. iv. el. 9.) taken his doctor's degree, he quitted the His work, entitled “Cynegeticon," or The Art university and settled at the Hague, where he of Hunting with Dogs, lay unknown to the practised at the bar, and cultivated an acquaintmoderna till 1534, in which year it was printed ance with learned men. He was one of those by Paul Manutius, from a MS. brought by who undertook the publication of a periodical


Review, entitled “Le Journal Littéraire,” which parts of it, assured s'Gravesande, that after it commenced in the year 1713, and was con- had been in motion for some time, no change tinued without interruption to the year 1722. was observable in it, and that it did not contain The parts of it contributed by s'Gravesande, any pieces that indicated fraud or deception; were extracts and original dissertations, chiefly and also declared that the machine was of a relating to geometry and physics. Among the very simple construction. After Dr. s'Gravedissertations, the following were of his own sande's return to Holland, he applied with great composition : “ Remarks on the Construction diligence to the duties of his professorship, to of Pneumatical Engines ;” “A Moral Essay on which those of the philosophical chair were Lying ;” and “ An Essay on the Collision of added in the year 1734. His laborious exBodies," which was attacked by Dr. Clarke, and ertions in these departments, and in preparing other learned men, on account of its opposing for publication his own mathematical and the principles of the Newtonian philosophy. philosophical productions, as well as in superWhen, in the year 1715, the States General sent intending correct editions of the works of to congratulate George I. on his accession to others, proved too powerful for his constitution, the throne of Great Britain, Dr. s'Gravesande which sunk under them in 1742, when he was was appointed secretary to the embassy; and fifty-four years of age. His private character during his stay in Eogland, became intimately was highly respectable and amiable. His acquainted with sir Isaac Newton, and was morals were exemplary; and though his natural also admitted a member of the Royal Society. disposition was warm and impetuous, he Upon his return to Holland, he was offered acquired the entire command of himself, and the professorship of mathematics and astronomy rendered himself beloved for his generosity, in the university of Leyden, which he accepted. benevolence, and obliging manners. The He now commenced an entire new course of ministers of the republic consulted him on all physics, in which he had the honour of first occasions when his talents were requisite to teaching in that university the Newtonian assist them, which his skill in calculation often philosophy, which was now in its infancy. In epabled him to do in matters of finance. He the year 1721 he took a journey to Cassel, at was also of great service to them as a decythe request of the landgrave of Hesse, in order pherer, in detecting the secret correspondence to give his opinion of the famous Orffyreus's of their enemies. And in his own profession, wheel, which the inventor maintained to be an no person ever applied the powers of nature illustration of the principle of a perpetual with more success, or to more useful purposes. motion. According to the account of Dr. Besides the articles already noticed, the princis'Gravesande, that wheel was formed of an pal of his publications were, “ Physices Eleassemblage of deals, the intervals between menta Mathematica, Experimentis confirmata, which were covered with waxed cloth, in order sive Introductio ad Philosophiam Newtonito conceal the interior parts of it. On giving it anam,” first printed in 1720, which consists a slight impulse, its motion was gradually of the author's public lectures, and has gone accelerated ; so that after two or three revolu- through many editions, of which the most tions it acquired so great a velocity, as to make valuable one is that published in English, by twenty-five or twenty-six turns in a minute. Dr. Desagulier, in 1747, in two large volumes This rapid motion it actually preserved during quarto, under the title of “ Mathematical Elethe space of two months, in a chamber of the ments of Natural Philosophy, confirmed by landgrave, the door of which was kept locked, Experiments ;” “ Matheseos Universalis Eleand sealed with the landgrave's own seal. At menta, &c.” 1727, 8vo., containing a system of the end of that time it was stopped, to prevent algebra for the use of students, with a comthe wear of the materials. Our professor, who mentary on Newton's universal arithmetic, and had been a witness to these circumstances, a new rule for determining the form of an examined all the external parts of it, and was assumed infinite series; “ Philosophiæ Newconvinced that there could not be any com- tonianæ Institutiones, &c.” 1744, 8vo., which munication between it and any neighbouring is an abridgment of his “ Elements of Physics ;" room. Orffyreus, however, was so incensed and “ Introductio ad Philosophiam, Metaphyat his examination of it, that he broke the sicam & Logicam continens." The whole of machine in pieces, and wrote on the wall, that his mathematical and philosophical works, it was the impertinent curiosity of professor excepting the first article above enumerated, s'Gravesande which made him take this step. were collected and published at Amsterdam, in The prince of Hesse, who had scen the interior two volumes quarto, with a critical account of

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