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insight into character; and a warmth of affection, a tenderness and a delicacy, which win the affection of ochers, and enable them to correct faplts without giving offence, and to present christian principles and virtues to their children iu their most amiable form I believe there has seldom been a man, that has not in after life looked back ov ber instructions and example with reverence and delight.-Every hour which a christian soother spends with her children has balm op its wings. She contrives to make even their pastimes a moral lesson ; and though she cannot (and it is not desirable that she should make their regular lessons a pastime, yet sbe adapts them well to ine abilities of her schuiars accommodates them well to times and circumstances, and divests them of whatever is oppressive and revolting. To mix the pleasant with the useful is at least as important in education as in poetry ; but good moihers far exceed good poets in that art. Surely, then, a mother should be jealous of every thing, which keeps her from the bosom of ber fainily; a sphere, in which she is so gifted to shine, and to be a blessing to those most dear to her. How sad is it, when she throws away this pure gold for mere dross, by giving up those hours to an excess of visiting and company, which ought to be spent among her children !” p. 62.

• We seriously recommend this to the attention of those mothers, who allow themselves to forget their highest and noblest duties in unnecessary and superfluous attention to domestic concerns, or amidst the gaye ies of fashionable amusements. The babitual presence, and unseen, but certain, influence of a mother, is of inestimable importance on the minds and bearts of her children. We have witnessed and admired it in some of its choicest and holiest influences. It is like the small rain upon the tender herb.

The extracts, we have already made, will be sufficient to indicate the nature and spirit of the work, and will supersede ibe necessity of a more minute description of its merits. of its style and literary execution we forbear to speak, except to remark, ihat these were clearly a very subordinate object in the mind of the writer. We just add, that among the topics of the following chapter, we noticed with pleasure some remarks on the effect of the personal character of parents, on the means for the support of parental authority and influence, and particularly on the difficult and disputed subject of emulation, which, as distinguished from the simple desire of excellence, and involving the wish to surpass others, be condernns as an unballowed principle of action; as scarcely, if at all, to be disjoined from jealousy and envy, from pride and contention, incompatible with loving our neighbour as ourselves, and a privciple of such potency as to be likely to engross the mind and turn it from the motives, which it should be the great business of education to cherish and render predominant. --We readily agree with the author, that the principle of emulation is questionable and dangerous ; that its natural tendency is to call into exercise our most selfish feelings, and that through disappointed ambition it is not seldoin a source of misery. But it is difficult in the course of intellectual, much more we conceive than in that of moral education, to substitute an equivalent ; or to say, by what efficient motives boys of the same standing, in pursuit of the same studies, and desirous of the same honours, shall be quick-, ened to their exertions witbout somewhat, at least, of that mutual comparison and competition, which are inseparable from the

principle of emulation.

There is however dne sentiment, which has been strongly impressed upon us from the perusal of this work, and that is, the importance of a simple, affectionate, and encouraging view of religion to the work of education ; in other words, of a strict adherence to the simplicity and tenderness, that pervade the gospel. We do not mean, that our author has exhibited a strong contrast to this, for his good sense and observation, and still inore his paternal feelings, evidently correct and soften what in less kind and skilful hands would have been repulsive. But notwithstanding this, we see the influences of a mistaken theology; something of thaf obscurity and much of that gloom, which belong to the doctrines be has espoused, and which render the system, wbich contains them, in our apprehension, unsuited to conduct the instruction of the infant mind. In the first place, it seems to us of infinite importance, that the character and government of God should be exhibited to the understanding of a child in the simplest and most alluring manper ; that nothing should be offered to obscure the grand idea of his unity, and still less of his perfect, impartial goodness. For it must be remembered, that none of the explanations, by which contradictions may be reconciled to a theologian, can be comprehended by the young pupil; and that what is difficult or obscure to others, must be utter darkness and confusion to him. When therefore Mr. Babington tells us, (page 91) that "children must not be puzzled in religion--that we must avoid passages, that have a direct bearing upon disputed points," we most cordially concur. But when he adds, as he does in the next sentence, that “the great aim should be to make by divine aid their heavenly Father and their sanctifier, but ABOVE ALL their Saviour and his Gospel, the object of their reverence and their affections,”-it seems to us, he is falling into the very error, he is desirous to guard. We stay not here to discuss the question of the equality of the Son with the Godhead; but we ask, whether, under any system of faith, there can be the least truth or propriety in exhibiting our Saviour (and that in bis mediatorial, consequently his subordinate character) as an object of reverence ABOVE Our heav

enly Father.The only effect of such instruction upon the mind of a child, that reflects at all, must be to darken and confound. And it seems to us, that the extreme difficulty, rather we should say the impossibility, of giving under this system, at that important age, any clear or satisfactory views as to the objeçt of worship, affords in itself no slight previous indication, that it cannot be a part of that Gospel, one grand end of which is to instruct the ignorant, and to guide the young to God. How much more simple, how much more affecting, the instruction of our Saviour himself—"This is lifeternal; to kpow THEE the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent."

Neither can we regard the doctrine of inherent, total depravily, to which frequent reference is made in this work, as in any view a proper principle in a system of education. Not only because in our apprehension it is unsupported by scripture, but because even supposing its truth, it can never on this subject be applied to any useful practical purpose. For let a parent's speculative views be what they may, and his professions of them sincere as they ought, we are persuaded that he never will, that he never can, look upon his infant child as a being totally depraved; or commence his work of instruction, as if he had nothing to do but to root out corruption. This dogma might enter into his theological creed, and darken bis views of mankind in general; but the common sensibilities of his nature would be perpetually opposing its influence within the circle of his family. With something less of theoretic devotion to a system, he might admit,--what personal experience and observation no less than the word of God most clearly teach,-i be great deceitfulness of the human heart,the wayward propensities of our nature to sin, and the infinite danger, to which virtue is exposed from the maxims, babits, and examples of an evil world: and convictions, like these, scriptural and rational as they are, would be more than sufficient to supply the necessary rules and cautions; and would excile to parental vigilance with far happier effect, than the gloomy, discouraging sentiment, which our author supposes.

For ourselves we look upon religious education as eminently a means of grace; one of the earliest, most important and efficacious ordinances of heaven, to form, direct and elevate human character. Its principles therefore should be simple and easily understood, the dictates of reason and experience, and above all, the clear instructions of God's word. They should exbibit such views of the Deity as are most encouraging and attractive, Nor will it be difficuli at tbat susceptible age, to impress the most important truths of religion. The child can early be taught his relation to and dependence upon his heavenly Father. He can soon learn to reverence and love Him as the great Being, who forms, sustains, and blesses all; who brought him into life, who rocked the cradle of his infancy, and 10 whom he owes his health, and friends, and every thing he enjoys. By very simple, yet touching instruction he can be taught, that all, which he sees about him, of the glory and beauty of creation in beaven, earth, air, and sea, is the work of God-and thence he will be led to adore.

But we may extend early religious instruction much farther than this ; for as Christians we possess a system of religion admirably suited by its simplicity and purity to affect and form the infant mind. When separated from the errors and corruptions of man, with a sublimity and energy all its own, it approves itself at once to the contemplation of the philosopher and to the feelings of a child. Besides the paternal views it opens of the character of God, of his mild and benevolent goveroment, of his unfailing bounty, and of his universal, unintermitted care ; besides the awakening and salutary truth it enforces, of his all pervading presence, and of bis heart-searching eye, it exbibits in the person and example of Jesus Christ an object peculiarly suited to attract and delight even the youngest mind. And it seems to us, that there is nothing, in which the moral grandeur and sublimity of his character were more apparent, than in its adaptation to the conceptions of children. It would seein, as if he had softened for them the splendour of his perfections, that he might win and engage their hearts. His gentleness, his meekness, his simplicity and truth, his tenderness and love, are precisely the qualities, which render their period of life the most engaging; and by an affectionate and judicious parent may be exhibited with an admirable influence, as the inodel of their imitation. Here is the grand advantage of Christian education, that in its perfect morality it prescribes no precept, without furnishing at the same time a most alluring example.

But we do not mean to enlarge. We hope that the republication of this little work may be useful in exciting increased attention to one of the most important of all objects. There are parents, who anxiously think of every thing for their children, but how they shall form their characters and prepare them for an immortal life. To such we earnestly recommend the pious and faithful zeal of this exemplary father. He may convince them, that ibere are considerations, infinitely more valuable than the present comfort and prosperity of their offspring; but they will better learn for themselves in the pages of ihe New Testament, the doctrines they must teach, and ibe pure spirit of that religion, which they must labour to infuge.

ARTICLE VI.

Observations on Penal Jurisprudence and the Reformation

of the Criminal code ; with an Appendix, containing the latest Reports of the State Prisons or Penitentiaries of Philadelphia, New York, and Massachusetts, and other Documents. By William Roscoe, Esq. 8vo. London. 1819.

The contents of this volume, as they are the result of real pbilanthropy, address themselves forcibly to all the benevolent, who, to the common compassionate regard for the wretched, unite a willingness to aid, by their individual exertions or influence, all endeavours to relieve the suffering, to reclaim the guilty, or to invigorate generally the moral principle among men. Tiiey are particularly suited to awaken a strong interest in those, who have at heart a feeling for the purity and peace, and, if we may so speak, the integrity of our society in its progress to refinement.-- It is not confined to the philosopher, to know that, as society advances, crimes multiply faster than virtues; and those who are happiest in the consciousness of the comparatively unsullied character of our society at this day, of our present youthful innocence, are perhaps the saddest as they contemplate the moral changes, that await a manhood of power consolidated and immense, and an old age weakened by wealth and corrupted by luxury.

To extirpate moral evil, is among the dreams of the visionary. To apportion with a discriminating regard to the subjects of it, punishment to crime,-by chastisement or restraint to subdue or soften the obduracy of the vicious; by a wholesome discipline to chasten and control the wayward; in short, so to lay the sanctions of the law, that by every form of penal application the delinquent shall feel himself rather drawn io penitence than driven to despair,-is among the noblest aims of the legislator and philanthropist.

The inain object of the work before us seems to be in aid of the glorious atteropt of Howard—to interest public feeling and enlighten public opinion, by presenting views of the various systems in operation on the European Continent, in England and our own country,and by stating their defects and advantages, to suggest the necessity and means of changing some and improving others. The tendency of all the reasoning in the book (except that upon some isolated questions, such as the abolition of punishment by death, and others, all of too wide a scope to admit of hasty discussion by him or us) is such, to be sure, as discovers a little of the systematizing spirit, and would go to

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