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the proper authority for a discharge. The wbole object is concisely stated in the following passage.
Upon the whole it seems indispensably necessary, in order that Penitentiary establislımeuts should succeed to their full extent, that the prin. ciple, upon which they are founded, should pervade, and be continually manifested through the whole establishment. That principle is Benevolence, exerting itself in promoting the real and permanent welfare of the individuals there confined. Unless this object be fully understood and strictly adhered to, it will be in vain to expect any favourable result. The reforination of the criminal should be the motive, the object, and the measure of all our exertiops. Every kind of corporal punishment should be strictly prohibited. Solitary confinement in cases of extreme obstinacy should alone be allowed ; and this has always been found sufficient to soften the most obdurate disposition. Every prisoner should be preserved, as far as possible, from contamination, by separate confineinent at night, and by a diligent superintendance, while pursuing his avocations, whether alone or in company, by day. When he labours, it should be wholly for his own profit, subject to such out-goings for his maintenance, and other just and reasonable objects, as may be defined independence of charaeter and ability to provide for biosell, are among the chief objects of his attaioment, and these can never be acquired unless he be encouraged to trust to his own efforts, excited to feel his own interest. Cleanliness of person should be inost strongly recomended, and rigidly enforced, not only as essential to health and confort, but as conducive to moral order, rectitude, and selfrespect. Every disposition to improvement should be encouraged by the expectation, that a diligent perseverance in industry, obedience, and propriety of conduct, will be rewarded by a diminution of the term of imprisonment. A strict attention to avoid all profane, indecent, and offensive expressions, is indispensibly requisite, and even reserve, and silence, and quiet, will occasionally prove great restorators; but above all, every effort should be made to raise their minds to a due sense of their situation and destiny, as rational and immortal beings; and (in the impressive language of a friend) to substitute the godly fear of doing wrong, for the slavish fear of punishment.' The happy consequences that have attended the humane and persevering endeavours of Mrs. Fry, bave deinonstrated what may be accomplished, in the most hopeless cases, by kindness, good sense, and a sincere sympathy in the wants and sufferings of others. Such an example cannot fail to diffuse itself, and call forth followers in every part of the Kingdom; and there is every reason to hope, that the buildings pow erecting, or to be erected, for this purpose, will be not only in game, but in fact, PENITENTIARIES." pp. 171-173
We have been led inperceptibly along to say more than we intended, though less than we could wish, in our notice of this book. But we conceive that we are well employed in attending, however hastily, to subjects of so great importance to the safety and the virtue of society, as those which are here treated. It is of the first consequence to us as citizens, to know how to protect ourselves against the depredations of the vicious, and as Christians, to ascertain the most probable methods of reclaiming the wicked, and restoring to them the character and
hopes they have lost. The Christian philanthropist will not fail to be interested in all suggestions, and speculations, and plans relating to this subject; while the exertions which have been made, and are now making, especially the late astonishing renovations in Newgate, will convince biun that much is possible, though perhaps not all that a warm heart inight wish. In this country however, though much is to be done, yet far less is necessary than in the country for whose benefit our author was writing. It was a main design of his work, to operate in relaxing the severity of the English criminal law, wbose code, he says, “if executed according to the letter, would be the most sanguinary in the world.” We may be grateful to Heave en, that among our distinguished civil blessings, there is little necessity for amendment or change in the Penal Law of our country ; and that, while we are not the less bound to avail ourselves of all the means, which the benevolent of other countries may suggest to us of alleviating any useless suffering to which the guilty among us may be subjected, --we are permitted to look abroad upon a land, through the whole extent of which, from the pure original fountains of the law, Mercy and Justice flow together.
France. We have lately seen the numbers of two religious periodical works which have been commenced at Paris, during the last year, and which have been received for the Reading Room of Harvard University, through the politeness of our countryman S. V. Wilder, Esq. now resident in that city.
The one is a protestant work, entitled Archives du Christianisme (Records of Christianity), commenced in January 1818, and published monthly in numbers containing each 36 pages, 12mo. price 6 francs a year.
The other is a Catholic work, entitled Chronique Religieuse (Religious Chronicle), begun in June, published in numbers, which appear irregularly, but on an average about once a week, containing each 24 pages, 12mo. 26 numbers make a volume, the price of which is 9 francs.
Both these journals are respectably conducted, and contain à considerable proportion of interesting matter. In each we
find complaints of the great want of pastors in France both Protestant and Catholic. In the Chronique Religieuse, there are various articles relating to the divisions by which the Roman Catholic church in that country is at present disturbed; one party inaintaining high notions of the power of the Pope, and the other defending the liberties of the Gallican church; one treating with great harshness those priests, who, during the time of the revolution, took the constitutional oath, and ihe other defending their cause ; one endeavouring to restore the Romish religion as it formerlly existed, and the other discovering a more liberal and enlightened spirit. It is to the latter party, ibat the conductors of the Chronique decidedly belong; though at the same time, they appear to be sincere and zealous Catholics.
On the whole, what we have seen in these journals, as well as what we know from other sources, affords encouragement to hope for a better state of religion in France than bas previously existed in that country. Toleration is now established. There appears to be little or no restraint from public authority upon freedo:n of discussion. Writings, such as the journals before us, show that neither true religious sentiments nor a belief in Christianity are extinct; and those who appear as defenders of our religion, boib Catholics and Protestants, seem to have just notions of what is essential to its character.
We will give a few extracts from those passages which seemed 10 us inost likely to interest our readers.
In the Chronique Religieuse for August 10th, 1818, we find the following notice of Peace Societies.
“ Daring some years past, Peace Socielies have been forming in England, and still more in the United States of America; and particularly in Massachusetts. Their object, which is in a high degree laudable, is to prevent and put an end to war. To promote this object they have published various writings, which are read with great interest.
After some remarks upon the sentiments of Erasmus, of the Friends, and others, it is observed ;
“ The writings of which we have before spoken consider the subject under every aspect, and seem to have exhausted it. It cannot be doubted that they suroish a refulation of the arguments of Lord Kaims in favor of war."
Then, after a short account of some of the topics treated of in the publications mentioned, it is added ;
“Many collateral questions are discussed in these writings, which give proof of the talents and benevolence of their authors. Every one inust praise their motives, whether he adopts their opinions or not. All men of mild and correct feelings will wish with them to banish forever the scourge of war. Unfortunately our hopes are not so strong as our wishes."
We feel assured that the author of the above notice had seen the writings of our countryoian Dr. Worcester, who deserves so much honour for his exertions in the cause of humanity ; and to whom, more than to any other man, is to be attributed the diffusion of correct opinions and feelings on the subject of war. He is securing for himself a place among the great benefactors of mankind.
In the number for August 30, there is an eloqnent and able article of considerable length in defence of the Lancastrian schools ; or as they are called, Schools of mutual instruction. Les ecoles d'enseignement mutuel. They have been attacked, it seems, onder religious and political pretences, upon the ground that giving instruction to the poor may tend to withdraw them from the frue faith, and to render them bad subjects. They bave notwithstanding multiplied rapidly. “The oldest,” it is said, “ have not been more than three years in existence, and we already reckon nearly eight hundred.”
Our readers, we think, will be interested in the following extracts from the article just mentioned. They may serve to show the spirit of liberal and intelligent Catholics at the present day in France.
Without instruction the poor cannot read the Bible--" And by what right will any one pretend to deny to a whole class of Christians, the reading of the Sacred Books, dictated by him who is Truth itself? And the reading of works composed to explain their meaning, and to inculcate sentiments of piety and love to God? Is it not manifest impiety to intercept the light and the consolations, which he sends ? And who are deprived of these benefits? The most unfortunale. They, who, disinberited of almost all the pleasures of this lite, bave the most need, that they may not believe Providence unjust, to think upon another life, when we shall all be weighed in the same balance.”
"In order to estimate the effects of instruction, it is neces. sary at the same time to consider those of ignorance.
" Io many states of the South of Europe, the prejudice that it is necessary to keep the people in ignorance is sufficiently general among inen in power. it cannot be denied that in these countries, the exterior forms of religion are punctually observed; nor can it be denied that as much as this was done by the Pharisees at Jerusalem. Let us not fear to avow, that if one should seek in Europe for models of the ecclesiastic virtues, he would find them indeed in these countries, but that these are not the places where he would Gind them in the greatest abundance. Among the common people, the idea of the Di. New Series-vol. I.
vinity is almost lost in a mass of gross superstitions. The observance of religious ceremonies is often considered as affording a dispensation from performing good actions, and a privilege to commit bad. Robbers stop you on the high way, wearing rosaries. A man assasinates his enemy without any remorse of conscience. A pilgrimage or a procession will wash away the crime tomorrow. The most shameful sloth nourishes the development of every vice. Conjugal Gidelity,loses respect; and there are those, who, under the shelter of a scapulary, give themselves up to the worst excesses of debauchery. If the primitive christians, whose worship was so pure, could revisit such a country, what would they think ?--The spirit of Christianity includes every virtue and proscribes every vice. He is not a Christian, who is not a man of virtue.”
In the Archives of Christianity for November 1818 and Janvary 1819, we find an account of the formation of a Protestant Bible Society at Paris.
Permission according to law was requested from the govern ment, and granted in the most gracious manner. The President is the Marquis de Jaucourt, a peer of France, and member of the Consistory of the Reformed Commuvion. One of the Vice Presidents, is Cuvier, the celebrated naturalist, who is designated, as being one of the Lutheran church, and another the Count de Boissy d'Anglas. *
Sunday schools, it is staied in the same work, are forming in different parts of France.
A stereotype edition of Ostervald's translation of the New Testament is publishing at Paris.
Paley's Moral Philosophy has just appeared in a French translation, and is commended in both the journals.
England. The Herald of Peace.-A monthly magazine under this title was commenced in January last, in London.
We have seen the two first numbers, which are quite respectable and interesting. The object of the work is stated to be, “ to foster
* Respecting the Bible Society, above mentioned, we bave been favoured with the following information.
“ The Bible Society at Paris has been established by the active esertions of Mr. Leo, a German Christian and Philanthropist, assisted by the influence of a gentleman from Boston Mr. S. V. Wilder) resident in Paris, who, on a late visit to his native land, procured considerable aid at NewYork from the funds of the American Bible Society, and also iu Boston, from the Massachusetts Bible Society. Mr. Leo has not confined his at. tention to France, but was at the last dates, engaged in publishing an edition of the New Testament in Italy-where we may probably soon hear of tbe establishment of a Bible Society."