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which he used on this occasion, may indeed he reasonably regarded as importing, not only that Christ existed before Abraham, but that he existed before Abraham in the divine nature, for such an use of the present tense of the verb-substantive in connection with a period which had been passed away for many long ages, was applicable only to that Being to whom it is elsewhere so applied in Scripture—the eternal Jehovah himself. Thus in Exod. iii, 14, we read, "And God said unto Moses, / am that / am " or, as in the Septuagint version, from which the apostle John usually derived his quotations, "I am He that is."7 The psalmist, in the same version, adopts a similar phraseology—" Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God :"8 Ps. xc, 2. And so also in the Revelation, it is either the Father or the Son who is introduced as saying, "I Am Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the Ending, which is, and which was, and which is to come:" i, 8; comp. Sept. vers. Ps. xciii, 2; Jer. i, 5.9

4. As Jesus appears to have here spoken in the character of the Eternal one, so on other occasions he expressed himself in such a manner as indicated his own omnipresence. "And no man hath ascended up to heaven," said he, "but he that came down from

7 'Eyw ii/tt 6 uv. 8 eii it.

9 The Greek 'Eyti it/ii as it is thus used, represents the Hebrew J^IH ^JK "I—He," as appears from the Septuagint version of Deut. xxxii, 39; Isa. xli, 4. xliii, 10. xlvi, 4. xlviii, 12; and in the vernacular Syriac, which we may conclude' to have been spoken by our Lord, the expression used would probably be ^2J{ KJX " I—I:" (vide Syriac version of the above cited passages) or (as in the Peschito of this passage) V^JX iWX " '—I myself." Such an expression when used absolutely, and especially when it has reference to past or future ages, is equally indicative of the Deity, as is the Greek phrase 'Eyii ll/u. "Before Abraham was, I-He," says Jesus. "Before the day was, I-He," says Jehovah: Isa. xliii, 13. "I-He, the Alpha and Omega, the Beginning and the End, the First and the Last," says Jesus: Rev. xxii, 13. "I-He—I the First, I also the Last," say Jehovah: Isa. xlviii, 12.


heaven, even the Son of Man, which is in heaven;" John iii, 13. In heaven while on earth, on earth while in heaven, the Saviour of mankind "filleth all in all;" (Eph. i, 23;) and in this divine capacity of an ubiquitary Being, he declares himself to be the ever present helper of his dependent followers: "Again I say nnto yon, that if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them, of my Father which is in heaven; for where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them;" Matt. xviii, 19, 20. Lastly, when he was on the point of his ascension, the words with which he parted from his disciples were these—" Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world :"xxviii, 20.

5. Abundant as are the evidences already adduced, that Jesus Christ assumed the divine character, it is impossible for me to do full justice to the present argument, without entreating the reader's attention to some other parts of our Lord's discourses which are, if possible, of still greater importance to it. I allude to those passages, in which he unfolds the doctrine of his Sonship, and speaks of his own authority, character, works, and attributes, in connection with those of his Father. The following selections will be found to correspond with this description:

"All things are delivered unto me, of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son but the Father: neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him," (Matt. xi, 27 ;) or as in Luke's Gospel, "No man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him:" x, 22. "But Jesus answered them, My Father


worketh hitherto, and I work. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the Sabbath, but said also that God was his (own) Father,1 making himself equal with God. Then answered Jesus, and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise, for the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel. For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth ivhom he will. For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son; that all men should honor the Son even as they honor the Father. He that honoreth not the Son, honoreth not the Father

which hath sent him." "For as the Father hath

life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself:" John v, 17—26. "As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: x, 15. "If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not. But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works, that ye may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in him:" 37, 38. "He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me: and he that seeth me, seeth him that sent me:" xii, 44, 45. "Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me

I am the way, the truth, and the Life: no

man cometh unto the Father but by me. If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father

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also, and from henceforth ye know him and have seen him. Phillip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip? He that hath seen me, hath seen the Father, and how sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? Believest thou not, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? The words that I speak unto you, I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works' sake. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do; because I go unto my Father.2 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. If ye shall ask any thing in my name, / will do it:" xiv, 1—14. "He (the Spirit of Truth) shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore, said I, that he shall take of mine, and shew it unto you:" xvi, 14, 15.

Even when engaged in supplicating his Father, in behalf of his disciples, Jesus still maintained the same method of indicating his union with the Being whom he addressed, " Father, the hour is come; glorify thy

- The apostles might be said to do greater works than those of Christ, not because they wrought greater miracles, for this was obviously not the fact; but because they were the first to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles, and because they converted far greater multitudes to faith in the Redeemer, than were converted during the life and ministry of Jesus. The sphere in which he was pleased to act was Palestine. Their sphere of action was the world at large. Whatsoever the apostles effected, however, in the propagation of Christianity, they effected by the power of their Divine Master, who was gone to his Father, and had poured forth upon them the gifts of his Holy Spirit. This is evident from the context.


Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee "I pray

not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine. And all mine are thine,

and thine are mine, and I am glorified in them

Keep through thine own name those whom thou hast

given me, that they may be one, as we are Neither

pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me, through their word: that they all may be one; as thou Father art in me, and I in thee, that

they also may be one in us Father, I will that

they also, whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am:" John xvii, 1. 9, 10, 11. 20, 21. 24.

It will be perceived, that in some of the passages now cited from our Lord's discourses, the doctrine is plainly promulgated, that Jesus Christ did nothing "of himself." His works were the Father's works. His words were the Father's words. And this part of the doctrine of Jesus may be explained, either of his mediatorial character in general, in which he was man as well as God, and in which he was bearing the form of a servant; or else of his divine Sonship, in which (be it ever remembered) he is the Begotten of the Father, the Word, emanating from God. It is plainly impossible that the Saviour of mankind, even in his eternal godhead, should perform any work, except in perfect conformity to the will of the Father; for he is the very " Image of the invisible God;" (Col. i, 15;) the "Express Image" of the Father's Person (or substance) :"3 Heb. i, 3.

While, however, these passages of Scripture thus bear testimony, either to our Lord's subjection to the will of God, in his capacity of a Mediator, or to his

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