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offenders, and the ordained atoning sacrifice of a Redeemer to come.

That the Mosaic institution was distinguished by a variety of sacrificial ordinances; that the burnt-offerings, the peace-offerings, and the sin-offerings, of the law, were all of a character more or less expiatory; .being the appointed means of averting those penal consequences which would otherwise have been inflicted on the Israelites for their ceremonial impurities, and for their lesser moral offences; and that, according to the doctrine of the New Testament, these sacrifices were nothing more than " shadows of good things to come,"—that is to say, types of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

That this typical character attaches with peculiar force and precision to the curious and striking ceremonial of the Passover, and of the day of annual atonement.

That the figures of the law were followed up and confirmed by the declarations of prophecy—Isaiah, especially, having left on record a luminous statement respecting the vicarious sufferings and atoning death of the Messiah.

That, in the New Testament, we find the Christian doctrine of atonement alluded to by John the Baptist, repeatedly mentioned in decisive language by our Saviour himself, and, under a great variety of expression, largely unfolded and strongly insisted on by his apostles.

That the sacrificial terms employed in the enunciation of that doctrine, are not to be regarded as merely figurative expressions, borrowed from the Mosaic ritual; but as applicable to their subject in a much larger and more proper sense, than any of which they

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are capable, when descriptive only of the sacrifices ordained by the law; for between those sacrifices, and that of our Redeemer, there subsists, at the same time, a close analogy of circumstance, and an immeasurable difference of proportion.

Finally, that the humiliation and sacrifice of the Lord Jesus, although required by the divine holiness and justice, is not to be regarded as that which rendered God placable; but as a means for saving mankind, ordained by the Father himself, and voluntarily submitted to by the Son, in consequence of their common attribute of mercy or love.

Now, although a crucified Redeemer is thus clearly revealed to us as the appointed channel of the mercies of God to man, such is the perverseness of our hearts, that we are naturally prone to reject him; and even to account the " blood of the covenant" an " unholy thing." As it was in the days of the apostle Paul, so it is now—" Christ crucified offends the pride of the Jew, arid mortifies the false wisdom of the Greek:" I Cor. i, 23. How many persons are there, whose self-righteousness is far too little broken down to admit of their accepting that divine plan of redemption, which involves their own total humiliation, inasmuch as it assumes that they are justly liable to the divine displeasure, absolutely devoid of merit, and destitute of all capacity to be saved. except through the righteousness of another! And how many are there also who virtually permit themselves to sit in judgment on the ways of an all-wise Providence, and who reject the method which God has ordained for our salvation, because it is strange and extraordinary—improbable, in the estimate of a short-sighted and misapplied philosophy!


To all such opposers of a crucified Redeemer may be addressed the remark, that humility lies at the very foundation of Christian virtue; for, until the pride of man is brought low, and until he is taught to view himself as he really is—vile and polluted in the sight of God—he builds his hopes of happiness on a mere falsity, and will never lay hold of those principles which can alone effect his moral regeneration. It is, therefore, a circumstance which lessens not, but plainly increases, the weight and authority of the Christian doctrine of atonement, that it levels with the dust all our high pretensions to natural righteousness. In assuming the moral worthlessness, and actual demerit of fallen man, it assumes an undeniable truth; and one which can never be too clearly apprehended, or too deeply felt.

And, secondly, with respect to the improbability and unreasonableness (in the view of human wisdom) of the scheme of reconciliation through a crucified Saviour, it is plain that these form no solid objection to our doctrine; because that alone is truly unreasonable, which is contrary to reason; and nothing can fairly be deemed to be contrary to reason, which is so obviously placed above and beyond its scope. It is, indeed, infinitely absurd for any man to inculpate the counsels of an all-wise and Almighty Being, and to insinuate that the method which he has chosen, for onr salvation, is not the holiest and the most efficacious of methods. A due sense of the narrow limits of our own intellectual powers, and of the unsearchable "depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God," would for ever prevent such vain impiety.

If, then, the inquiry is raised in the mind of the


reader, fVhy this particular method was ordained for our salvation? the reply is obvious—Because it was the best possible method—for the counsels and operations of divine wisdom and love, must surely be allowed to have one uniform tendency to that which is best. Again, it may be replied, that the acts of God, unlike those of his frail and comparatively powerless creatures, are often infinitely prolific; and the incarnation and sacrifice of the Son may have had innumerable results of which we know nothing, and to all of which it might, nevertheless, be peculiarly and perfectly adapted.

For us it suffices, that our own salvation is thus provided for, and that the provision so made is Clearly Revealed To us in the Holy Scriptures. To believe in the truth as it is in Jesus, and with all willingness of spirit to accept a crucified Redeemer as our only hope of glory, is at once our unquestionable duty, and our highest privilege. It may not, however, be improper, under the guidance of Scripture, to point out two moral and practical purposes which are conspicuously answered by this particular method of salvation—purposes which are in themselves sufficient, in a very great extent, to unravel the mysteries of the great atonement. The first of them is adverted to by the apostle Paul, who, in a passage already cited from his epistle to the Romans, declares that God "hath set forth" Christ "to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, that he might be Just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus:" iii, 25, 26. The word just, in thls passage, I conceive to be of a very comprehensive import, relating to that inherent righteousness or holiness of the Supreme Being, which requires the maintenance, in all its purity and per


fection, of the true standard of the moral law, and which utterly rejects and renounces all manner of iniquity. This inherent righteousness or holiness is inscribed for our instruction (and it may be for the instruction of the whole universe) in the brightest and most conspicuous characters, on the doctrine of the propitiatory sacrifice of Jesus Christ; not only because while the sinner was forgiven the penalty of sin was exacted, but because the burthen of that penalty was borne by no less a person than the Son Of God.

For, if the Son of God himself (who in the divine nature is one with the Father) could alone be accepted as a sacrifice to purge away sin, it is evident, that sin, in the sight of the Almighty is an evil of infinite malignity; nor is it possible for us to conceive any other method by which its malignity could have been so clearly, so powerfully, and so beneficially, displayed and demonstrated. And such is proved by experience to be the actual operation of this fundamental doctrine of Christianity; for, it may, I believe, be uniformly observed, that the more just and comprehensive the views of men are respecting the divinity. and atonement of Jesus Christ, the fuller and clearer is their apprehension also of the depth and demerit of sin.

Such an apprehension must surely be regarded as of primary and essential use in the formation of the Christian character; and of equal importance to that true end of all our religion, is a due sense of the immeasurable love of God in sending his only-begotten Son into the world—of the immeasurable love of Christ in sacrificing himself for Tis. Here, then; is the second moral and practical purpose to which I would direct the attention of the reader; for such a

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