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ligious rights, and restraining or punishing only the licentious, the disturbers of the public peace, or the violaters of the laws.

But when Caligula succeeded to the empire, that præfect became the bitterest enemy of the Jews, having conceived, as Sejanus had done before him, the diabolical scheme, as far as he could, of exterminating that nation. The causes of the extraordinary change, which took place in his sentiments and conduct, are stated by Philo, in a book entitled Against Flaccus; of which, as far as it exhibits the cruel treatment of the Jews, I shall here give a concise account.

The people of Alexandria, headed by certain demagogues*, who ever sought their own inte rest in the public confusion, openly resolved to harass and expel the Jews. They knew, that the new emperor was no friend to Flaccus: and this they thought a circumstance favourable to their design. They therefore reminded him, that his fortune, in regard to the emperor, was precarious; that his friends at Rome were no more ; and that no mediator remained, who might secure to him the good will of Caligula, but the

These demagogues Philo calls Διονύσιος, δημοκόποι, λαμπώνες, γραμματοκυφώνες, ισιδωροι, κασιαρχαι, φίλο πραγμονες, κακων ευρεται, ταραξιπολίδες.

city of Alexandria, which had been held in high estimation by all the Roman emperors, and was particularly esteemed by the present. That city now proffered to him its friendly intercession, which it promised faithfully to perform, if he consented to destroy the Jews in that country. This representation had its desired effect. Flaccus no longer acted for himself, but became a mere tool in the hands of men, who professed to be his friends, but who in reality were, in their hearts, enemies to him and to the whole community. The consequences of this change were soon felt by the Jews. The leading men of that nation had hitherto enjoyed his confidence and friendship; and appear to have been in the number of his wisest advisers. These he no longer admitted into his presence; and the gates of mercy and of justice were alike closed against the whole of that devoted people.

A circumstance at this time occurred, which kindled into a flame the embers of jealousy and hatred, already smoking in the breast of Flaccus. Agrippa, grandson of Herod the Great, being a favourite with Caius Cæsar, received from his hands the third part of his grandfather's kingdom. And wishing to return home with all possible expedition, he passed through Alexandria in the most private manner, hoping to enter that city and to leave it without being observed or

even known. He was, however, immediately recognized; and the Egyptians, who had ever been known as the most envious and turbulent of men, represented his aggrandizement, as if it involved their own degradation. They insinuated to the præfect, that his object in passing through Egypt, after being just invested with the splendor of royalty, was to degrade the governor, and to bring his authority into contempt with the people. Flaccus caught the infection; and while he professed to be the friend of Agrippa, he encouraged the buffoons of his court to make him the subject of mimickry and derision.

The following farce, as likely to remind my readers of a tragedy, which had lately been performed in Judea, is worthy of being related in the words of Philo., "A maniac," says he, "named Carabas, spent his days and nights naked in the street; being gentle and inoffensive, he was the sport of children. They brought this unhappy person into the Gymnasium; and having placed him on an eminence, so as to be seen by all around, they put upon his head a broad reed for a diadem, and covered his body with a carpet, instead of a scarlet robe, and withal placed as a sceptre in his hand a rush picked up by the way. Having thus invested him with the nock insignia of royalty, persons were intro

duced to him, some as if to salute him as a king, others to receive his decision in the administration of justice, and others again to consult him in matters of state. Then a loud cry was heard from the surrounding crowd, saluting him Lord."*

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Ην τις μέμηνως ονομα Καραβας, ου την αγριαν και θηριώδη μανιαν ασκηπτος γαρ άντη γε και τοις εχουσι και τους πλησιαζουσιν, αλλα και ανειμένην και μαλακω περαν. ουτος διημερευε και διενυκτερευε εν ταις όδοις, ούτε θάλπος οὔτε κρυμον εκτρεπόμενος, αθυρμα νηπίων και μειρακίων σχολαζόντων. Συνελασαντες τον αθλιον αχρι τον γυμνασιον, και ζησαντες μετεωρον, ένα καθορῳτο προς παντων, βυβλον μεν ευρύναντες αντι διαδήματος επιθεασιν αυτού τη κεφαλη, χαμαιςρωτῳ δε το αλλό σώμα περι βαλλουσιν αντι χλαμύδος, ακτι δε σκηπτρου βραχυ παπύρου τμήμα της εγχωρίου καθ ̓ ὁδον ερριμμένον ιδοντες αναδιδοασιν. επει δε ώς εν θεατρικοῖς μιμοις τα παραπ σημα της βασιλειας ανειληφει, και διεκεκόσμητο εις βασ σιλέα, νεανεαι ῥαβδους επί των ωμων φεροντες αντι λογα χοφόρων ἑκατέρωθεν ειςηκέσαν, μιμουμενοι δορυφόρους" ειθ ̓ ἕτεροι προσῇεσαν, όι δε ώς δικα ὡς ασπασόμενοι, ζόμενοι, οι δε ὡς εντευξόμενοι περι κοινων πραγματων ειτα εκ περιεσωτος εν κυκλῳ πλήθους, εξηχει τις βοη άτοπος, Μαριν αποκαλουντων· ὅντως δε φασι τον κύριον ονομάζεσα θα παρα Σύροις. Vol. ii. 522, p. 970.

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From this last clause, Scaliger, Mangey, and others have

At this insult, flagrant as it was, Flaccus connived, though he knew that the immediate object of it stood high in favour with Cæsar; and the connivance taught the populace, that they had nothing to fear from justice, whatever atrocity they might be guilty of in regard to the Jews. They therefore proceeded to profane the Jewish synagogues, by the introduction of images. These were the images of Cæsar; and by this the Egyptian demagogues evinced, that their cunning was not inferior to their malice and wickedness. Philo justly remarks, that the name of Cæsar was a mere pretext; and that the profanation of the Jewish sanctuaries was not to honour the emperor, but to abuse the Jews. This once favoured people justly gloried in the

concluded, that Philo was unacquainted with the language of Palestine, as if he depended on common report, that Marin meant Lord. But nothing can exceed the stupidity and rashness of this conclusion: for gars here signifies not they say, but agreeably to a very common usage of the word, they thought, or they understood. Then the crowd with a loud cry called him Marin: " for they understood the Syrians thus denominate Lord." It was not to be supposed, that the rabble of Alexandria understood Syriac, yet they had learnt the signification of this word; and Philo very properly intimates, that as they were themselves unacquainted with the language, they depended on the opinion of others for the sense of Marin.


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