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it, I told major Wiggan, the least babe there might see him: and presently stood up one Richard Cubham, and proved him an antichrist and a deceiver by scripture. Then the gaoler had me away to my prison again. Afterwards Wiggan wrote a book of this dispute, and put in abundance of abominable lies; but his book was soon answered in print, and himself was not long after cut off, as aforesaid. This Wiggan was poor, and while he was prisoner at Lancaster he sent into the country, and got money gathered for relief of the poor people of God in prison; and many people gave freely, thinking it had been for us, when indeed it was for himself. But when we heard of it, we laid it upon him, and wrote into the country, that Friends might let the people know the truth of the matter, that it was not our manner to have collections made for us, and that those collections were only for Wiggan and another, a drunken preacher of his society; who would be so drunk, that once he lost his breeches. After this it came upon me to write to the judges and other magistrates concerning their “giving evil words and nicknames to such as were brought before them.” Which was after this manner.

“To all judges or other officers whatsoever in the whole world, who profess to be Christians.” FRIENDs, Herein and by reading the scriptures, ye may see both your own words and behaviour, and the words and practice of both Jews and Heathens, and of the King of kings, the great lawgiver and judge of the whole world. First, concerning the words and carriage of the Jews, when such as were worthy of death were brought before the rulers amongst them. When Achan had taken the Babylonish garment, the two hundred shekels of silver, and the wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, and Joshua, who was then judge of Israel, had by the lot discovered him, he did not call him, “sirrah,” nor “you rascal,” “knave,” “rogue,” as some, called christian magistrates, are too apt to do. But Joshua said unto Achan, “My son.” Mark his clean language, savoury expression, and gracious words. “My son,” said he, “give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession unto him, and tell me now what thou hast done, hide it not from me.” Then Achan confessed, that he had sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus and thus he had done. Then Joshua, the judge, said, “Why hast thou troubled Israel! The Lord shall trouble thee this day;” and they “stoned him and his with stones, and burned his goods with fire.” But there was no unsavoury word given him that we read of, though he was worthy of death. Joshua vii. “So when the man that gathered sticks upon the Sabbath-day, was taken and brought before Moses, the judge of Israel, and put in ward till the mind of the Lord was known concerning him, we read not of any reviling language given him; but the Lord said to Moses, and Moses to the people, “the man shall surely be put to death.” Numb. xv. 35. “Likewise in the rebellion of Korah, Dathan and Abiram, when Moses called them to trial, he did not “sirrah” them nor misname them; but said to Korah and the rest, “hear, I pray you, ye sons of Levi.” JNumb. xvi. 8. And when he gave the sentence against them, he said, “if these men die the common death of all men,” &c. He did not say, if these rascals or knaves, as many that profess themselves christians now do. “When Elihu spoke to Job, who was a judge, and to his friends, and said, “let me not, I pray you, accept of any man's person, neither let me give flattering titles unto man, for I know not to give flattering titles; in so doing my Maker would soon take me away.” Job. xxxii. Job did not say, “sirrah, hold thy tongue;” nor gave him any unsavoury expression. Then for the words of David, Solomon, and other kings and officers, see in the books of the Kings and Chronicles, the savoury language they gave to them that were brought before them. Nay, though Shimei cursed David the king, yet neither David then or afterward, nor Solomon, when he caused him to be put to death, give him any reproachful language, or so much as call him “sirrah.” 2 Sam. xvi. and 1 Kings ii. “Read the prophecies of Isaiah, Micah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the rest of the prophets, who prophesied to different people, and against rulers, kings, and magistrates; yet where can it be found, that they had any bad language given them, as “sirrah,” or the like, by any ruler either of the Jews or Heathens? nay, though Jeremiah was cast into prison, and into the dungeon, yet there was no such word as “sirrah,” or “knave,” given him. Jer. xxxvii. “Respecting the words and carriage of the Heathens. When Abraham was before Abimelech, who was a king, he gave Abraham no unsavoury expressions. Gen. xx. When Isaac came before Abimelech, he gave him no taunting language. Gen. xxvi. When Joseph was cast into prison, and that in Egypt, we do not read he had any railing language given him. Gen. xxxix. Neither did Pharaoh, when Moses and Aaron appeared before him, give them bad language, as “sirrah,” “knave,” or the like. “When Nebuchadnezzar sentenced the three children to the fiery furnace, there was no such language given them as “sirrah,” “knave,” “rascal;” but they were called by the names they were known by. Dan. iii. And when Daniel was brought before king Darius, and sentenced to be cast into the lion's den, he had no such ill names given him, as many give now, who call those Heathen rulers, but themselves christians. “If ye look into the New Testament, in the parable of the weddingsupper, the king that came to view his guests, did not say to him that was found without a wedding-garment, “sirrah, how camest thou hither 1" but, “friend, how camest thou in hither?” &c. though he was one that was to be bound hand and foot, and “cast into utter darkness.” .Matt. xxii. Nay, when Judas had betrayed his master, Jesus Christ, the Lord of life, and sold him to the priests, Christ did not call him “sirrah,” when he came to apprehend him, but “friend.”. Matt. xxvi. 50. Stephen in his examination, sentence, and death, had no such reproachful word given him, as “sirrah,” or “knave.” Acts. vi. vii. When the apostles Peter and John were brought before the high priest and rulers of the Jews, and commanded not to preach in the name of Jesus, Acts iv. they were not called “sirrahs,” or “knaves,” nor had any such ill names given them. When Paul and Silas were cast into prison by the magistrates, Acts xvi. they called them “men,” not “rogues,” “sirrahs,” nor “knaves.” And when the magistrates had done contrary to law they feared. So ye may see how short of this example many are that call themselves christian rulers, who are not afraid to cast innocent people into prison, and give them ill names besides, below both Jews and Heathens. When the uproar was at Ephesus about Diana's shrine, Demetrius, who bore great sway among the craftsmen, did not call Paul “sirrah,” but Paul. Acts xix. And when Paul was brought prisoner before the high priest Ananias and council of the Jews, and told them, “he had lived in all good conscience towards God until that day;” though they, who professed the scriptures but lived out of the life of them, could not abide to hear of living in a good conscience, as professors of the scriptures now, that live not in the life, cannot abide to hear of living in a good conscience nowadays; but Ananias caused Paul to be “smitten on the mouth;” yet he did not call him “knave,” nor “sirrah.” Acts xxiii. The apostate Jews indeed, who, though they professed scripture, were out of the life thereof, and had rejected Christ, in accusing Paul before the Roman magistrates, did once call him “a pestilent fellow,” Acts xxiv. as the accusing professors, who live out of the life, will sometimes call us now. But neither Felix, Festus, nor king Agrippa, in all their examinations, gave Paul any such words as “sirrah, “rascal,” knave,” or the like, but heard him patiently. So christians may see through all the scriptures, when persons were brought before rulers, kings, or magistrates, whether Jews or Heathens, they did not use to call them evil names, as “sirrah,” “rascal,” “knave,” and the like. They had no such foul-mouthed language in their courts. Nor did they use to say to them, “sirrah, put off your hat.” Now, ye that profess christianity, and say the “scripture is your rule,” may see that more corrupt words proceed out of your mouths than either out of the Jews' or Heathens', if ye will try your practice by the scriptures; and doth not the apostle tell you, that no corrupt communication should proceed out of your mouths; and that your words should be gracious; now, I query, where and whence ye that call yourselves christians have got all these bad words and names, seeing neither God nor Christ, the prophets, judges, kings, nor rulers ever gave any such names, so far as appears by scripture, either amongst heathens, Jews, or christians? G. F.”

Before the next assizes there was a quarter-sessions holden at Lancaster by the justices. To which, though we were not brought, I put Friends upon drawing up an account of their sufferings, and laying them before the justices in their open sessions. For Friends had suffered deeply by fines and distresses, the bailiffs and officers making great havoc and spoil of their goods; but no redress was afforded.

And because some evil-minded magistrates would be telling us sometimes of the late plot in the north, we gave forth the following paper to stop their mouths, and to clear truth and Friends therefrom, which was as followeth :

“A Testimony from us the people of God, whom the world calls Quakers, to all the magistrates and officers of what sort soever, from the highest to the lowest.

‘WE are peaceable, and seek the peace, and good, and welfare of all, as in our lives and peaceable carriages is manifested, and we desire the eternal good and welfare of all, and their souls' everlasting peace. We are become heirs of the blessing before the curse was, and of the power of God before the devil was, and before the fall of man. We are heirs of the gospel of peace, which is the power of God; and we are heirs of Christ, who have inherited him and his everlasting kingdom, and do possess the power of an endless life. Knowing this our portion and inheritance, this is to take off all jealousies out of your minds, and out of the minds of all people concerning us, that all plots and conspiracies, plotters and conspirators against the king, and all aiders or assisters thereunto we always did and do utterly deny to be of us, or to be of the fellowship of the gospel, of Christ's kingdom, or his servants. For Christ said, “His kingdom was not of this world, if it were, his servants would fight.” Therefore he bid Peter, “put up his sword; for,” said he, “he that taketh the sword shall perish by the sword.” Here is the faith and patience of the saints, to bear and suffer all things, knowing as we know that vengeance is the Lord's, and he will repay it to them that hurt his people and wrong the innocent; therefore cannot we avenge but suffer for his name's sake. We know that the Lord will judge the world in righteousness according to their deeds, and that, when every one shall give an account to him of the “deeds done in the body,” then will the Lord give every man according to his works, whether they be good or evil. Christ saith, he came not to “destroy men's lives;” and when his disciples would have had “fire come down from heaven,” to have consumed those that did not receive him, he told them, “they knew not what spirit they were of,” that would have men's lives destroyed; therefore he rebuked them, and told them, “that he came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them.” Now we are of Christ's mind, who is the great prophet, whom all ought to hear in all things, who commandeth his, “if they strike thee on one cheek turn the other, and render to no man evil for evil.” This doctrine of his we have learned, and not only confess him in words, but follow his doctrine; and therefore we have suffered, and do suffer all manner of reproaches, scandals, slanders, spoiling of goods, buffetings, whippings, stripes, and imprisonments for these many years, and can say, “the Lord forgive them that have thus served us, and lay not these things to their charge " We know the Jews' outward sword, by which they cut down the Heathen outwardly, was a type of the inward sword of the spirit, which cuts down the inward Heathen, the raging nature in people. And the blood of bulls, lambs, rams, and other offerings, and that priesthood which offered them, together with other things in the law, were types of Christ, the one offering, and of his blood, who is the everlasting priest and covenant, our life, and way to God, the great prophet and shepherd, the head of his church, and the great bishop of our souls, whom we witness come; and he doth oversee and keep his flock. For in Adam, in the fall, we know the striving, quarrelling, unpeaceable spirits are in the enmity one with another, and not in peace; but in Christ Jesus, the second Adam, that never fell, is peace, rest, and life. The doctrine of Christ, who never sinned, is to “love one another,” and those who are in this doctrine hurt no man, in which we are, in Christ, who is our life. Therefore it is well for you to distinguish betwixt the precious and the vile, between them that fear God and serve him, and them that do not, and to put a difference between the innocent and the guilty, and between him that is holy and pure and the ungodly and profane; for they that do not so, bring troubles, burdens, and sorrows upon themselves. This we write in love to your souls, that ye may consider these things; for those that hate enemies, and one another, we cannot say they are of God, nor in Christ's doctrine, but are opposers of it. And such as wrestle with flesh and blood, with carnal weapons, are gone into the flesh out of the spirit. They are not in our fellowship in the spirit, in which is the bond of peace, neither are they of us, nor have we unity with them in their fleshly state, and with their carnal weapons. For our unity and fellowship stand in the gospel, which is the power of God, before the devil was, the liar, the murderer, the man-slayer, and the envious. Now Christ's mind and his doctrine being to save men's lives, we who are of Christ's mind

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