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Canada; whilst the Legislative Council consisted | Commissioner of Public Works, Hon. C. F. Fraser, of 48 members who were elected, and 22 members who were nominated under the old constitution.

Of the 48 elected members, 24 were for Upper Canada and 24 for Lower They were arranged in four sets, and were chosen respectively in 1856, 1858, 1860, and 1862.

In 1855 the question of the "Clergy Reserves" was settled by the application of the property to municipal purposes, vested interests being respected. In the same year seignioral tenure was abolished in Lower Canada.

As years passed, increasing difficulty was experienced in the conduct of public affairs owing to the antagonism of the members for Upper and Lower Canada. Things having almost come to a **dead lock "about 1864, an escape from the difficulty was sought in a project for the union of all the British North American provinces, which, after negotiation, was agreed to, and embodied in the "British North America Act, 1867" (see part III of this article).

The land in both Ontario and Quebec is very fertile, and produces all cereals and wheat crops in abundance; fruit grows luxuriantly; and grapes, melons, peaches and tomatoes come to maturity in the open air. The cattle and meat trade is also assuming considerable proportions, large exports of this kind being shipped annually to England. The same remark applies to dairy produce. As to land grants and emigration, see part III. of the Colonial Office List.

The educational system is very perfect. It is compulsory, and there are no school fees.

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Q.C., $4,000.

Commissioner of Crown Lands, Hon. T. B. Pardee, $4,000.

Secretary and Registrar, Hon. A. S. Hardy, $4,000.

Treasurer, Hon. A. M. Ross, $4,000.
Clerk of the Council,-- -Johnston.


Speaker of the House of Assembly, Hon. Charles
Clarke, $1,250.

Clerk, Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Gillmor, $1,800.
Librarian, Wm. Houston, M.A., $1,400.
Sergeant-at-Arms, F. J. Glackmeyer.
Law Clerk, J. R. Cartwright, $1,000.
Queen's Printer, John Notman, $1,200.

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Kent, E.
Kent, W.


Lambton, E.

Lambton, W.
Lanark, N.
Lanark, S.

Leeds and Grenville,


The Province is represented by 24 Members in
the Senate and 88 Members in the House of Com-Leeds, S.
mons of Canada. It has an Elective Legislative Lennox
Assembly of 88 Members.

Lieutenant-Governor, Hon. JohnB. Robinson, $10,000.
Aide-de-Camp, Capt. Gamble Geddes, $1,200.


Atorney-General and Premier, Hon. Oliver Mowat, LL.D., Q.C., $5,000.

Minister of Education, Hon. G. W. Roзs, $4,000.



Middlesex, E.

Middlesex, N.

Middlesex, W. Monck

Muskoka & Parry
Norfolk, N.

Ephraim G. Sills.

Archibald Bishop.

Lt.-Col. Hon. Alex. McLagan Ross.

Robert Ferguson.

James Clancy.

Jas. Henry Metcalfe.

Peter Graham.

Hon. Timothy B. Pardee.
William Clyde Caldwell.
Wm. Lees.

Hy. Merrick.

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Northumberland, W. Robert Mulholland.

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Isaac J. Gould.

John Dryden.
Patrick Baskerville.

Hon. Oliver Mowat, Q.C.
Geo. A. Cooke.
Kenneth Chisholm.
George Hess.

Thomas Ballantyne.
Thomas Blezard

John Carnegie.
Albert Hagar.
James Hart.
Thomas Murray.
J. F. Dowling, M.D.
Honoré Robillard.
Chas. Drury.

George P. McKay.
Orson J. Phelps.
Joseph Kerr.
Hon. Alex. Morris, Q.C.
Henry Edward Clarke.
Robert Fell.

D. J. McIntyre.
E. W. B. Snider.
Isaac Master.

Lt.-Col. Jas. E. Morin.
Hon. Charles Clarke.

Jas. Laidlaw.
Robert McKim.

Wentworth, N.

Jas. McMahon.

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Nicholas Awrey.
Geo. W. Badgerow.
Jos. H. Widdifield, M.D.
Lieut.-Col. John Gray.

ATTORNEY-GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT. Attorney-General, Hon. Oliver Mowat, Q.C., $5,000. Deputy Attorney-General, J. G. Scott, $3,000. Inspector of Legal Offices, J. Winchester, $2,000.


Architect and Superintendent of Public Works, Kivas
Tully, $2,200.

Secretary of Public Works, Wm. Edwards, $1,750.

Commissioner, Hon. T. B. Pardee, $4,000.
Assistant ditto, T. H. Johnson, $2,800.
Law Clerk, Geo. Kennedy, LL.B., $1,800.


Minister of Education, Hon. Geo. Wm. Ross,

Deputy ditto, J. G. Hodgins, LL.D., F.R.G.S., $3,000
Secretary of Education, Alex. Marling, LL.B., $2,000.



Chief Justice of Ontario, and Chief Justice of Appeal,
Hon. J. H. Hagarty, D.C.I., $7,000.
Justices of Appeal, Hon. G. W. Burton, Hon. C. S.
Patterson, Hon. F. Osler, $6,000 each.


President of the High Court of Justice, and Chief
Justice of the Queen's Bench, Hon. Adam Wilson,

Puisne Judges, Hon. J. D. Armour, Hon. J.
O'Connor, $6,000 each.


Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Hon. M. C.
Cameron, $7,000.

Puisne Judges, Hon. Thos. Galt, John E. Rose,
$6,000 each.

Chancellor, Hon. John A. Boyd, M.A., $7,000.
Vice-Chancellors, Hon. Wm. Proudfoot, Hon. Thos.
Ferguson, $6,000 each.


Provincial Secretary and Registrar, Hon. A. S. Judge, Hon. John Boyd, $600.

Hardy, $4,000.

Assistant Secretary and Deputy for Signing Marriage
Licenses, G. E. Lumsden, $2,000.

Deputy Registrar, J. F. C. Ussher, $1,300.
Registrar General, Hon. A. S. Hardy.
Inspector of Vital Statistics, H. S. Crewe, $1,300.
Commissioner of Immigration, Hon. A. S. Hardy.
Secretary of Immigration, D. Spence, $1,300.
Inspectors of Public Institutions, Dr. W. T. O'Reilly
and R. Christie, each $2,000.

Inspector of Registry Offices, Hon. S. Smith, Q.C.,

Inspector of Division Courts, J. Dickey, $1,500.


Treasurer, Hon. A. M. Ross, $4,000.

Assistant Treasurer, W. R. Harris, $2,000.
Auditor, C. H. Sproule, $1,800.

Commissioner of Agriculture, Hon. A. M. Ross.
Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture and Secretary
of Bureau of Industries, A. Blue, $2,000.
Inspector of Insurance, J. H. Hunter, M.A., $2,000.
Provincial Board of Health, P. H. Bryce, M.A.,
M.D., Secretary, $1,500.


Commissioner, Hon. C. F. Fraser, $4,000.



The Province is represented in the Senate by
24 Senators, and in the House of Commons by 65
Members. It possesses two elective Legislative
Chambers-the Legislative Council of 24 Members,
and the Legislative Assembly with 65 Members.
Lieutenant-Governor, Hon. L. R. Masson, $10,000.
Aide-de-Camp, Capt. H. C. Sheppard, $1,000.
Extra Aide-de-Camp, Lieut. E. B. Garneau.
Private Secretary, C. J. Burroughs, $800.


Attorney-General, Hon. L. O. Taillon, Q.C., $4,000
Treasurer, Hon. J. G. Robertson, $4,000.
Commissioner of Crown Lands, Hon. W. W. Lynch,
Q.C., $4,000.

Premier, Hon. J. J. Ross, M.D.

Minister of Agriculture and Public Works, $5,000.
Provincial Secretary, Hon. Jean Blanchet, Q.C.,

Minister of Railways and Solicitor-General, Hon. E.
J. Flynn, 4,000.

Clerk of Council, J. A. Defoy.

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Quebec Centre

Quebec East
Quebec West
Quebec County
Richmond and Wolfe

St. Hyacinthe
St. Johns

St. Maurice


Three Rivers



V. Bernatchez.
L. G. Desjardins
G. W. Stephens.
Hon. L. O. Taillon.
James McShane.
F. X. Paradis.

L. T. Dorais.

Louis Duhamel, M.D. W. J. Poupore.

J. D. Brousseau.

R. F. Rinfret dit Malouin

Joseph Shehyn.
Félix Carbray.

Hon. Pierre Garneau
Jacques Picard, N.P.
Léon Leduc.
L. N. Asselin.
Etienne Ponlin.
Hon. H. Mercier.

Hon. F. G. Marchand, N.P.
F. S. L. Desaulniers.
Isidore Frégeau, M.D.
Hon. J. G. Robertson.
William Duckett.
John Thornton.
G. H. Deschênes.

G. A. Nantel.

A. Turcotte.

A. Lapointe.

Abraham Bernard.

Hon. J. S. C. Wurtele, Q.C.


Assistant Secretary of Province, P. J. Jolicoeur, Q.C., $2,400.

Deputy Provincial Registrar, Jean Langelier. Assistant to Law Officers of the Crown, J. A. De Foy, $2,400.

Auditor of the Province, Gaspard Drolet, $2,800.
Assistant Treasurer, H. T. Machin, $2,600.

Assistant Commissioner of Crown Lands, E. E. Taché, $2,400.

Assistant Commissioner of Agriculture and Public Works, S. Lesage, $2,400.

Superintendent of Public Instruction, Hon. G.
Ouimet, D.C.L.,Q.C., $

Secretary to the Department of Public Instruction.
Secretary, Department of Railways, E. Moreau.
Clerk of Crown in Chancery, L. H. Huot.


Chief Justice, Queen's Bench, Hon. Sir A. A. Dorion, Kt., $6,000.

Puisne Judges, Queen's Bench:

Hon. S. C. Monk, Hon. T. K. Ramsay, Hon. U.J. Tessier, Hon. A. Cross, Hon. L. F. G. Baby, $5,000 each.

Chief Justice, Superior Court, Hon. Andrew Stuart, Quebec, $6,000.

Puisne Judges, Superior Court:

F. W. Torrance, F. G. Johnson, L. V. Sicotte,
L. E. N. Casault, A. B. Routhier, T. McCord, M.
Doherty, L. Belanger, H. W. Chagnon, M. A.
Plamondon, L. B. Caron, F. Rainville, J. B. Bour-
geois, A. C. Papineau, L. A. Jetté, H. T. Tas-
chereau, Charles Gill, A. R. Angers, Wm.
McDougall, G. V. Buchanan, M. Mathieu, E.
Cimon, L. O. Loranger, E. T. Brooks, Fred.
Andrews, $4,000 each.

Recorder of Montreal, B. Testard de Montigny.
Ditto, Quebec, Elzéar Déry.

Judge of Sessions of Peace, Montreal, L. A. Desnoyers.

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1760 J. Belcher. 1764 M. Wilmot. 1766 M. Franklin. 1773 F Legge 1776 M. Arbuthnot. 1811 General Darroch. 1816 General Smyth. 1819 Earl of Dalhousie. 1820 Sir J. Kempt.

Joint Clerks of the Crown and Clerks of the Peace, 1826 M. Wallace. Montreal, C. E. Schiller, E. W. Sicotte.

Ditto, Dennis Murray, Quebec.


Is now incorporated with Canada It is a peninsula between 43° 46′ N. lat., and 61° 677 W. long., and is connected with New Brunswick by a low sandy isthmus; its length is about 300 miles, and its breadth about 100 at its widest, with much variation. It contains an area of 20,907 square miles, about one-fifth part of which consists of lakes, rivers, and inlets of the sea; deducting this one-fifth part and the land unsuited for agricultural purposes, there are rather more than 5,000,000, acres of land fit for tillage. Grants of 100 acres can be obtained for about 91., and improved farms are to be purchased at moderate prices. The forests of Nova Scotia abound in good. timber-the ash, the beech, the birch, the maple, the oak, the pine, and the spruce being the most common trees.

Nova Scotia was discovered by John Cabot in 1497; it was colonized by the French in 1598; was taken by the English, and a grant of it made to Sir W. Alexander by James I. in 1627. In 1632 it was restored to France, with Quebec, by the treaty of St. Germain en-laye, but again ceded to England at the Peace of Utrecht in 1714. After the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, a settlement of disbanded troops was formed there by Lord Halifax, and the city which now bears his name is the capital of the province.

The harbour of Halifax has an area of about 10 square miles, is open at all seasons, and its navigation is scarcely ever interrupted by ice. This harbour is not surpassed by any in the world, affording safe anchorage for, it is said, 1,000 ships. The British Government has an extensive dockyard at Halifax, which is its principal naval station in North America.

The climate is healthy, but the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia is frequently visited by dense fogs, and the variations of temperature within 24 hours are remarkably great, sometimes exceeding 60°. The greatest heat observed at Halifax by Captain Moorsom was 95° Fahr., and the extreme cold 10°.

Coal and iron ore are plentiful in Nova Scotia. Gold also has been discovered, and is yielding fair returns; but the greater portion of the inhabitants are employed in agriculture and the growth of fruit. The superior fisheries, together with the ship-buildding and timber trades, give occupation to many. Nova Scotia is represented in the Dominion Parliament by 12 Members in the Senate and 21 Members in the House of Commons.

She possesses also a Legislative Council, and a Legislative Assembly.

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1783 P. Fanning. 1791 R. Bulkeley. 1792 J. Wentworth 1808 Sir G. Prevost. 1811 Sir J. Sherbrooke. 1836 Sir C. Campbell 1840 Lord Falkland. 1846 Sir J. Harvey. 1852 Sir G. L. Marchant.

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JHon. J. Wilberforce Longley. Henry

W. Munro. Hon. Angus McGillivray. Hon. Alonzo J. White, Q.C.

William Buchanan.

William A. Patterson.

Wm. M. Blair.

Thos. R. Black.

Annapolis County.
Cape Breton

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Henry M. Robicheau
John S. McNeill,
Otto S. Weeks.
James A. Fraser.
W. D. Harrington.
M. J. Power.

Hon. Wm. S. Fielding.
Nathaniel Spence.
Allan Hayley.
Alex. Campbell.
Angus McLeunan.
Thomas L. Dodge.
Thomas R. Harris.

Hon. Charles E. Church

George Angus Ross.
A. C. Bell.

Robert Hockin.

Charles H. Munro.
Joseph H. Cook.

Jason N. Mack.

(Hon. Isidore Le Blanc.
Murdock McRae.

(Wm. F. McCoy, Q.C.

Hon. Thomas Johnson.
W. F. McCurdy.

J. A. McDonald.

Albert Gayton.

Thomas E. Corning.


Chief Justice, Hon James McDonald, $5,000. Equity Judge, Hon. Alex. James, $4,000.

Assistant Judges,

H. W. Smith,

H. McDonald,

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R. L. Weatherbee,

S. L. Rigby,

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J. N. Ritchie,


Department of Mines and Public Works. Commissioner of Mines and Public Works, Hon. C. E. Church, $2,000.

Deputy Commissioner, John Kelly, $1,400.
Inspector of Mines, E. Gilpin.

Chief Clerk of Mines and Minerals, C. H. Carman.
Provincial Railway Engineer, Martin Murphy, C.E.
Department of Crown Lands.

Commissioner, Hon. C. E. Church.

Chief Clerk, J. H. Austin, $1,400.

Queen's Printer, Hon. C. E. Church.

Superintendent of Education, D. Allison, LL.D.

Finance Department.-Nova Scotia Branch.

Auditor, S. Howe, $1,600.

Assistant Receiver "General, and Manager, Government Savings' Bank, J. R. Wallace.

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Judge of Vice-Admiralty Court, The Chief Justice, Superintendent Government Lunatic Asylum, A. P. $600.


J. W. Johnston, Esq., Q.C., G. A. Blanchard, Esq., Q.C., M. B. Desbrisay, Esq., Q.C., W. A. D. Morse, Esq., Q.C., A. W. Savery, Esq., Q.C., Angus McIsaac, B. E. Tremain, Esq., Q.C., $2,400 each.

IMPERIAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT. General Commanding Her Majesty's Forces, Lord Russell, A.G., C.B. Aides-de-Camp, Lieut. L. Russell, Lieut. C. Hunter, Rifle Brigade.

Assist. Quartermaster-General, Col. W. Black, C.B., h.p.

Assist. Military Secretary, Bt. Lieut.-Col. R. B.
Lane, Rifle Brigade.

Brigade-Major, Major H. D. Cutbill, R.I. Rifles.
Town-Major, Major R. Nagle, h.p.
Commanding R.A., Col. P. Hill, R.A.

R.E., Colonel C. S. Akers, R.E.


Provincial Secretary's Office.

Provincial Secretary, Hon. W. S. Fielding, $2,400.

Deputy ditto, H. Crosskill, $1,400.

Attorney-General's Office.

Reid, M.D.

NEW BRUNSWICK, Which is now incorporated with Canada, is situated between 45° 5′ and 48° 5' N. lat., and 63° 47′ and 67 53′ W. long.: its area is about 27,105 square miles, or 17,000,000 acres. It is connected with Nova Scotia by a low isthmus.

New Brunswick, in the early part of the last century, belonged to the French, and was called by them New France. At the peace of 1763, New Brunswick, with the rest of Canada, was ceded by France to Great Britain, from which period to 1785 it was annexed to Nova Scotia, when it was erected into a separate Colony. It was first colonized by British subjects in 1761, and in 1783 by disbanded troops from New England.

Coal is abundant; antimony, iron, and gypsum are to be found also in very large quantities. A great portion of the country is covered by dense forests of fine timber, the cutting and working of which-or "lumbering"-furnishes remunerative employment to many. Wheat, Indian corn, barley, and oats, are the principal cereals raised. The fisheries are extensive, both sea and river.

New Brunswick is represented in the Canadian Senate by 12 Members, and sends 16 Members to the House of Commons.

There is also a Legislative Council and an

Attorney-General, Hon. Alonzo J. White, Q.C., Elective Assembly. $2,000.


Cashier and Chief Clerk, W. E. Brine.

New Brunswick possesses a Legislative Council of 18 members, and a Legislative Assembly of 41 members.

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