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- General M. Hunter.
Lieut. Colonel Johnston.
1 General W. Balfour.
2 General George Stracey Smyth.
3 Ward Chipman.
4 J. M. Bliss.
5 General Sir H. Douglas.
1 General Sir A. Campbell.
7 General Sir J. Harvey.
1 Colonel Sir W. Colebrooke.
18 Sir Edmund Head, Bart., K.C.B.
54 Hon. J. H. T. Manners Sutton.
61 Sir A. H. Gordon, K.C.M.G.
66 Major-General Sir Hastings Doyle, K.C.M.G., C.B. (acting).
Lieutenant-Governors since Confederation.
367 Colonel F. P. Harding, C.B.
368 Hon. Lemuel Allen Wilmot, D.C.L. 373 Sir S. L. Tilley, K.C.M.G., C.B.
878 Hon. E. B. Chandler, Q.C.
880 Hon. R. D. Wilmot.
885 Hon. Sir S. L. Tilley, K.C.M.G., C.B.
St. John County
St. John City
W. J. Lewis.
Hon. G. S. Turner.
O. J. Le Blanc.
Hon. Wm. Pugsley.
Hon. F. E. Morton, Q.C.
Hon. M. Adams.
John P. Burchill.
Hon. Thos. F. Gillespie.
W. A. Park.
Thomas Hetherington. A. Palmer.
Charles A. Le Billois.
W. A. Quinton.
Hon. R. J. Ritchie.
Charles A. Black.
A. E. Killam
Hon. A. G. Blair.
G. J. Colter.
E. L. Wetmore.
Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, Hon. Chas. with this view accepted the co-operation of Riel and Watters, $600.
Advocate-General, William Jack, Q.C.
Lepine. The attack never took place.
In 1874 Lepine was brought to trial at Fort Garry for the murder of Scott, and was, upon conviction, sentenced to death. But Lord Dufferin, with the Stead-acquiescence of the Secretary of State, commuted his sentence for two years' imprisonment, with loss of political rights, chiefly in view of the acceptance, of his services by Lieut.-Governor Archibald, as above stated.
Clerk of the Pleas in the Supreme Court, T. C. Allen, $2,000.
Clerk of the Crown in the Supreme Court, T. C.
DOMINION OFFICIALS IN NEW BRUNSWICK.
Collector of Customs, James R. Ruel.
Inspector of Post Offices, Hon. John McMillan. Postmaster at St. John, S. J. King.
Secretary, William Paisley.
Superintendent, Money Order Branch,
Assistant Receiver General, R. W. Crookshank.
Accountant, Jas. Robinson.
Savings Bank Accountant, S. B. Patterson.
Fisheries and Marine.
Agent for New Brunswick, M. W. Smith. Inspector of Fisheries, W. H. Venning. Emigration Officer, S. Gardner.
Manitoba was erected into a Province with Representative Institutions by an Act of the Canadian Parliament, 33 Vic., c. 3, taking effect from the 15th July, 1870. By this Act, the boundaries of Manitoba are defined. It is declared to be bounded on the south by the 49th degree of latitude, on the north by the 50° 30' latitude, on the west by the 99th parallel of W. longitude, and on the east by the 96th parallel of E. longitude.
By the Canadian Act 44 Vict., c. 14, these boundaries were extended, and the boundaries of the province were fixed at 49°-53° N. lat., and 90°-101° W. long., comprising an area of 123,200 square miles.
Manitoba was formerly known as the Red River Settlement of the Hudson's Bay Company. Upon the surrender of the Charter of that Company to the Crown, with a view of the inclusion of Rupert's Land in the Dominion, many of the inhabitants of the Red River Settlement, fear ing that they would be subject to a possibly stricter form of Government, rose in insurrection, and established a provisional Government of their own, headed by Louis Riel, a half-breed. On the 4th of March, 1870, Riel, Lepine, and other leaders of this insurrection shot a man named Scott, who had been opposed to them.
The insurrection itself ended by the flight of the leaders upon the approach of Sir Garnet Wolseley with a military force from Canada. In September, 1870, Mr. A. G. Archibald assumed the administration of the Government.
In October, 1871 the Province was threatened by a Fenian raid. Mr. Archibald, isolated, and without the aid of troops, took measures for its defence, and
The agricultural capabilities of this province are very highly spoken of. The soil is a rich black loam. The growth of Winnipeg, the chief city, is remarkable. In 1870 it contained about 200 inhabitants. In 1881 it had a population of about 10,000, and is increasing rapidly.
For some years the province could only be reached by railway through the United States territory, but in 1881 that portion of the Canadian Pacific Railway from Thunder Bay to Winnipeg was opened, the benefit of which it is difficult to calculate.
The free-grant lands are almost all taken up, but good farms can be purchased at from $2 to $10 per
British Columbia is situated on the north-west coast of North America, and comprises the territory between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast, bounded on the north by the 60th parallel, and on the south by the United States-the average breadth being about 250 miles, and the length of coast line 450 miles. The area (including Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands) is about 350,000 square miles.
The geographical position of British Columbia is very important, jutting out from North America as Great Britain juts out from Europe. The comparatively favourable distances across the ocean to Japan, China, and Australia, the direction of the trade winds, the inexhaustible stores of coal, the immense fertile regions through which the Canadian Pacific Railway reaches the seaboard, linking the Pacific Ocean to the system of the St. Lawrence navigation on the eastern side of the American continent, are facts extremely favourable to the growth of a widely-extended commerce. British Columbia was constituted a Crown colony in 1858, owing to the large immigration consequent on the discovery of gold in that year. In 1866 the colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island were united, and on July 20, 1871, British Columbia entered the Canadian Confederation, and is represented by three members in the Seuate and six in the House of Commons of
The Provincial Government is administered by a lieutenant governor and legislative assembly of twenty-five members on the system of executive administration known as a 66 Responsible Government."
The population is about 70,000, of whom 30,000 or more are Indians, and at least 15,000 Chinese. The schools are free and non-sectarian; school districts being formed wherever there are fifteen pupils between the ages of six and sixteen.
The vast tract comprised within the limits of the province extending as it does through nearly 12 degrees of latitude with a varying breadth and elevation-naturally affords a great diversity of climate.
The coast region has been described as "having a climate wonderfully like that of the South of England, only the summers are much drier." The warm, tropical waters of the Pacific Gulf Stream striking the coast give to Vancouver Island and the coast generally a mild and agreeable climate; there is little frost or snow, and there is a difference of at least 10 degrees of latitude in favour of places on the coast as compared with corresponding positions on the Atlantic coast. The interior is subject to greater extremes both of heat and cold, but nowhere are the extremes so great as on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains: the climate is for the most part drier, and the snow falls consequently less.
Agricultural operations have been greatly extended during the past five years, and have proved
the character of the land throughout the province to be admirably adapted for the culture of cereals, while large tracts of good grazing land exist in the interior.
The trade of the province is developing rapidly; the exports amount to nearly four millions annually (a remarkable fact considering the number of the population); they consist of minerals (chiefly gold and coal), sea products (chiefly salmon and oil), timber, furs, skins, &c. The imports amount to two and a half millions, principally from Eastern Canada, England, the United States, China, &c.
The province has produced nearly fifty million dollars of gold, and although the production for 1884 ($615,000) is less than in former years, it is expected that the prosecution of quartz mining, now in its infancy, will, in the near future, be a most important industry.
The lumber trade is fast attaining large dimensions, the shipments from the two principal mills, during 1884, amounting to 30,000,000 feet. Timber is abundant in all parts of the province. The waters of the province teem with food fishes; besides salmon and herrings there are large quantities of cod, including common and black cod, bass, flounders, skate, sole, halibut, sardines, and oysters. Whales are numerous, and the capture of the fur seal is an important industry.
To the sportsmen and anglers British Columbia is attractive. The game in the more settled districts consist of grouse, ptarmigan, quail, duck, snipe, &c.; and in the wilder parts mountain sheep and goat, cariboo, elk, bear, &c., abound.
Lieutenant-Governors since entering the Dominion.
1871 Hon. Joseph W. Trutch, C.E., C.M.G. 1876 Hon. Albert Norton Richards, Q.C. 1881 Hon. Clement Francis Cornwall.
SEAT OF GOVERNMENT, VICTORIA. Lieut.-Governor, Hon. Clement Francis Cornwall,
Private Secretary and A.D.C., Capt. R. G. Tatlow, $900.
Chief Justice, Sir M. B. Begbie, Kt., $5,820.
Collector, Hon. W. O. Hamley, $3,799-93.
Deputy Collector, J. C. Haynes, $1,704.
This island, which was admitted into union with the Dominion of Canada on the 1st July, 1873, is situated between 46° and 47° N. lat., and between 62° and 64° W. long.; its area is about 1,380,000 acres; it is about 140 miles long, and 34 its greatest breadth. It was discovered by Sebastian Cabot, 1497; it was first settled by the French, but was taken from them in 1758. It was annexed to the Government of Nova Scotia in 1763, but, on the petition of its inhabitants, was constituted a separate Colony in 1770.
The climate is milder than in the surrounding British Colonies, and it is considered very healthy. The island is generally well wooded.
The inhabitants are engaged almost exclusively
Sub-Collector (at Kootenay), John Gustavus Norris, in agriculture
Postmaster at Victoria, R. Wallace.
Inspector, E. Fletcher.
Responsible Government was established at Prince Edward Island in 1851. There is a LieutenantGovernor, appointed by the Governor-General of Canada, an Executive Council (the Cabinet) composed of 9 members, a Legislative Council of 13 members, and a House of Assembly of 30 members. Both these bodies are elected by the people.
The island is divided into three counties, King's, Queen's, and Prince's, each of these elects ten representatives and four councillors to the Local Assembly. The island is also represented in the Dominion Parliament.
The land tenure was for many years a source of agitation in this Colony. At the close of the last century the whole island was parcelled into 66 lots, and these lots were distributed amongst various persons, with certain conditions attached to the grants which have been regarded as impracticable. The lands thus acquired were on most estates leased for terms of 999 years, at an annual rent of about one shilling an acre, and thus a system of absentee proprietorship was established. several years the Local Government bought out the interests of the proprietors in their lands whenever favourable opportunities occurred. The land question was disposed of by a compulsory Land Purchase Act passed by the provincial Legislature in 1875. This Act compelled the proprietors to sell to the tenants, at a price to be fixed by the award of a majority of three Com
Attorney-General, Hon. A. E. R. Davie, Q.C., missioners appointed under the Act. The majority $3,000.
Deputy ditto, P. Æ. Irving, $2,040.
of the Commissioners awarded the proprietors on the average about 5s. 6d. an acre.
The soil of the island is good, and especially adapted for oats and the raising of sheep and
Registrar-General of Titles, H. B. W. Aikman, $2,280- cattle.
Lands and Works Department.
Chief Commissioner, Hon. Wm. Smithe, $3,000.
Prince Edward Island is represented in the Dominion Parliament by 4 Members in the Senate, and 6 in the House of Commons. The island also possesses a Legislative Council (elective) of 13 Members, and a Legislative Assembly of 30 Members.
1770 Walter Paterson.
1786 Lieut.-Gen. Edmund Fanning.
1851 Sir Alexander Bannerman.
1854 Sir Dominick Daly.
1859 George Dundas.
1868 Sir R. Hodgson, Administrator.
1870 Sir William C. F. Robinson, K.C.M.G.
Lieutenant-Governors since entering the Dominion.
1873 Sir W. C. F. Robinson, K.C.M.G. 1873 Sir R. Hodgson, Administrator.
1874 Sir R. Hodgson, Lieutenant-Governor. 1879 Hon. T. H. Haviland, Q.C.
1884 Hon. A. A. Macdonald.
Provincial Auditor, R. F. De Blois.
Registrar of Deeds, Beaj. Des Brisay.
Secretary of Board of Works, John W. Morrison. Assistant Provincial Secretary and Treasurer, Arthur Newbery.
Queen's Printer, John Coombs.
Collector of Customs at Charlottetown, James Currie.
Surveyor of Shipping, Henry Longworth.
JUDICIAL ESTABLISHMENT, SUPREME COURT. Hon. Edward Palmer, Chief Justice and Judge of Court of Vice-Admiralty, $3,000.
Hon. James H. Peters, Master of the Rolls and Senior Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court, $2,500.
Hon. Joseph Hensley, Vice-Chancellor and Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court, $2,500.
Robert T. Weeks, Clerk of the Crown and Prothonotary.