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The line between Grahamstown and Port Alfred (about 40 miles), under construction by a company subsidised by Government, was opened for traffic on the 24th December, 1883. During the session of 1883 powers were given to a company, to be also aided by a subsidy, to construct a branch from Worcester, on the Western Main Line, down the Breed River as far as Montagu.
Public Works other than Railways. Harbour Works on an extensive scale are being constructed at Cape Town, Port Alfred, and East London.
At Cape Town and Port Elizabeth the works are under the direction of local boards, composed of elective and nominee members. At Port Alfred and East London they are controlled by the Public Works Department of the Government.
The cost of these works to the 31st December, 1884, for the breakwater, docks, &c., 1,881,6947. The expenditure during the year 1884 was 159,4107., and the revenue 72,1967.
The breakwater is now being carried out to a length of some 1,233 yards, the portion already completed being 2,310 feet. The graving dock, named the Robinson Dry Dock, was opened for use on the 20th October, 1882. Its length is 539.6 feet, and it is capable of taking ironclads and vessels of the very largest class likely to be sent out to these waters. The cost was 156,6897. It is constructed throughout of granite.
The number of vessels docked during the year 1884 was 724, registering 871,154 tons.
Extensive additions to the Harbour Works of Table Bay have been authorised, comprising an outer harbour, formed in part by the existing breakwater, and its extension, and a south arm running parallel with it, which will enclose an area of 64 acres, in addition to the inner docks, with a depth ranging from 24 to 36 feet at low water. The cost is estimated at 405,8107.
The works at Port Elizabeth are now completed. From January, 1876, to December, 1884, the works constructed were two iron pile jetties, each nearly 900 feet long, which have much facilitated the landing and shipping of passengers and goods; an iron bridge over the Boakens River, and two retaining banks, and the removal of the old wooden jetties, and the old breakwater and Shield. The total expenditure during this period, on removal of old structures, construction of new works, and maintenance, has been 270,2351.
At East London and at Port Alfred, situated at the mouths of the Buffalo and Kowie Rivers, the attempt is being made to overcome the obstructions of the sand-bars which close the entrances, by the construction of training-walls intended to have the effect of removing the bar by the natural scouring of the stream. To the 30th June, 1885, there had been expended at East London 502,4877., and at Port Alfred, 214,2351.
Considerable sums have also been expended upon other useful works, and upon opening of the road communications of the country. For these purposes the following sums have been appropriated for expenditure for the financial year, 1884-85 works and other buildings, 47,6977.; roads and bridges, 214,3257.
The new Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, the contract for the superstructure of which was let to Messrs. Joseph Bull and Sons, of Southampton, for 133,7197., are now completed, and were occupied during the session of 1885. The cost, including furniture, electric lighting, &c., has amounted to about 220,0007.
Considerable advance has been made during the past year in developing the coal deposits in the Stormberg, on the north-eastern frontier. The coal is shown to be of a superior quality, and is found to be fairly suitable for railway purposes, experiments made by Government with the view of testing the practicability of using it on the colonial lines having resulted on the whole favourably. This coal is used freely for household purposes at Queenstown, and in other places in the neighbourhood of the fields.
The promotion of a company to work the mines at Spriggton and to lay a branch line from the Eastern Railway to the coal pits, will doubtless tend to the rapid advancement of this industry, to the material benefit of the Colony, fuel being one of the most expensive articles of necessary consumption. The locality of the various deposits has been determined with some accuracy, by explorations conducted with a diamond boring apparatus imported by the Government.
Mining operations on a large scale are carried on in the division of Namaqualand, where extensive copper deposits exist. The O'okiep Mine, the property of the Cape Copper Mining Company (Limited), is believed to be one of the richest in the world. The percentage of copper is 33-00. Between this mine and the seaport (Port Nolloth), a distance of 93 miles, a railway of 2ft. 6in. gauge has been laid by the enterprising Company named, at a cost of no less than 158,1007.
The export of copper during the year 1884 was 20,348 tons, valued at 405,415.
A rich mine of manganese ore, yielding from 70 to 90 per cent., exists in the mountains opposite the Paarl, a town distant about 35 miles by rail from Cape Town.
Gold and other minerals have been found in various parts of the Colony, but not in sufficient quantities at present to render the discoveries of much commercial value. Prospecting is, however, being energetically carried on.
Guano is found in large quantities on the various islets along the coast; and the collection and exportation of it forms a very remunerative industry. The leases of these islands bring in an annual rental of from 6,000l. to 7,000l.
The diamond fields of South Africa are situated in the territory known as Griqualand West, which became British territory by cession from the Griqua people in 1871, and remained a separate colony until October, 1880, when it was annexed to the Cape Colony.
The history of these Diamond Fields is briefly as follows:-The first diamond was found by accident, in 1867, and passed through many hands before its value was suspected. Even when it was admitted to be a diamond, doubts were thrown on its origin, and the existence of rough diamonds in South Africa was so generally discredited, that nothing like an organized or systematic examination of the country was made for a long time.
A few diamonds, however, continued to be found, and in the year 1870 an exploring party, chiefly composed of officers of Her Majesty's 20th Regiment, then stationed at Natal, and another of Cape Colonists from King William's Town, proceeded to dig and wash the alluvial drift along the banks of the Vaal River. They soon found diamonds, and their success brought numerous other parties from all parts of the neighbouring Colonies
and Republics. Operations were at this time confined to the river banks, which for many miles were covered with mining camps.
In 1871, however, the discovery had been made that diamonds existed not only in the drift of the ? old river-bed near the present course of the Vaal, but in the loose red surface-sand covering the flat grassy country between that river and the Modder, a smaller stream which ultimately joins the Vaal. A vigorous, if not systematic, search soon resulted in the opening of the four mines now being worked at and close to Kimberley, and the river banks were soon deserted for the more profitable Dry Diggings, where diamonds were found in unexampled profusion.
When the dry diggings-technically known as "Mines "—were first opened, the searching for stones was carried on with the rude appliances brought from the River, and claim-patches of 30 superficial feet square were worked by inidvidual claim-holders. But as they sunk deeper, the cost of working increased so enormously that the individual was no longer able to work his claim economically, and the digger who worked with pick and shovel has been gradually supplanted by capitalists and wealthy and powerful corporations operating on the most extensive scale, with elaborate and costly machinery, and employing large bodies of overseers and labourers.
The diamondiferous soil is dug or quarried from the so-called mine, which is simply an enormous pit or hole, raised to the surface by means of either aerial tramways or perpendicular shafts, and conveyed to, and spread out to air, upon the " depositing floor," where it lies exposed to the atmosphere for six weeks or two months, varying with the weather, when it is crushed in the "washing machine," which also subjects it to a process of sifting through a graduated series of sieves. The result of the sifting is sorted by hand, and the diamonds are separated from the debris. The hauling and washing engines are almost exclusively driven by steam. The mine is connected with the depositing floor by tramways. At the four mines in 1884 the number of steam engines of various kinds employed was 336, with a total of 3,634 horse-power. The total length of single line of tramways amounted to 160 miles, the neighbourhood of the mines being covered by a network of rails. The mines are known by the names of Kimberley, Old De Beer's, Du Toit's Pan, and Bultfontein. The two former are the property of the Government, the two latter of the London and South African Exploration Company (Limited). The surface area of Kimberley Mine is 23 acres, its depth nearly 500 feet; the surface area of De Beer's 29 acres, but the depth only 300 feet. The mines of Du Toit's Pan and Bultfontein are considerably larger in superficial area, though not so deep as the others.
The number of claims is:
In the Kimberley Mine
Old De Beer's Mine
Du Toit's Pan Mine Bultfontein Mine
The value of claim-ground is assessed for rating purposes as follows:
The internal affairs of each mine are managed by a board, limited to seven members, elected by the claim-holders, or, in default of such election, by a board of three members appointed by the Government.
The severe losses suffered by the mining industry through the illicit trade in rough diamonds have to some extent, though not entirely, been checked by the stringent protective measure known as the "Diamond Trade Act," passed in 1882, the more important provisions of which have been applied, with modifications, to the entire colony by Act No. 14 of 1885. The suppression of the crime employs a large detective force and searching staff, maintained at an annual cost of over 20,000l., derived from fines and duties imposed by the Acts, and from contributions by the mining boards.
The largest diamond known to have been found was 602 carats. The highest price given for a single rough stone is 8,000l., being about 1007. per carat. The question whether the title of the proprietors of the farms entitles them to the sub-soil diamonds has been violently debated, and involving as it did consequences of great pecuniary magnitude to the diggers, at one time led them to acts of lawlessness which rendered necessary the despatch of a body of Her Majesty's troops to the Diamond Fields to ensure respect for authority. The trouble was averted by the acquisition of the principal farm, Vooruitzigt, for 100,000l. by the Government; and as regards the minor diggings, the matter has now been set at rest by a legislative compromise.
The colonists at the Cape are chiefly employed in the production of wool, wine, wheat, barley, oats, tobacco and maize, and in the breeding of horses, cattle, goats, ostriches, and sheep. The wheat of this Colony is not surpassed in quality by any grown elsewhere. Valuable forests cover large areas, and Those reserved to the are extensively worked. Crown cover an estimated area of about 250,000 acres. They are controlled by the Department of Woods and Forests, at an annual charge of some 10,000%. The attention of the Government has
recently been given to the economical and systematic working of the Crown Forests with anticipated satisfactory results.
Ostrich breeding is not now carried on so largely as heretofore. Artificial incubation of ostrich eggs has been successfully introduced in many districts In 1860, the export of ostrich feathers was 2,287 lbs.; ten years later it was 28,768 lbs., while in 1884 it amounted to 233,411 lbs.
The exports of mohair at corresponding dates were respectively:-385 lbs., 403,153 lbs., and 4,329,355 lbs. The export of wool had risen from 23,172,785 lbs. in 1860, to 37,270,615 lbs. in 1884.
Statistics of manufactories and works are incomplete, but the undermentioned information was obtained in 1884 as regards cities and towns:Number of boot works 129, brick works 130, jam, &c., works, 37, cooperages 22, gun works 9, iron and tin works 129. printing establishments 74, saddlery works 124, fish curing 61, gas 2, boat-building 9, wagon and cart works 301, glass 1.
The following is an account of the declared value of the principal articles (Colonial produce) exported in 1883 and 1884:
Contracts have been entered into by the Colonial Government for weekly communication between England and the Cape, and vice versa, with the Union Steamship Company and the Castle Mail Packets Company. The packets leave England on Fridays, and the Cape (Table Bay) on Wednesdays, the passage to be effected in 21 days, and in 22 days when the steamer is required to touch at St. Helena or Ascension, but premiums are paid for quicker runs. The average passage is 20 days. £9,973 The distance by sea from England to the Cape 6,828 varies from 5,866 to 6,146 miles, according to the 405,415 course followed. The packets of each Company 7,993 call at Madeira, both on the outward and home966,479 ward voyages, except that the "Castle" packets on alternative voyages call at Lisbon instead of Madeira.
Declared value. 1883. £10,258 5,591 454,113 6,816 931,380 22,198 3,665 271,804 82,064 7,283
239,573 Steamers leave Table Bay four times a month 105,873 for Natal (distant about 1,000 miles), calling at 8,621 Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, and East London, to 2,755 land and embark passengers; they usually leave 3,879 about 24 hours after the arrival of the English 115,699 mail.
Wool, sheep's, fleece washed
This statement excludes diamonds.
884 1,779 15,922 267,365 1,100,834 376,994
To promote elementary instruction of all children, industrial training for native lads and girls, and superior instruction to those preparing for the University examinations, the Government gives grants of money in aid of salaries of lecturers and professors (under the Higher Education Act), and of other teachers under Act 13 of 1865. assistance in providing furniture, &c., allowances in aid of expenses of needy boarders at schools amongst the agricultural population, and to maintain native boarders at industrial institutions. In 1854, 91 schools, at which 10,266 children attended, cost the Colony 7,5931., while during the year 1884-85 there were in the Colony and the Transkei 989 schools, with 75,713 scholars. The Government expenditure on education in the financial year 1883-84 amounted to 99,9187.; as late as 1872 it was only 25,2671 The local expenditure was 101,6457. in 1883-84.
Under Act No. 16 of 1873 was established the University of the Cape of Good Hope, whose power to confer the degrees of B.A., M.A., LL.B., LL.D., M.B., and M.D. has been recognised by Her Majesty under Letters Patent dated 8th August, 1877.
The passage to Port Elizabeth takes two days, East London three, and to Natal four to five.
A "Castle" Company's steamer leaves Table Bay once a month for Delagoa Bay, and ports on the East Coast of Africa; and that Company also sends a steamer once a month to Mauritius and Madagascar.
Communication is effected between Cape Town and the chief inland towns daily, with Natal once a week, via the Transkei, once by steamer, and Free State twice a week, and with the Transvaal once viâ the Orange Free State, with the Orange once a week through the Diamond Fields.
The number of Colonial post offices is 612, and of money order offices, 142. The expenditure on the postal service in 1873 amounted to 63,297, and to 200,095/. in 1884; the revenue in 1873 was 41,4787., and the commission on money orders 9027; the corresponding figures for 1884 were 119,1534 and 4,908.
addressed to England, and supposed to contain The weight of registered packets diamonds, which passed the Post Office in the 13,502 lbs. 10 oz. years 1874 to 1884, both inclusive, amounted to
Cape Town, which had in 1875 a population of 33,239, and with suburbs, 45,240, is laid out at right angles, and contains numerous handsome shops, offices, and churches. The finest building is the edifice providing accommodation for the two Houses of Parliament and the Colonial Office.
Kimberley has a population of 13,590; Port Elizabeth, 13,040; Graham's-town, 6,903; King William's Town, 5,169; Paarl, 5,760; Graaff
Reinet, 4,562; Worcester, 3,788; Queenstown, 2,320; East London, 2,134.
The Government of the Cape from 1806 to 1835 was administered by a Governor, aided by a few Executive Officers; but in that year an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council, appointed by the Crown, comprising certain office-holders and sume unofficial members, were created.
By Letters Patent, dated 23rd May, 1850, the Governor and Council were empowered to enact Ordinances for the establishment of a Representative Government; three years later, that form of Government was brought into force. By an Act of the Colonial Legislature passed in the session of 1872, the introduction of the system of Responsible Government, that is the conduct of the Executive Government by the advice of Ministers responsible to the Local Parliament, was pronounced advisable, and the Royal Assent to the measure was given by an Order in Council dated the 9th August, 1872. The first Ministry under Responsible Government was formed in November, 1872.
There is a Legislative Council of 22 elected Members, presided over, ex officio, by the Chier Justice, and a House of Assembly of 74 elected Members, representing the country districts and towns of the Colony. The Colonial Ministers are the Colonial Secretary, the Treasurer-General, the AttorneyGeneral (who is Premier), the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Public Works, and the Secretary for Native Affairs, all of whom are Members of the Legislature, and also have seats in the Executive Council, of which the Governor is President.
Act No. 18 of 1874 provided for the division of the Colony into seven electoral provinces, each electing three members for the Legislative Council for seven years. Under the Griqualand West Annexation Act 39 of 1877, a Member is added to the Council for that province. The qualification for Members is possession of immovable property of 2,000l., or movable property worth 4,000l. With the exception of paid office-holders (other than the Ministers), and others specified in the Order in Council, any person may be elected a Member of Assembly. Members of both Houses are elected by the same voters, who are qualified by possession of property, or receipt of salary or wages, of not less than 507. per annum, or not less than 251. with board and lodging. The number of registered electors in 1885 was 86,206.
By an Act No. 5 of 1875, the Ecclesiastical En. dowments provided by the Civil List Ordinance of 1852, were abolished prospectively, the life interests of incumbents being respected.
The supreme court, as consolidated by Act No. 40, of 1882, consists of one Chief Justice and eight Puisne Judges; and the Court of Appeal consists of a Chief Justice, the Judge Presidents of the Eastern Districts and High Courts, and two other Judges of the Supreme Court. Within the jurisdiction of the Court of the Eastern Districts fall territories known as Transkei, Griqualand, and Tembuland.
The Judges of the "Supreme Court" hold Sessions in Cape Town, and Circuit Courts in the Western Districts, the Judges of "The Eastern Districts Court," hold Sessions in Grahamstown, and Circuit Courts in the principal towns of the Eastern Districts, and the Judges of the High Court holds session at Kimberley.
The Roman Dutch I aw prevails in the Colony as modified by Colonial Legislation.
This territory forms an irregular oval in the northeast of the Cape Colony; the main axis, about 150 miles in length, lying in a north-easterly direction. The Orange Free State, Natal, and the Cape Colony form part of its western, northern, and eastern boundaries. Its area is estimated at 10,293 square miles.
The territory, which is well watered, and enjoys a delicious climate, is the finest grain producing country in South Africa, and the abundant grass enables the Basutos to rear immense herds of cattle. The scenery is grand, and in many parts extremely beautiful.
The following statistics are derived from the 1875 census of the Cape Colony, of which Basutoland then formed a part.
Stock, etc.-35,257 horses, draught cattle 28,626 other 188,791, sheep, wooled, 240,270, other 49,537, goats, angora, 13,592, other 147,162, pigs 15,237, ploughs 2,770, harrows 269.
Its productions are wool, wheat, mealies, and Kaffir corn. There are indications of iron and copper, and coal has been found and is used in some parts.
The Basutos appear to have been composed of the remnants of several tribes which were broken up in the wars waged by Moselikatze, the king of the Matabele, in the early years of the present century. These remnants were united in about 1818 under Moshesh, a chief of great ability, who ruled for many years.
In 1852 war broke out between Moshesh and the British Government; the Basutos were defeated by Sir G. Cathcart at the battle of the Berea Mountain, and Moshesh sent in his submission, and made peace.
A few years later, in 1856, disputes arose between Moshesh and the Orange Free State respecting boundary questions, and hostilities resulted. The conflict lasted from 1856 to 1858, with indecisive results, and was concluded by the Treaty of Aliwal, 1858. Even then peace was not established on any firm basis, outbreaks of hostilities frequently occurring.
In December, 1861, Moshesh invoked the protection of the Queen, and prayed to be recognised as a sort of tributary chief. He likewise prayed for the appointment of a British Resident, and sounded his petition on the treaty concluded with Sir George Cathcart after the action of the Berea. This request received due attention from the Colonial Office, but the arrangement fell through, owing to difficulties raised by the Orange Free State.
In 1865 the war broke out afresh, and Moshesh again claimed the protection of the Governor, Sir Philip Wodehouse. The latter declined to interpose actively, but despatched a British Commissioner, Mr. J. Burnett, to Thaba Bosigo, the capital of Basutoland, with a view to settling difficulties. This measure met with little success, and the war continued.
The war dragged for some time; but in the end the Boers were everywhere successful, and Moshesh, under the pressure of reverses, and in face of prospective famine, sued for peace. At the treaty of Thaba Bosigo, April 1866, he recognised the permanent cession of a portion of his district, and acknowledged himself a subject of the Orange Free State.
The peace was of short duration, the war was renewed, and the Basutos, pressed by the Boers, were on the brink of destruction, when they again appealed to be taken under the authority of the Queen, and in January, 1868, Sir Philip Wodehouse received authority to recognise Moshesh and his tribe as British subjects, and for the incorporation of their territory. This was carried into effect by a proclamation dated 12th March, 1868. Though further danger from the Boers was thus averted, the country remained in a very unsettled condition, until it was annexed to the Cape in August, 1871.
This was effected by an Act of the Cape Legislature, No. 12 of 1871. In consideration of he peculiar circumstances of the Basuto community, the Act of incorporation expressly declared that Basutoland was not to be subject to the general law of the Colony, that the Government should have power to legislate for it by proclamation, and to extend to it by proclamation any Cape Act not otherwise in force therein.
The recent history of Basutoland has been one of much trouble and disturbance.
In March, 1879, Moirosi, the chief of the Quithing district, in the south-east of Basutoland, rescued from justice his son Doda, who had been arrested for horse-stealing; and, on the Colonial authorities demanding his surrender, broke out into open defiance of its authority. Owing to the great natural strength of his country and stronghold, considerable difficulty was experienced in subduing him; but in December of that year, his strong hold was carried by storm, and he himself fell in the assault. The proposals of the Colonial Government to divide the territory occupied by the adherents of this chief into lots for occupation by European settlers gave rise to great discontent among the Basutos who had remained loyal. Basutoland, they said, was already too small for its population, and the scheme of the Colonial Government was a breach of the promise which Sir P. Wodehouse made to Moshesh when the Basutos came under British rule, that Basutoland should always remain a native reserve. This discontent was further increased by the extension of the Cape Peace Preservation Act of 1878, providing for a general disarmament, to Basutoland by Proclamation dated the 6th of April, 1880, and culminated in the revolt of almost the whole tribe when an attempt was made to put the Act in force. The rebellion subsequently spread to the native territories to the east and south of Basutoland, East Griqualand, Tambookieland, and the country of the Pondomisi, where the rising was signalized by the treacherous murder of Mr. Hope, the magistrate, and other Europeans.
Strenuous efforts were made by the Colony to reduce the Basutos to submission by force of arms, but without decisive success. The loss of their cattle, however, and the interruption of cultivation caused great distress amongst them. Early in 1881 overtures for an arrangement were made by the leading chiefs, and, at the instance of Her Majesty's Government, the High Commissioner acted as arbiter between the Colonial Government and the Basutos.
The terms of his award were, the registration of arms, the payment of compensation to those natives who had remained loyal by the tribe, and also the payment of a fine of 5,000 head of cattle. The award was accepted by the Basutos and the fine paid, but little was done towards fulfilling the other conditions. Finding that a full compliance with
the award was not to be hoped for, the Colonial Ministry, with a view to facilitate a settlement, cancelled the award and induced the Local Parliament to assume the burden of compensating the loyals. The Disarmament Proclamation was also repealed, and at a Pitso held on the 24th of April, 1883, a very liberal constitution was offered to the Basutos. Masupha, however, the chief of the Berea district, who was the leader of the revolt, and though he had accepted the award had taken no steps to comply with it, with several other chiefs of influence, held aloof, and practically declared their intention to have no further connexion with the Colonial Government, and the tribe generally were understood to wish to be under the direct authority of the Imperial Government. In the meantine a strong feeling in favour of the entire abandonment of Basutoland had grown up in the Colony, and the Colonial Ministry feeling themselves unable to effect a settlement, sent Mr. Merriman, the Minister for Public Works, to England to confer with Her Majesty's Government asto the future of the territory. In view of the disastrous effects which the abandonment would have produced, not only in Basutoland itself, but throughout South Africa, the Imperial Government decided to undertake provisionally and for a time the administration of the country on condition that satisfactory evidence was given by the Basutos of their desire to remain under the British Crown, that the Orange Free State should undertake to cause the frontier to be respected by its subjects, and that the colony should pay over towards the cost of administration the customs duties received on goods imported into Basutoland. This offer was accepted by the Colony, and provision was made in the Basutoland Disannexation Act of 1883 for the payment of 20,000l. a-year, in lieu of customs, and the Free State also intimated its willingness to comply with the conditions so far as it was concerned.
A great national Pitso of the Basutos was held on the 29th of November, 1883, attended by the representatives of more than two-thirds of the whole tribe. These unanimously expressed their desire to remain under British rule, and their willingness to pay hut tax and comply with the other conditions on which the Imperial Government was prepared to assume the responsibility of the administration of the country. Several important chiefs who were not at the Pitso subsequently expressed their concurrence in this resolution, Masupha alone refusing to accept the offers of the Government and desiring to remain independent. Her Majesty's Government upon this decided that their conditions were sufficiently complied with, advised the Queen to sanction the Dis-annexation Act, and immediately took steps for carrying on the government under the immediate authority of the Crown. The territory is now governed by a Resident Commissioner under the direction of the High Commissioner for South Africa, the latter possessing the legislative authority, which is exercised by proclamation. The revenue for 1884-5 was 27,2721., and the expenditure, 24,528. The estimate of revenue for 1885-6 is 26,5507., and that of expenditure 26,4097.
Resident Commissioner, Colonel Marshall James Clarke, R.A., C.M.G., 1,200/., and 2007. travelling allowance.
Secretary and Accountant, Godfrey Y. Lagden, 4007. Assistant Commissioners, W. H. Surmon, 6007.; Barrett, 5007.; Major-General Wolfe, 5007.