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rous benefactions of money or books for the use of the school; by which, and from himself, the children were supplied with bibles, catechisms and other proper books. He often visited the school, to support the master's authority and respect, to examine the proficiency of the children, catechise, instruct and pray with them; and the trustees visited it weekly by rotation, to observe the behaviour and improvement of the children, and to receive the master's report concerning them. This institution has been serviceable to the temporal and eternal interest of many, who might otherwise have been exposed to great ignorance and wretchedness; and it is still kept up by the congregation on the same plan, though it wants some of those advantages, which it derived from the Doctor's large acquaintance and influence.-These are some sketches of the manner in which he fulfilled his ministry: And I have insisted the more largely upon this subject, as it may furnish some hints, which may be useful to those, who are engaged in the same important work, or are training up for it.

The Doctor took great pains to preserve upon his mind a deep sense of the importance of his office, that he might discharge it in the best manner possible; and to maintain a fervent affection for his people, as what would contribute to make his labours easy to himself, and acceptable and useful to them. He kept a memorandum book on his desk, in which he set down. hints, as they occurred to him, of what might be done for the good of the congregation; of persons to be visited, the manner of addressing them, and many such particulars. At the close of every year he took a large and distinct view of its state, wrote some remarks upon it, and laid down rules for his future conduct in his relation to it.-He was pleased when he had opportunities of attending the ordinations of his brethren; and when he returned from them, considered his own concern in them, as a minister, and renewed, before God, his engagements to fidelity. After one of these services he thus writes: "At this ordination, I preached from Heb. xiii. 17, They watch for your souls, as they that must give account. It was a solemn, useful day, and left some deep impressions on my heart. I would remember that, teaching others, I teach myself. I have many cares and labours. May God forgive me, that I am so apt to forget those of the pastoral office! I now resolve, 1. To take a more particular account of the souls committed to my care. 2. To visit, as soon as possible, the whole congregation, to learn more particularly the circumstances of them, their Ꮐ

VOL. I.

children and servants. 3. I will make as exact a list as I can, of those that I have reason to believe are unconverted, awakened, converted, fit for communion, as well as those that are in it. 4. When I hear any thing particular, relating to the religious state of my people, I will visit them and talk with them. 5. I will especially be careful to visit the sick. I will begin immediately with inspection over those under my own roof, that I may with the greater freedom urge other heads of families to a like care. O my soul, thy account is great. It is high time, that it be got into better order. Lord, I hope thou knowest, I am desirous of approving myself a faithful servant of thee, and of souls. O, watch over me, that I may watch over them; and then, all will be well. Continue these things on the imagination of my heart, that my own sermon may not another day, rise up in judgment against me."-This is a specimen of his reflections and resolutions on such occasions, which were answered in his general conduct.

The reader will not wonder, that, amidst such great and uncommon pains to serve his congregation, and promote their present and eternal happiness, he should be esteemed by them highly in love for his work's sake: And indeed few ministers have been more esteemed and beloved by their people, than he was by his. At his first settlement among them, his ministry was attended with extraordinary success, and many were added to the church; and during the whole course of his services, it continued very numerous and flourishing. In some of them indeed he had grief: Some whose tempers were uncharitable; others who were seduced by the errors of the Moravians, and whom he endeavoured in vain to reclaim; and a few of them proved notoriously vicious: Nor is it surprising that in so large a congregation there should be some disobedient to the word, and incorrigible under the best means and most vigorous, affectionate attempts to reclaim and save them; but God over-ruled these disappointments for his good. When he had recorded some of these trials, he adds, "God hath sanctified all these grievances to me; hath made me more humble, more watchful, more mortified to this vain world, and its interests and enjoyments, than I ever remember to have found myself. He has visited me from time to time with such strong consolations, with such delightful effusions of his love, that, in this connection, I am his debtor for all these afflictions; and from this growing experience of his goodness, I am encouraged, and have determined, to leave myself with him, and to have no will, no interest of my own, separate from his. I have been renewing the

dedication of myself and services to him, with as entire a consent of heart, as I think myself capable of feeling; and with that calm acquiescence in him, as my portion and happiness, which I would not resign for ten thousand worlds."-But in far the greater part of the church under his care he had much comfort, and daily rejoiced over them in the Lord. So entire was the friendship that subsisted between them, that he declined invitations to settle in other places, particularly in London, where his secular interest would have been much advanced, out of the love he bore to his Northampton friends. His great concern was to do as much service for them, and be as little burthensome to them, as possible; for he sought not theirs, but them. And most of them, in return, studied to honour and serve him, to strengthen his hands, and encourage his labours. He reckoned the providence, which fixed him with them, among the most singular blessings of his life; and in his last will, where he could not be suspected of flattery, he bears testimony to their character, observing, "that he had spent the most delightful hours of his life, in assisting the devotions of as serious, as grateful, and as deserving a people, as perhaps any minister ever had the honour and happiness to serve."-I mention this circumstance, as a motive to those of them, who yet remain, not to forfeit the character he gave of them; and principally, as an encouragement to ministers to imitate his diligence, zeal, moderation and contentment, if they wish to share in the esteem, comfort and success, with which he was honoured.

CHAP. VI.

His Method of Education and Behaviour as a Tutor.

IT has been already observed (Chap. III.) what pains Dr.

Doddridge took to furnish himself for this important and difficult office, upon what principles he had undertaken it, and what encouragement he met with in it, before his removal to Northampton. Upon his settlement there, and his worth being more known, the number of his pupils increased, so that in the year 1734, he found it needful to have an assistant in this work, to whom he assigned part of the care of the junior pupils, and the direction of the academy, during his absence.* He was

Such of them as I have been acquainted with, were very respectable for their knowledge; and in the choice of them a particular regard was paid to their

solicitous to maintain the esteem of his successive assistants in the family, by his own behaviour to them, and the respect, which he required from the students to them: And they thought themselves happy in his friendship, and the opportunities they had, by his converse, instructions and example, to improve themselves, while they were assisting in the education of others.

As the method of education in the seminaries of protestant dissenters is little known, it may be proper to give some general account of his; which bears a near resemblance to others of the kind. He chose to have as many of his students in his own family as his house would contain, that they might be more immediately under his eye and government. The orders of this seminary were such, as suited a society of students; in a due medium between the rigour of school discipline, and an unlimited indulgence. As he knew that diligence in redeeming their time was necessary to their attention to business, and improvement of their minds, it was an established law, that every student should rise at six o'clock in the summer, and seven in the winter. A monitor was weekly appointed to call them, and they were to appear in the public room, soon after the fixed hour. Those who did not appear were subject to a pecuniary penalty, or, if that did not cure their sloth, to prepare an additional academical exercise; and the monitor's neglect was a double fine. Their tutor set them an example of diligence, being generally present with them at these early hours. When they were thus assembled, a prayer was offered up, suited to their circumstances, as students, by himself when present, or by them in their turns. Then they retired to their respective closets till the time of family worship. The Doctor began that service with a short prayer for the divine presence and blessing. Some of the students read a chapter of the Old Testament from Hebrew into English, which he expounded critically, and drew practical inferences from it; a psalm was then sung and he prayed. But on Lord's-day mornings something entirely devotional and practical was read instead of the usual exposition. In the evening, the worship was conducted in the same method, only a chapter of the New Testament was read by the students from Greek into English, which he expounded; and the senior students in rotation prayed. They, who boarded in other houses

skill in the Greek and Latin Classics, as well as to their ability for instructing the young men in certain departments of mathematical and philosophical science. Among Dr. Doddridge's assistants, besides Mr. Orton, may be named the late Rev. Dr. Aikin, and the Rev. Mr. James Robertson, who has been for many years professor of oriental literature in the university of Edinburgh.-K.

in the town, were obliged to attend his family worship and take their turns in reading and prayer, as well as to perform it in the several houses where they lived. Those who were absent from it were subject to a fine, and, if it were frequent, to a public reprehension before the whole society. By this method of conducting the religious services of his family, his pupils had an opportunity, during their course, of hearing him expound most of the Old Testament, and all the New Testament more than once, to their improvement as students and christians. He recommended it to them to take hints of his illustrations and remarks, as what would be useful to them in future life, especially if their situation or circumstances prevented their having the works of the best commentators. He advised them to get the Old Testament and Wetstein's Greek Testament, interleaved in quarto, in which to write the most considerable remarks for the illustration of the scriptures, which occurred in his expositions, and in their own reading, conversation and reflections. The Family Expositor sufficiently shews, how worthy his remarks were of being written and retained, and how his family was daily entertained and instructed.-Soon after breakfast, he took the several classes in their order and lectured to each about an hour. His lectures were generally confined to the morning; as he chose to devote the afternoon to his private studies and pastoral visits. His assistant was employed at the same time in lecturing to those, whom he had more immediately under his care. He has given some general account of the course of his pupils' studies in his short memoirs of the life and character of Mr. Thomas Steffe, so that I have little more to do on this head, than transcribe it.

One of the first things he expected from his pupils, was to learn Rich's short hand, which he wrote himself, and in which his lectures were written; that they might transcribe them, make extracts from the books they read and consulted, with ease and speed, and save themselves many hours in their future compositions. Care was taken in the first year of their course, that they should retain and improve that knowledge of Greek and Latin, which they had acquired at school, and gain such knowledge of Hebrew, if they had not learned it before, that they might be able to read the Old Testament in its original language: A care very important and necessary! To this end, besides the course of lectures in a morning, classical lectures were read every evening, generally by his assistant, but sometimes by himself. If any of his pupils were deficient in their knowledge of Greek, the seniors, who were best skilled in it, were appointed

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