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Birth-day of Heav'n and Earth; with joy and thout 1
The hollow universal orb they filld,
And touch'd their golden harps, and hymning prais'd
God and his works, Creator him they sung,
Both when first evening was, and when first morn.

Again, God said, Let there be firmament 261
Amid the waters, and let it divide
The waters from the waters : and God made
The firmament, expanse of liquid, pure, ,
Transparent, elemental air, diffus'd

265 In circuit to the uttermolt convex Of this great round: partition firm and sure,

The to view one after another, in such 261. Again, God said, &c.] When a manner, that the reader seems he makes God speak, he adheres present at this wonderful work, and closely to the words of Scripture. to afsift among the quires of Angels, And God said, Let there be a firmament who are the spectators of it. How in the midf of the waters, and let it glorious is che conclusion of the firft divide the waters from the watersa day! Addison

Gen. 1. 6. But when he says that 256.

with joy and shout God made the firmament he explains The hollow universal orb they fill'd,] what is meant by the firmament, The angels singing and shouting for The Hebrew word, which the Greeks joy at the creation of the world render by sepsww.c, and our trans, seeins to be founded upon Job lators by firmament, fignifies expan XXXVIII. 4, 7. Where was thou fron; it is render'd expansion in the when I laid the foundations of the margin of our bibles, and Milton tarih; when the morning fars yang rightly explains it by the expanse of together, and all tbe fons of God elemental air, freuted for joy? And with this joy 264.---liquid air,] Virg. Æn. VI. and thout i bey fill'd the hollow uni- 202. liquidumque per aera. versal orb, the great round (as it is 267 - partition form and fure, cali'd ver. 267.) of the universe, For its certainty not folidity. So, hollow as being concave and having Auguftin upon Genesis. It is not no creatures to inhabit it.

call'd firmament as being a solid body,

but

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The waters underneath from those above
Dividing: for as earth, so he the world
Built on circumfluous waters calm, in wide 270
Crystallin ocean, and the loud mifrule
Of Chaos far remov'd, lest fierce extremes
Contiguous might distemper the whole frame:
And Heav'n he nam'd the firmament: So even
And morning chorus sung the second day. 275

The but because it is a bound or term be- fembling water. Who layeth the beams tween the upper and nether waters; of his chambers in the waters. Plal. a partition firm and immoveable, not CIV. 3. Praise him' ye

Heavens of upon account of its flation, but of its Heavens, and ye waters above the firmness and intransgressibility: Heavens. Pfal. CXLVIII.

4.

To
Hume and Richardson. this sense our poet agrees, and thus

infers, that as God built the earth, 268. The waters underneath from and founded it on waters (fretched those above

out the earth above the waters. Psal. Dividing :] They who understand CXXXVI. 6. By the word of God the firmament to be the vast air, ex- the Heavens were of old, and the earth panded and stretch'd out on all consisting out of the water and in the lides to the starry Heavens, esteem water. 2 Pet. III. 5.) so also he the waters above it to be those ge- establish'd the whole frame of the nerated, in the middle region of heavenly orbs, in a calm crystallin the air, of vapors exhaled and drawn sea furrounding it, left the neighup thither from the steaming earth bourhood of the unruly Chaos should and nether waters; which descend disturb it. But all search in works again in such vast showers and mighty so wonderfill, so dijiant and undisfoods of rain, that not only rivers, cernable, as well as undemonstrable, but seas may be imaginable above, is quite confounded. Hume. as appeared when the cataracts came down in a deluge, and the flood-gates 274. And Heav'ni be nam'd the of Heaven were open' d. Gen. VII.11. firmament:) So Gen I 8. Others, and those many, by these Ar.d God called the firmament Heaven. waters above understand the crystal. But it may seem ftrange if the firlin Heaven (by Gafsendus made moment means the air and a mosphere, double) by our author better named that the air sould be called Heaven: cryftallin ocean, by its clearness re. but so it is frequently in the lan

guage

1

The earth was form’d, but in the womb as yet
Of waters, embryon immature involv’d,
Appear'd not: over all the face of earth
Main ocean flow'd, not idle, but with warm
Prolific humor soft'ning all her globe,

280
Fermented the great mother to conceive,
Satiate with genial moisture, when God said
Be gather'd now ye waters under Heaven

Into guage of the Hebrews and in the Be gather'd now ze waters under file of Scripture. In this very chap Heaven ter, ver. 20. it is faid fowl that may Into one place, and let dry land apfy above tbe earth in the open firma pear.] This is again exactly ment of Heaven. So in Psal. CIV. copied from Mofes ; And God said, 12. By them shall the fowls of the Let the waters under the Heaven be Heaven have their habitation, which gathered together into one place, and fing among the branches. And Mat let the dry land appear; and it was VI. 26. what we translate the fowls fo. Gen. I. 9. And it was so is very of the air is in the original the fowls sort in Moses ; Milton inlarges upon of Heaven, 70 TETIVE TOU deart. it, as the subject will admit fome So again, Rev. XIX. 17. the fowls fine ftrokes of poetry, and seems to that fiy in the midst of Heaven. And have had his eye upon the CIVth we read often in Scripture of the Psalm, which is likewise a divine rain of Heaven, and the clouds of hymn in praise of the creation, 6th Heaven, The truth is there were and following verfes. Thou covered three Heavens in the account of the the earth zvith the deep; the waters Hebsows. Mention is made of the food above the mountains. At thy third Heaven 2 Cor. XII. 2.. The rebuke they fled, at the voice of thy first Heaven is the air, as we have thunder they hafted away. They go shown, wherein the clouds move up by the mountains, they go down by and the birds fly; the second is the the valleys unto the place which thou starry Heaven, and the third Heaven has founded for them, &c. We supis the habitation of the Angels and pose that we need nor desire the the seat of God's glory. Milton reader to remark the beautiful numis speaking here of the firft Heaven, bers in the following verses of the as he mentions the others in other poem, how they seem to rise with places.

the rising mountains, and to sink 282. God said

again with the falling waters.

285. Im

285

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Into one place, and let dry land appear.
Immediately the mountains huge appear
Emergent, and their broad bare backs upheave
Into the clouds, their tops ascend the sky:
So high as heav'd the tumid hills, fo low
Down sunk.a hollow bottom broad and deep,
Capacious bed of waters: thither they

290
Hasted with glad precipitance, uprollid
As drops on dust conglobing from the dry;
Part rise in crystal wall, or ridge direct,
For haste; such Aight the great command impress'd
On the swift floods: as armies at the call 295
Of trumpet (for of armies thou hast heard)..
Troop to their standard, so the watry throng,
Wave rolling after wave, where way they found,

If
285. Immediately the mountains &c.) torrent rupture, as in ver. 419. We
We have the same elevation of have bursting with kindly rupture.
thought in the third day, when the But we may understand torrent rap-
mountains were brought forth, and ture in the same manner as glad pre-
the deep was made. We have also cipitance, ver. 291.
the rising of the whole vegetable 303. And on the washy oofe deep
world described in this day's work, channels wore ;
which is filled with all the graces Easy, ere God had bid the ground
that other poets have lavish'd on be dry, &c.] The earth was
their description of the spring, and juft now emerg'd from the waters
leads the reader's imagination into a in which it had been wrapt; 'twas
theatre equally furpriting and beau- therefore all one great walhy oole,
tiful.
Addison

slime and mud. In this soft earth deep 299. If steep, with torrent rapture,] channels were easily worn by the I have seen a marginal reading with streaming water, 'till 'twas dry every

where

If steep, with torrent rapture, if through plain,
Soft-ebbing ; nor withstood them rock or hill, 300
But they, or under ground; or circuit wide
With serpent error wand'ring, found their way,
And on the washy oofe deep channels wore;
Easy, ere God had bid the ground be dry,
All but within those banks, where rivers now 305
Stream, and perpetual draw their humid train.
The dry land, earth, and the great receptacle
Of congregated waters he call’d seas :-
And saw that it was good, and said, Let th' earth
Put forth the verdant grass, herb yielding seed, 310
And fruit-tree yielding fruit after her kind,
Whose seed is in herself upon the earth.
He scarce had said, when the bare earth, till then

Desert *here but within the banks, the to be found in our aithor and all bounds set to the rivers, where they good poets.' Richardson. now perpetually draw along after 307. The dry land, earth, &c.] them their moiết train. The rivers These are again the words of Geare imagin'd as persons of great nefis form’d into verse. Gen. I. 10, quality, the length of their robe 11. And God called the dry land earth, training after them;

and the gathering together of the waters where rivers now

called he feas: and God saw that it Stream, and perpetual draw their bring forth grass, the herbyielding feed,

was good. And God said, Let the earth humid train.

and the fruit-trre yielding fruit after You cannot read it otherwise than his kind, whose feed is in itself upon flowly, and so as to give your mind the earth. But when he comes to the 2 picture of the thing describ’d. defcriptive part, he then opens a finer Many examples of the like kind are vein of poetry. VOL. II.

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321, The

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