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The fixth, and of creation last arose With evening harps and matin, when God said, 450 Let th' earth bring forth foul living in her kind, Cattel and creeping things, and beast of th' earth, Each in their kind. The earth obey'd, and strait Opening her fertil womb teem'd at a birth Innumerous living creatures, perfect forms, 455 Limb’d. and full grown: out of the ground up rose As from his lair the wild beast where he wons In forest wild, in thicket, brake, or den ; Among the trees in pairs they rose, they walk’d: The cattel in the fields and meadows green: 460



fefly nothing but an error of the is more conformable to the text of press that has run through all the Scripture. editions; for fowl were all created the day before, and not on this day.

Cattel and creeping thing, and beast

of th' earth. We have therefore restor's the true genuin reading,

- out of the ground up rose Let th' earth bring forth foul living

As from bis lair the wild beast in her kind.

where he wons

In forest wild,) Lair, or layer, an We are very cautious in admitting old Saxon word fignifying a bed. The any alterations into the text of Mil. use of this word is still kept up ton ; but-in correcting such mistakes among us, as when we call the difas this we conceive we do no more ferent trata or beds of earth, fome than Milton himself would have us of clay, some of chalk, some of do; who, after the table of Errata ftone &c lairs. Wons is an old Saxon in the first edition, says, Other litte- word fignifying to dwell or inbabit. ial faults the reader of himself may Dr. Bentley reads In foreft wide, in: corrett. And for the fame reason ftead of wild, wild beast going bewe agree with Dr. Bentley, that in fore; but Milton does not dislike such the next verse it should be creeping a repetition of the same word. sbing rather than things, because it VOL. II. *


461. There

Those rare and solitary, these in flocks
Pasturing at once, and in broad herds upsprung.
The graffy clods now calv'd, now half appear'd
The tawny lion, pawing to get free

464 His hinder parts, then springs as broke from bonds, And rampant shakes his brinded mane; the

ounce, The libbard, and the tiger, as the mole Rising, the crumbled earth above them threw In hillocs: the swift stag from under ground 469 Bore up his branching head: scarce from his mold

Behemoth 461. Those rare and solitary, these and does not relate to cows only ;

in flocks] Those, that is the for hinds are faid to calve in job wild beasts mention'd in ver. 457: XXXIX. 1. and Psalm XXIX. 9. these the tame, the cattel; and it is Mr. Addison particularly commends a very signal act of Providence that this metaphor: and the whole dethere are so few of the former fort, fcription of the beasts rising out of and so many of the latter, for the the earth, tho' Dr. Bentley conuse and service of man.

demns it as an insertion of the edi-' 462. —- broad berds] This will tor's, is certainly not only worthy found a little ftrange to the ear of of the genius of Milton, but may an English reader, who mult there be esleend a shining part of the fore be told that he follows Homer poem. He fupposes the beafts to litterally. Iliad. XI.678.

rise out of the earth, in perfekt forms, - αιπολία πλατ' αυγων.

limbid and full grown, as Raphael Virgil hath a long herd. Æn. I. 186. the Vatican; and he describes their

had painted this subject before in longum per valles pascitur manner of rising in figures and attiagmen.

Richardson. tudes, and in numbers too, fuited to 463. The grassy clods now calv'd,] their various natures. Dr. Bentley quarrels with this ex 467. The libbard,] The fame as pression, and says that calv'd is a the leopard; a word used by Spenser metaphor very heroical, especially and the old poets, Fairy Queen, B. I. for wild beasts. But as Dr. Pearce Cant. 6. St. 25. justy observes, to calve (from the 470. Scarce from bis mold Belgic word Kalven) fignifies to Behemoth bigget born of carth upbring forth: it is a general word, heav'd



Behemoth biggest born of earth upheav'd
His vastness: fleec'd the flocks and bleating rose,
As plants : ambiguous between sea and land
The river horse and scaly crocodile.
At once came forth whatever creeps the ground, 475
Insect or worm : those way'd their limber fans
For wings, and smallest lineaments exact
In all the liveries deck'd of summer's pride
With spots of gold and purple', azure and green:
These as a line their long dimension drew,


Streaking His vaftness :] The numbers are - and their broad bare backs upexcellent, and admirably express the heave heaviness and unwieldiness of the Into the clouds. clepbant, for it is plainly the elephant It is the same kind of beauty that that Milcon means. Behemoth and is admir'd in Virgil, Æn. I. 61. leviathan are two creatures, described in the book of Job, and formerly

Hoc metuens, molemque et montes inthe generality of interpreters under

fuper altos food by them the elephant and the Impoluit. whale: but the learned Bochart and It is the same stile of sound, and the other later critics have endevor'd verse labors as much with broad bare to show that behemoth is the river backs and behemoth biggest born as with borse and leviathan the crocodile. It metuens, molem, montcs. And the laseems as if Milton was of the for- bor of these lines appears greater in mer opinion by mentioning levia- contrast with the eale of the followtban among the fishes, and the river ing measures, which describe the borse and scaly crocodile, ver. 474. leffer animals springing up as lightly as distinct from behemoth and lervia- and as thick as plants ; than; and there is surely authority fufficient to justify a poet in that

fleec'd the flocks and bleating

rose, opinion. Behemoth biggest born. The allitteration, as the critics call it, is

As plants. very remarkable, all the words be

deck’d] It is a verb ginning with b. We had another here and not a participle — and inftance a little before in the prodeck'd their smallest lineaments exact duction of the mountains, ver. 286. in all the liveries &c.



D 2


not all

Streaking the ground with finuous trace; not all
Minims of nature ; some of serpent kind,
Wondrous in length and corpulence, involy'd
Their snaky folds, and added wings. First crept
The parsimonious emmet, provident

485 Of future, in small room large heart inclos’d,

Pattern 481.

Did the city itself build the wall ? Minims of nature; fome of ferpent no, but it had the wall built round kind,

its seven hills. If Milton afterwards, Wondrous in length and corpulence, in ver. 495. &c mentions the ferpent involu'd

again, he mentions a particular speTheir snaky folds, and added wings.] cies of the ferpent kind; and with These verses Dr. Bentley rejects: he a plain view to make Adam more thinks them so plainly fpurious, that mindful of that animal which was (as he says) the editor is here caught to work his ruin and destruction. in the forgery. Let us see whether so that all the marks of forgery, this be the case or not. Snaky, he which the Doctor discovers here, lays, is mere tautology, i. e. Serpents immediately disappear upon a careinvolv'd serpentin folds. But is not ful examination of the passage. Serpent a more general word than

Pearce. snake? does it not include all the 482. Minims of nature; ] This creeping kind, at least several ani. word minims is form'd from the admals that are not fnakes nor have jective minima, and in allusion to the Inaky folds ? If fo, then the epithet Vulgar Latin of Prov. XXX. 24.

Jnaky is no tautology. But what is Quatuor ifta funt minima terra. The added wings, says the Doctor? It word was in use before for an order meång, had wings added to their of friers, Minin, minimi, so called long and corpulent bodies. Scarcely from affected humility. any thing is more common in poetry 485.

provident than to speak after this manner, Of future,] As Horace says, Sat. which represents the creature as do- I. I. 35. ing that which is done to it. So in Haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. IX. 515. a ship is said to fleer and in small room large heart inclos’d, Pheif ber fail

. So in Virgil's Georg: Georg. IV. 83. II. 535. it is said of the city of Rome,

Ingentes animos angufto in pectore

versant. Septemque una fibi muro circum. It is there faid of the bes, and here dedit arces.

applied to the ank.

487. Par.

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Pattern of just equality perhaps
Hereafter, joined in her popular tribes
Of commonalty: swarming next appear’d
The female bee, that feeds her husband drone 490
Deliciously, and builds her waxen cells
With honey stor’d: the rest are numberless,


487. Pattern of just equality] We republic, as the bees are said to do fee that our author upon occasion under a monarchy; and therefore discovers his principles of govern- Mr. Pope says, Essay on Man, ment. He inlarges upon the same III. 186. thought in another part of his works. Go to the ant, thou Auggard, faith

The ants republic, and the realm « Solomon; confider ber ways and

of bees. be wife; which having no prince, 490. The female bee, that

feeds ber ruler, or lord, provides her meat

husband drone " in the summer, and gathers her food Deliciously, and builds her waxen. " in the harvest: which evidently

cells] Dr. Bentley would “ lows us, that they who think the throw out part of these verses and “ nation undone without a king, read thus, “ tho they look grave or haughty, Th’industrious bee that builds her « have not so much true spirit and understanding in them as a pil

waxen cells. “ mire: neither are these diligent The drone (says he) is not the bee's “ creatures hence concluded to live husband; and that bees are all fe« in lawless anarchy, or that com- males, seems an idle and idiotical "mended, but are set the examples notion, against the course and rule * to imprudent and ungovern'd men, of nature. But (however that be) " of a frugal and self-governing de- both those opinions had been stre“ mocraty or commonwealth ; safer nuously maintain'd by Mr. Charles " and more thriving in the joint Butler' in the fourth Chapter of his “ providence and counsel of many curious treatise upon bees, intitled « induftrious equals, than under the The Feminine Monarchie, printed in “ fingle domination of one impe- 1634: and it seems to have been the “ rious lord." See his Ready and prevailing doctrin in Milton's days. rasy way to establish a free common. No need then to suspect the editor's wealth, p. 591. Edit. 1738. He adds hand here. Pearce. perhaps hereafter, as he had no hopes There has been lately publish'd in of it at that time. He commends French a natural history of bees, the ants or emmets for living in a Histoire naturelle des abeilles &c.



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