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The cattle were numerous. Two small intelligence, and their spirit, till the barks were employed in fishing and close of the year 1688. Then at length trading along the coast. The supply the effects of the policy of Tyrconnel of herrings, pilchards, mackerel, and began to be felt even in that remote salmon was plentiful, and would have corner of Ireland. In the eyes of the been still more plentiful, had not the peasantry of Munster the colonists beach been, in the finest part of the were aliens and heretics. The buildyear, covered by multitudes of seals, ings, the boats, the machines, the granwhich preyed on the fish of the bay. aries, the dairies, the furnaces, were Yet the seal was not an unwelcome doubtless contemplated by the native visitor: his fur was valuable; and his race with that mingled envy and conoil supplied light through the long tempt with which the ignorant naturally nights of winter. An attempt was regard the triumphs of knowledge. Nor made with great success to set up iron is it at all improbable that the emiworks. It was not yet the practice to grants had been guilty of those faults employ coal for the purpose of smelt- from which civilised men who settle ing; and the manufacturers of Kent among an uncivilised people are rarely and Sussex had much difficulty in free. The power derived from superior procuring timber at a reasonable price. intelligence had, we may easily believe, The neighbourhood of Kenmare was been sometimes displayed with insothen richly wooded ; and Petty found lence, and sometimes exerted with init a gainful speculation to send ore justice. Now therefore, when the news thither. The lovers of the picturesque spread from altar to altar, and from still regret the woods of oak and arbu- cabin to cabin, that the strangers were tus which were cut down to feed his to be driven out, and that their houses furnaces. Another scheme had occur- and lands were to be given as a booty red to his active and intelligent mind. to the children of the soil, a predatory Some of the neighbouring islands war commenced. Plunderers, thirty, abounded with variegated marble, red forty, seventy in a troop, prowled round and white, purple and green. Petty the town, some with firearms, some well knew at what cost the ancient with pikes. The barns were robbed. Romans had decorated their baths and The horses were stolen. In one foray temples with manycoloured columns a hundred and forty cattle were swept hewn from Laconian and African away and driven off through the ravines quarries; and he seems to have in- of Glengariff. In one night six dwel. dulged the hope that the rocks of his lings were broken open and pillaged. wild domain in Kerry might furnish At last the colonists, driven to extreembellishments to the mansions of mity, resolved to die like men rather Saint James's Square, and to the choir than be murdered in their beds. The of Saint Paul's Cathedral. *
| house built by Petty for his agent was From the first, the settlers had found the largest in the place. It stood on a that they must be prepared to exercise rocky peninsula round which the waves the right of selfdefence to an extent of the bay broke. Here the whole which would have been unnecessary population assembled, seventy five and unjustifiable in a well governed fighting men, with about a hundred country. The law was altogether with women and children. They had among out force in the highlands which lie on them sixty firelocks, and as many pikes the south of the vale of Tralee. No and swords. Round the agent's house officer of justice willingly ventured into they threw up with great speed a wall those parts. One pursuivant who in of turf fourteen feet in height and 1680 attempted to execute a warrant twelve in thickness. The space enclosed there was murdered. The people of was about half an acre. Within this Kenmare seem howerer to have been rampart all the arms, the ammunition, sufficiently secured by their union, their and the provisions of the settlement
* Smith's Ancient and Modern State of I were collected, and several huts of thin Kerry.
Iplank were built. When these prepara
tions were completed, the men of Ken- great, and the greater because it was mare began to make vigorous reprisals known that a preaching friar had been on their Irish neighbours, seized rob- exerting himself to inflame the Irish bers, recovered stolen property, and population of the neighbourhood against continued during some weeks to act in the heretics. A daring resolution was all things as an independent common- taken. Come what might, the troops wealth. The government was carried should not be admitted. Yet the on by elective officers to whom every means of defence were slender. Not member of the society swore fidelity on ten pounds of powder, not twenty firethe Holy Gospels.*
locks fit for use, could be collected While the people of the small town within the walls. Messengers were sent of Kenmare were thus bestirring them with pressing letters to summon the selves, similar preparations for defence Protestant gentry of the vicinage to the were made by larger communities on a rescue: and the summons was gallantly larger scale. Great numbers of gentle- obeyed. In a few hours two hundred men and yeomen quitted the open foot and a hundred and fifty horse had country, and repaired to those towns assembled. Tyrconnel's soldiers were which had been founded and incorpo- already at hand. They brought with rated for the purpose of bridling the them a considerable supply of arms to native population, and which, though be distributed among the peasantry. recently placed under the government The peasantry greeted the royal standof Roman Catholic magistrates, were ard with delight, and accompanied the still inhabited chiefly by Protestants. march in great numbers. The townsA considerable body of armed colonists men and their allies, instead of waiting mustered at Sligo, another at Charle- to be attacked, came boldly forth to ville, a third at Mallow, a fourth still encounter the intruders. The officers more formidable at Bandon.f But the of James had expected no resistance. principal strongholds of the Englishry They were confounded when they saw during this evil time were Enniskillen confronting them a column of foot, and Londonderry.
flanked by a large body of mounted Enniskillen, though the capital of gentlemen and yeomen. The crowd of Ennise the county of Fermanagh, was camp followers ran away in terror. killen. then merely a village. It was The soldiers made a retreat so precipibuilt on an island surrounded by the tate that it might be called a flight, river which joins the two beautiful and scarcely halted till they were thirty sheets of water known by the common miles off at Cavan.* name of Lough Erne. The stream and The Protestants, elated by this easy both the lakes were overhung on every victory, proceeded to make arrangeside by natural forests. Enniskillen ments for the government and defence consisted of about eighty dwellings of Enniskillen and of the surrounding clustering round an ancient castle. country. Gustavus Hamilton, a gentleThe inhabitants were, with scarcely an man who had served in the army, but exception, Protestants, and boasted who had recently been deprived of his that their town had been true to the commission by Tyrconnel, and had since Protestant cause through the terrible been living on an estate in Fermanagh, rebellion which broke out in 1641. was appointed Governor, and took up Early in December they received from his residence in the castle. Trusty Dublin an intimation that two com- men were enlisted and armed with panies of Popish infantry were to be immediately quartered on them. The * A True Relation of the Actions of the alarm of the little community was
Inniskilling Men, by Andrew Hamilton, Rec
tor of Kilskerrie, and one of the Prebends of the * Exact Relation of the Persecutions, Rob
Porserptions Roh Diocese of Clogher, an Eyewitness thereof and deries, and Losses. sustained by the Protest | Actor therein, licensed Jan. 15. 19; A Furants of Killmare in Ireland, 1689; Smith's ther Impartial Account of the Actions of the Ancient and Modern State of Kerry, 1756. Inniskilling Men, by Captain William Mao f Ireland's Lamentation, licensed May 18. Cormick, one of the first that took up Arms,
great expedition. As there was a scar-| Near the Cathedral rose the Palace of city of swords and pikes, smiths were the Bishop, whose see was one of the employed to make weapons by fasten- most valuable in Ireland. The city ing scythes on poles. All the country was in form nearly an ellipse; and the houses round Lough Erne were turned principal streets formed a cross, the into garrisons. No Papist was suffered arms of which met in a square called to be at large in the town; and the the Diamond. The original houses friar who was accused of exerting his have been either rebuilt or so much eloquence against the Englishry was repaired that their ancient character thrown into prison.*
can no longer be traced; but many of The other great fastness of Protest- them were standing within living London antism was a place of more memory. They were in general two derry importance. Eighty years be- stories in height; and some of them fore, during the troubles caused by the had stone staircases on the outside. last struggle of the houses of O'Neil | The dwellings were encompassed by a and O'Donnel against the authority of wall of which the whole circumference James the First, the ancient city of was little less than a mile. On the Derry had been surprised by one of the bastions were planted culverins and native chiefs: the inhabitants had been sakers presented by the wealthy guilds slaughtered, and the houses reduced to of London to the colony. On some of ashes. The insurgents were speedily these ancient guns, which have done put down and punished: the govern- memorable service to a great cause, the ment resolved to restore the ruined devices of the Fishmongers' Company, town: the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and of the Vintners' Company, and of the Common Council of London were in- Merchant Tailors' Company are still vited to assist in the work; and King discernible.* . James the First made over to them in The inhabitants were Protestants of their corporate capacity the ground Anglosaxon blood. They were indeed covered by the ruins of the old Derry, not all of one country or of one church: and about six thousand acres in the but Englishmen and Scotchmen, Epineighbourhood. t '
scopalians and Presbyterians, seem to This country, then uncultivated and have generally lived together in frienduninhabited, is now enriched by indus- ship, a friendship which is sufficiently try, embellished by taste, and pleasing explained by their common antipathy even to eyes accustomed to the well to the Irish race and to the Popish tilled fields and stately manor houses religion. During the rebellion of 1641, of England. A new city soon arose Londonderry had resolutely held out which, on account of its connection against the native chieftains, and had with the capital of the empire, was been repeatedly besieged in vain.f called Londonderry. The buildings Since the Restoration the city had covered the summit and slope of a hill prospered. The Foyle, when the tide which overlooked the broad stream of was high, brought up ships of large the Foyle, then whitened by vast flocks burden to the quay. The fisheries of wild swans. 1 On the highest ground throve greatly. The nets, it was said, stood the Cathedral, a church which, were sometimes so full that it was though erected when the secret of Go- necessary to fling back multitudes of fish thic architecture was lost, and though into the waves. The quantity of salmon ill qualified to sustain a comparison caught annually was estimated at eleven with the awful temples of the middle hundred thousand pounds' weight. I ages, is not without grace and dignity.
* These things I observed or learned on the * Hamilton's True Relation ; Mac Cormick's spot. Further Impartial Account.
+ The best account that I have seen of what Concise View of the Irish Society, 1822; passed in Londonderry during the war which Mr. Heath's interesting Account of the Wor- began in 1641 is in Dr. Reid's History of the shipful Company of Grocers, Appendix 17. Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
f The Interest of England in the Preserva. I The Interest of England in the Preserva tion of Ireland, licensed July 17. 1689.
tion of Ireland ; 1689.
The people of Londonderry shared , patiently to the slaughter rather than Closing of in the alarm which, towards incur the guilt of disobeying the Lord's the gates the close of the year 1688, was Anointed.* Antrim was meanwhile donderry. general among the Protestants drawing nearer and nearer. At length settled in Ireland. It was known that the citizens saw from the walls his the aboriginal peasantry of the neigh- troops arrayed on the opposite shore of bourhood were laying in pikes and the Foyle. There was then no bridge: knives. Priests had been haranguing but there was a ferry which kept up a in a style of which, it must be owned, constant communication between the the Puritan part of the Anglosaxon| two banks of the river; and by this colony had little right to complain, ferry a detachment from Antrim's regiabout the slaughter of the Amalekites, ment crossed. The officers presented and the judgments which Saul had themselves at the gate, produced a brought on himself by sparing one of warrant directed to the Mayor and the proscribed race. Rumours from Sheriffs, and demanded admittance various quarters and anonymous letters and quarters for his Majesty's solin various hands agreed in naming the diers. ninth of December as the day fixed for Just at this moment thirteen young the extirpation of the strangers. While apprentices, most of whom appear, from the minds of the citizens were agitated their names, to have been of Scottish by these reports, news came that a birth or descent, flew to the guardroom, regiment of twelve hundred Papists, armed themselves, seized the keys of commanded by a Papist, Alexander the city, rushed to the Ferry Gate, Macdonnell, Earl of Antrim, had re- closed it in the face of the King's ceived orders from the Lord Deputy to officers, and let down the portcullis. occupy Londonderry, and was already James Morison, a citizen more advancd on the march from Coleraine. The in years, addressed the intruders from consternation was extreme. Some were the top of the wall and advised them for closing the gates and resisting; to be gone. They stood in consultation some for submitting; some for tempo- before the gate till they heard him cry, rising. The corporation had, like the "Bring a great gun this way.” They other corporations of Ireland, been then thought it time to get beyond the remodelled. The magistrates were men range of shot. They retreated, reemof low station and character. Among barked, and rejoined their comrades on them was only one person of Anglo- the other side of the river. The flame saxon extraction; and he had turned had already spread. The whole city Papist. In such rulers the inhabitants was up. The other gates were secured. could place no confidence.* The Bi- Sentinels paced the ramparts everyshop, Ezekiel Hopkins, resolutely where. The magazines were opened. adhered to the political doctrines Muskets and gunpowder were distriwhich he had preached during many buted. Messengers were sent, under years, and exhorted his flock to go cover of the following night, to the
* My authority for this unfavourable ac- Protestant gentlemen of the neighbourcount of the corporation is an epic poem ing counties. The bishop expostulated entitled the Londeriad. This extraordinary in vain. It is indeed probable that work must have been written very soon after the events to which it relates ; for it is dedi- the vehement and daring young Scotchcated to Robert Rochfort, Speaker of the men who had taken the lead on this House of Commons; and Rochfort was Speaker
occasion had little respect for his office. from 1695 to 1699. The poet had no invention: he had evidently a minute knowledge One of them broke in on a discourse of the city which he celebrated; and his dog with which he interrupted the military
preparations by exclaiming, “A good value. He says:
sermon, my lord; a very good sermon;
gerel is consequently not without historical
"For burgesses and freemen they had chose
Broguemakers, butchers, raps, and such as those :
Of British parents except Buchanan."
“Aknave all o'er,
* See a sermon preached by him at Dublin on Jan. 31. 1669. The text is “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's
but we have not time to hear it just | He was Master of the Ordnance in
that kingdom, and was colonel of a The Protestants of the neighbour- regiment in which an uncommonly hood promptly obeyed the summons large proportion of the Englishry had of Londonderry. Within forty eight been suffered to remain. At Dublin hours, hundreds of horse and foot came he was the centre of a small circle of by various roads to the city. Antrim, I learned and ingenious men who had, not thinking himself strong enough to under his presidency, formed themrisk an attack, or not disposed to take on selves into a Royal Society, the image, himself the responsibility of commenc- on a small scale, of the Royal Society ing a civil war without further orders, of London. In Ulster, with which he retired with his troops to Coleraine. was peculiarly connected, his name was
It might have been expected that held in high honour by the colonists.* Mountjoy the resistance of Enniskillen He hastened with his regiment to sent to and Londonderry would have Londonderry, and was well received Ulster. irritated Tyrconnel into taking there. For it was known that, though some desperate step. And in truth his he was firmly attached to hereditary savage and imperious temper was at monarchy, he was not less firmly attached first inflamed by the news almost to to the reformed religion. The citizens madness. But, after wreaking his rage, readily permitted him to leave within as usual, on his wig, he became some their walls a small garrison exclusively what calmer. Tidings of a very sobering i composed of Protestants, under the comnature had just reached him. The mand of his lieutenant colonel, Robert Prince of Orange was marching unop- Lundy, who took the title of Governor.† posed to London. Almost every county The news of Mountjoy's visit to and every great town in England had Ulster was highly gratifying to the dedeclared for him. James, deserted by fenders of Enniskillen. Some gentlehis ablest captains and by his nearest men deputed by that town waited on relatives, had sent commissioners to him to request his good offices, but were treat with the invaders, and had issued disappointed by the reception which writs convoking a Parliament. While they found. “My advice to you is," the result of the negotiations which he said, “ to submit to the King's auwere pending in England was uncertain, thority.” “What, my Lord ?" said one the Viceroy could not venture to take of the deputies; “are we to sit still a bloody revenge on the refractory and let ourselves be butchered?” “The Protestants of Ireland. He therefore King,” said Mountjoy, “will protect thought it expedient to affect for a you.” “If all that we hear be true," time a clemency and moderation which said the deputy, “ His Majesty will find were by no means congenial to his it hard enough to protect himself.” The disposition. The task of quieting the conference ended in this unsatisfactory Englishry of Ulster was entrusted to manner. Enniskillen still kept its attiWilliam Stewart, Viscount Mountjoy. I tude of defiance; and Mountjoy reMountjoy, a brave soldier, an accom- turned to Dublin.f plished scholar, a zealous Protestant, By this time it had indeed become and yet a zealous Tory, was one of the evident that James could not protect very few members of the Established himself. It was known in Ireland that Church who still held office in Ireland. he had fled; that he had been stopped;
that he had fled again; that the Prince * Walker's Account of the Siege of Derry, lof Orange had arrived at Westminster 1689; Mackenzie's Narrative of the Siege of Londonderry, 1689; An Apology for the failures charged on the Reverend Mr. Walker's
* As to Mouritioy's character and position, Account of the late Siege of Derry, 1689; A
see Clarendon's letters from Ireland, particuLight to the Blind. This last work, a manu- llarly that
larly that to Lord Dartmouth of Feb. 8., and cript in the possession of Lord Fingal, is the that to Evelyn of Feb. 14. 168. “ Bon work of a zealous Roman Catholic and a mor- officier, et homme d'esprit," says Avaux. tal enemy of England. Large extracts from † Walker's Account ; Light to the Blind. it are among the Mackintosh MSS. The date I t Mac Cormick's Further Impartial Ac in the titlepage is 1711,