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ble, experienced, and accomplished as professed to be, or were only shamle was, he sometimes, under the nflu- | ming. nce of this mental disease, descended Such was the man whom Lewis seo the level of Moliere's Jourdain, and lected to be the companion and monitor ntertained malicious observers with of James. Avaux was charged to open, cenes almost as laughable as that in if possible, a communication with the vhich the honest, draper was made a malecontents in the English Parlialamamouchi.* It would have been ment; and he was authorised to expend, vell if this had been the worst. But if necessary, a hundred thousand crowns t is not too much to say that of the among them, Lifference between right and wrong James arrived at Brest on the fifth Ivaux had no more notion than a brute. of March, embarked there on board of One sentiment was to him in the place a man of war called the Saint Michael, of religion and morality, a superstitious and sailed within forty eight hours. ind intolerant devotion to the Crown He had ample time, however, before which he served. This sentiment per his departure, to exhibit some of the rades all his despatches, and gives a faults by which he had lost England 'olour to all his thoughts and words. and Scotland, and by which he was Nothing that tended to promote the about to lose Ireland. Avaux wrote interest of the French monarchy seemed from the harbour of Brest that it would to him a crime. Indeed he appears to not be easy to conduct any important have taken it for granted that not only business in concert with the King of Frenchmen, but all human beings, owed England. His Majesty could not keep
natural allegiance to the House of any secret from anybody. The very Bourbon, and that whoever hesitated foremast men of the Saint Michael had to sacrifice the happiness and freedom already heard him say things which of his own native country to the glory ought to have been reserved for the of that House was a traitor. While he ears of his confidential advisers.* resided at the Hague, he always desig- The voyage was safely and quietly nated those Dutchmen who had sold performed; and, on the after-, themselves to France as the well inten- noon of the twelfth of March, lands at tioned party. In the letters which he James landed in the harbour Kinsale. wrote from Ireland, the same feeling of Kinsale. By the Roman Catholic appears still more strongly. He would population he was received with shouts have been a more sagacious politician of unfeigned transport. The few Proif he had sympathised more with those testants who remained in that part of feelings of moral approbation and dis- the country joined in greeting him, and approbation which prevail among the perhaps not insincerely. For, though vulgar. For his own indifference to an enemy of their religion, he was not all considerations of justice and mercy an enemy of their nation; and they was such that, in his schemes, he made might reasonably hope that the worst no allowance for the consciences and king would show somewhat more resensibilities of his neighbours. More spect for law and property than had than once he deliberately recommended been shown by the Merry Boys and wickedness so horrible that wicked Rapparees. The Vicar of Kinsale was men recoiled from it with indignation. among those who went to pay their duty: But they could not succeed even in he was presented by the Bishop of Chesmaking their scruples intelligible to ter, and was not ungraciously received. + him. To every remonstrance he listened with a cynical sneer, wondering
* This letter, written to Lewis from the
harbour of Brest, is in the Archives of the within himself whether those who lec
French Foreign Office, but is wanting in the tured him were such fools as they very rare volume printed in Downing Street.
† A full and true Account of the Landing * See Saint Simon's account of the trick b
and Reception of the late King James at Kinwhich Avaux tried to pass himself off at se
sale, in a letter from Bristol, licensed April 4. Stockholm as a Knight of the Order of the
1689 : Leslie's Answer to King; Ireland's Holy Ghost,
Lamentation ; Avaux, March
James learned that his cause was their notions of misery from the most prospering. In the three southern pro- miserable parts of Saint Giles's and vinces of Ireland the Protestants were Whitechapel. One of these alleys, disarmed, and were so effectually bowed called, and, by comparison, justly down by terror that he had nothing to called, Broad Lane, is about ten feet apprehend from them. In the North wide. From such places, now seats of there was some show of resistance: but hunger and pestilence, abandoned to Hamilton was marching against the the most wretched of mankind, the malecontents; and there was little citizens poured forth to welcome James, doubt that they would easily be crushed. He was received with military honours A day was spent at Kinsale in putting by Macarthy, who held the chief comthe arms and ammunition out of reach mand in Munster. of danger. Horses sufficient to carry It was impossible for the King to a few travellers were with some diffi- proceed immediately to Dublin ; for culty procured ; and, on the fourteenth the southern counties had been so comof March, James proceeded to Cork.* pletely laid waste by the banditti whom We should greatly err if we imagined the priests had called to arms that the
, that the road by which he en- means of locomotion were not easily to enters tered that city bore any resem- be procured. Horses had become rariCork blance to the stately approach ties: in a large district there were which strikes the traveller of the nine-I only two carts; and those Avaux proteenth century with admiration. At nounced good for nothing. Some days present Cork, though deformed by many elapsed before the money which had miserable relics of a former age, holds been brought from France, though no no mean place among the ports of the very formidable mass, could be dragged empire. The shipping is more than over the few miles which separated half what the shipping of London was Cork from Kinsale.* at the time of the Revolution. The While the King and his Council customs exceed the whole revenue were employed in trying to procure which the whole kingdom of Ireland, carriages and beasts, Tyrconnel arrived in the most peaceful and prosperous from Dublin. He held encouraging lantimes, yielded to the Stuarts. The guage. The opposition of Enniskillen town is adorned by broad and well he seems to have thought deserving built streets, by fair gardens, by a Co- of little consideration. Londonderry, rinthian portico which would do honour he said, was the only important post to Palladio, and by a Gothic college held by the Protestants; and even worthy to stand in the High Street of Londonderry would not, in his judgOxford. In 1689, the city extended ment, hold out many days. over about one tenth part of the space At length James was able to leave which it now covers, and was inter- Cork for the capital. On the Journey sected by muddy streams, which have road, the shrewd and observant of James long been concealed by arches and Avaux made many remarks. to Dublis. buildings. A desolate marsh, in which The first part of the journey was the sportsman who pursued the water- through wild highlands, where it was not fowl sank deep in water and mire at strange that there should be few traces every step, covered the area now occu- of art and industry. But, from Kilpied by stately buildings, the palaces kenny to the gates of Dublin, the path of great commercial societies. There of the travellers lay over gently unduwas only a single street in which two lating ground rich with natural verdure. wheeled carriages could pass each other. That fertile district should have been From this street diverged to right and covered with flocks and herds, orchards left alleys squalid and noisome beyond and cornfields: but it was an untilled the belief of those who have formed and unpeopled desert. Even in the
towns the artisans were very few. * Avanx, March 19. 1689 ; Life of James, ii. 327, Orig. Mem.
* Avaus, March 15. 1689.
Manufactured articles were hardly to sides of the Liffey scarcely one had been be found, and if found could be pro- even projected. The College, a very cured only at immense prices. The different edifice from that which now envoy at first attributed the desolation stands on the same site, lay quite out which he saw on every side to the of the city.* The ground which is at tyranny of the English colonists. In present occupied by Leinster House and à very short time he was forced to Charlemont House, by Sackville Street change his opinion.*
and Merrion Square, was open meadow. James received on his progress numer- Most of the dwellings were built of ous marks of the goodwill of the pea- timber, and have long given place to santry; but marks such as, to men bred more substantial edifices. The Castle in the courts of France and England, had in 1686 been almost uninhabitable. had an uncouth and ominous appear-Clarendon had complained that he knew ance. Though very few labourers were of no gentleman in Pall Mall who was seen at work in the fields, the road was not more conveniently and handsomely lined by Rapparees armed with skeans, lodged than the Lord Lieutenant of stakes, and half pikes, who crowded to Ireland. No public ceremony could be look upon the deliverer of their race. performed in a becoming manner under The highway along which he travelled the Viceregal roof. Nay, in spite of presented the aspect of a street in which constant glazing and tiling, the rain a fair is held. * Pipers came forth to perpetually drenched the apartments.t. play before him in a style which was Tyrconnel, since he became Lord Denot exactly that of the French opera; puty, had erected a new building and the villagers danced wildly to the somewhat more commodious. To this music. Long frieze mantles, resembling building the King was conducted in those which Spenser had, a century state through the southern part of the before, described as meet beds for rebels city. Every exertion had been made and apt cloaks for thieves, were spread to give an air of festivity and splendour along the path which the cavalcade was to the district which he was to traverse. to tread; and garlands, in which cab. The streets, which were generally deep bage stalks supplied the place of laurels, in mud, were strewn with gravel. were offered to the royal hand. The Boughs and flowers were scattered over womer insisted on kissing his Majesty; the path. Tapestry and arras hung from but it should seem that they bore little the windows of those who could afford resemblance to their posterity; for this to exhibit such finery. The poor supcompliment was so distasteful to him plied the place of rich stuffs with blanthat he ordered his retinue to keep them kets and coverlids. In one place was at a distance. +
stationed a troop of friars with a cross ; On the twenty fourth of March he in another a company of forty girls entered Dublin. That city was then, dressed in white and carrying nosegays. in extent and population, the second in Pipers and harpers played “The King the British isles. It contained between shall enjoy his own again.” The Lord six and seven thousand houses, and Deputy carried the sword of state before probably above thirty thousand inhabit-his master. The Judges, the Heralds, ants. I In wealth and beauty, however, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, apDublin was inferior to many English | peared in all the pomp of office. Soltowns. Of the graceful and stately diers were drawn up on the right and public buildings which now adorn both left to keep the passages clear. A pro
cession of twenty coaches belonging , April 4. 1689.
to public functionaries was mustered. T A. full and true Account of the Landing and Reception of the late King James ; Ire
1 * John Dunton speaks of College Green near land's Lamentation ; Light to the Blind.
Dublin, I have seen letters of that age di* See the calculations of Petty, King, and
rected to the College, by Dublin. There are
some interesting old maps of Dublin in the us to a house was the same in Dublin as in
British Museum. London, the population of Dublin would have † Clarendon to Rochester, Feb. 8. 1682.
April 20. Aug. 12. Nov. 30. 1686.
* Avaux, April 4.
Javenant. If the average number of inhabit
been about thirty four thousand.
Before the Castle gate, the King was water and disappeared. It was found met by the host under a canopy borne that he had written these words: "My by four bishops of his church. At the folly in undertaking what I could not sight he fell on his knees, and passed execute hath done the King great presome time in devotion. He then rose judice which cannot be stopped-No and was conducted to the chapel of his easier way for me than this-May his palace, once-such are the vicissitudes undertaking prosper—May he have a of human things the riding honse of blessing." There was no signature: but Henry Cromwell. A Te Deum was the body was soon found, and proved performed in honour of His Majesty's to be that of John Temple. He was arrival. The next morning he held a young and highly accomplished: he Privy Council, discharged Chief Justice was heir to an honourable name: he Keating from any further attendance was united to an amiable woman : he at the board, ordered Avaux and Bishop was possessed of an ample fortune; and Cartwright to be sworn in, and issued a he had in prospect the greatest honours proclamation convoking a Parliament to of the state. It does not appear that meet at Dublin on the seventh of May.* the public had been at all aware to what When the news that James had ar- an extent he was answerable for the
rived in Ireland reached Lon- policy which had brought so much tent in don, the sorrow and alarm were obloquy on the government. The King, England. general, and were mingled with stern as he was, had far too great a serious discontent. The multitude, not heart to treat an error as a crime. He making sufficient allowance for the diffi- had just appointed the unfortunate culties by which William was encom- young man Secretary at War; and the passed on every side, loudly blamed his commission was actually preparing. It neglect. To all the invectives of the is not improbable that the cold magnaignorant and malicious he opposed, as nimity of the master was the very thing was his wont, nothing but immutable which made the remorse of the servant gravity and the silence of profound dis- insupportable.* . dain. But few minds had received But, great as were the Texations from nature a temper so firm as his; which William had to undergo,
Factions and still fewer had undergone so long those by which the temper of at Dublin and so rigorous a discipline. The re- his father-in-law was at this Casti proaches which had no power to shake time tried were greater still. No court his fortitude, tried from childhood up- in Europe was distracted by more wards by both extremes of fortune, quarrels and intrigues than were to be inflicted a deadly wound on a less reso found within the walls of Dublin Castle.
The numerous petty cabals which While all the coffeehouses were unani sprang from the cupidity, the jealousy, mously resolving that a fleet and army and the malevolence of individuals ought to have been long before sent to scarcely deserve mention. But there Dublin, and wondering how so renowned was one cause of discord which has a politician as His Majesty could have been too little noticed, and which is the been duped by Hamilton and Tyrcon- key to much that has been thought mysnel, a gentleman went down to the terious in the history of those times. Temple Stairs, called a boat, and de- / Between English Jacobitism and sired to be pulled to Greenwich. He Irish Jacobitism there was nothing in took the cover of a letter from his common. The English Jacobite was pocket, scratched a few lines with a
* Clarendon's Diary ; Reresby's Memoirs; pencil, and laid the paper on the seat | Luttrell's Diary
Luttrell's Diary. I have followed Lattrell's with some silver for his fare. As the version of Temple's last words. It agrees in boat passed under the dark central arch substance with Clarendon's, but has more of
the abruptness natural on such an occasion. of London Bridge, he sprang into the
If anything could make so tragical an event
ridiculous, it would be the lamentation of the * Life of James, ii. 330. ; Full and true
author of the Londeriad: Account of the Landing and Reception, &c.; The wretched youth against his friend exclaims, Ireland's Lamentation,
And in despair drowns himself in the Thames.
animated by a strong enthusiasm for the side of Cromwell at Naseby, who the family of Stuart; and in his zeal had been prosecuted under the Confor the interests of that family he too venticle Act, and who had been in hiding often forgot the interests of the state. on account of the Rye House Plot, bore Victory, peace, prosperity, seemed evils | less affection to the House of Stuart to the stanch nonjuror of our island, than the O'Haras and Macmahons, on if they tended to make usurpation whose support the fortunes of that popular and permanent. Defeat, bank- House now seemed to depend. ruptcy, famine, invasion, were, in his The fixed purpose of these men was view, public blessings, if they increased to break the foreign yoke, to extermithe chance of a restoration. He would nate the Saxon colony, to sweep away rather have seen his country the last the Protestant Church, and to restore of the nations under James the Second the soil to its ancient proprietors. To or James the Third, than the mistress obtain these ends they would without of the sea, the umpire between con- the smallest scruple have risen up tending potentates, the seat of arts, the against James; and to obtain these hive of industry, under a Prince of the ends they rose up for him. The Irish House of Nassau or of Brunswick. Jacobites, therefore, were not at all de
The sentiments of the Irish Jacobite sirous that he should again reign at were very different, and, it must in Whitehall: for they were perfectly candour be acknowledged, were of a aware that a Sovereign of Ireland, who nobler character. The fallen dynasty was also Sovereign of England, would was nothing to him. He had not, like not, and, even if he would, could not, a Cheshire or Shropshire cavalier, been long administer the government of the taught from his cradle to consider smaller and poorer kingdom in direct loyalty to that dynasty as the first duty opposition to the feeling of the larger of a Christian and a gentleman. All and richer. Their real wish was that his family traditions, all the lessons the Crowns might be completely sepataught him by his foster mother and rated, and that their island might, by his priests, had been of a very whether with James or without James different tendency. He had been they cared little, form a distinct state brought up to regard the foreign sove- under the powerful protection of France. reigns of his native land with the While one party in the Council at feeling with which the Jew regarded Dublin regarded James merely as a tool Cæsar, with which the Scot regarded to be employed for achieving the deliverEdward the First, with which the Cas-ance of Ireland, another party retilian regarded Joseph Buonaparte, with garded Ireland merely as a tool to be which the Pole regards the Autocrat employed for effecting the restoration of the Russias. It was the boast of of James. To the English and Scotch the highborn Milesian that, from the lords and gentlemen who had accomtwelfth century to the seventeenth, panied him from Brest, the island in every generation of his family had which they now sojourned was merely been in arms against the English crown. a stepping stone by which they were to His remote ancestors had contended reach Great Britain. They were still as with Fitzstephen and De Burgh. His much exiles as when they were at Saint greatgrandfather had cloven down the Germains; and indeed they thought soldiers of Elizabeth in the battle of Saint Germains a far more pleasant the Blackwater. His grandfather had place of exile than Dublin Castle. conspired with O'Donnel against James They had no sympathy with the native the First. His father had fought under population of the remote and half barSir Phelim O'Neil against Charles the barous region to which a strange chance First. The confiscation of the family had led them. Nay, they were bound estate had been ratified by an Act of by common extraction and by common Charles the Second. No Puritan, who | language to that colony which it was had been cited before the High Com- | the chief object of the native population mission by Laud, who had charged by to root out. They had indeed, like the