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Though in the established version, Luke xxiv. 4. is rendered “two men stood by them,” the original word ETECTIOUN does not necessarily import a posture, but may be rendered
appeared to them," or "suddenly appeared to them.” The same verb having this similar application in Luke ii. 9. Acts xxiii. 11. and is attributed to it by H. Stephens.
Newcome, &c. 412. In Luke xxiv. 5. the verb “they said” occurs plurally, in
the other Evangelists singularly. This circumstance is already explained by note on page 399, where a similar passage
is noticed. 422. The disciples, who collectively had been frequently denomi
nated the Twelve, after the death of Judas, had the appellation of the Eleven. This is applied by Luke xxiv. 33. and Mark xvi. 14. as their general title, though at that time ten only were present, Thomas (see John xx. 24.) not being with them. Paul, in the 1st Cor. xv. 5, and John xx. 24. speaks of them under the former appellation of the Twelve, though, Judas being dead and Thomas then absent, ten only can be enumerated. This application of the two numbers may appear contradictory, yet as it was not unfrequent, but even general, among writers prior to and about that age, to adopt the same modes of expression (as the following extract obviously shews) no contradiction can be eventually attached to the sacred writers.
“ Grotius hath observed that Xenophon calls the governors of Athens by the name of the thirty, when Theramenes, one of them, was dead; and that in the book of Judges, the seventy sons of Gideon are said to be slain, whilst Jotham, one of them, was alive. I add, that Livy calls by the name of Decemviri, or, The ten men, only five of them, who had the joint command of the Roman army in Tusculum (lib. 3. c. 43.) and a little after (lib. 3. C. 51.) he gives the same name to three of them, who had the joint command of the army against the Sabines; and even (c. 49. line 20.) to those two of them, who were left at Rome to take care of the city.”
Chandler. 427. John xxi. 7. For he was naked. This phrase does not de
note absolute nakedness, but is often applied to those who are without an upper garment. Nudus (a Latin word of the same signification) is used in the same manner. So Virgil (Georg. i. 299.) gives this order to the husbandman.--Nu
dus ara, sere nudus.-Harwood. 429. John xxi. 21. If I will that he tarry till I come. History
informs us that St. John lived long after the destruction of Je. rusalem (to which the words, till I come,” refer. See Matt. xxiv. 3—44. xvi. 28, &c.) and Christ had given the intimation that John should see that event, for he once said
to his disciples, " there be some standing here who shall not taste of death, till they see the son of man coming in his kingdom ;” Luke ix. 27. And afterwards, when Peter was desirous to know what should befall John, Christ replied, “If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?”
Fortin. John survived to the reign of Trajan : he died an hundred years after the birth of our Lord, consequently thirty years after the “ coming of Christ,” (the destruction of Jerusalem taking place A. D. 70.)- Irenceus.
In detailing the events subsequent to the crucifixion, the reader may readily observe that much matter is recorded in a small compass, and that though each Evangelist has given his particular and connnected narration, much new matter is introduced in one, unnoticed in the others. To frame a general narrative by a combination of the whole, and to dispose
the various circumstances in the order they are supposed to have occurred, have been objects of difficulty to harmonists. On these accounts the following concise summary of the events, in the order they may rationally be supposed to have happened, is introduced, as arranged by Benson, and afterwards adopted by Newcome.
On the morning of the first day of the week Jesus rises from the dead; a great earthquake happens about the time of his resurrection; and an angel appears, who rolls away the stone that closed the mouth of the sepulchre, sits upon it, and strikes the keepers with great fear; thus causing them to remove to such a distance, as to remain unnoticed by the women, and others hereafter. (Matt. xxviii. 2—4.) After his resurrection, many bodies of the saints arise from their graves, and are seen by many in Jerusalem. (Matt. xxvii. 52, 53.) Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome, Joanna, and other women (Mark xvi. 1. Luke xxiv. 1. John xx. 1.) go very early to the sepulchre, intending to embalm the body of Jesus (having bought spices the preceding evening for that purpose.) in their way they consult about removing the stone from the door of the sepulchre. Perceiving it already taken away, they enter into the sepulchre, yet find not the body of the Lord Jesus. (Mark xvi. 3--5. Luke xxiv. 2, 3. John xx. 1.) Mary Magdalene, hastily returning to Jerusalem, relates to Peter and John that they had taken the Lord out of the sepulchre. (John. xx. 2.) The other women remaining in the sepulchre, two angels appear unto them, and one of them requests the women to inform the disciples, and Peter in particular, that Jesus was risen, &c. Matt. xxviii. 5-7. Mark xvi. 4-7. Luke xxiv. 4-5.) The women return from the sepulchre, relate these things to the apostles, and are discredited. (Matt. xxviii.
8. Mark xvi. 8. Luke xxiv. 8—-11. Peter and John having heard Mary Magdalene's report of his having been taken away, and the women's of his having risen, run to the sepulchre, and find the body removed according to their information, and wondering at what was come to pass, return home. (Luke xxiv. 12. John xx. 3---10.) The resurrection having been stated to the disciples at Jerusalem, at this period. (Luke xxiv. 22-24.) Cleophas and his companion leave their brethren, to go to Emmaus. Mary Magdalene goes again to the sepulchre, tarries there after the apostles (John xx. 11.) and converses with the two angels, who had before
appeared to the women. Turning herself back, she perceives Jesus, who gradually makes himself known unto her; she consequently hastens to the city, and announces this his first appearance to the disciples, but they believe not. (Mark xvi. 9-11. John xx. 11-18.) The other women, having told the disciples of his resurrection, continue in the city, whilst Peter and John visit, and Mary Magdalene revisits, the sepulchre: they then go back again, and upon finding it deserted, return towards Jerusalem. On their way Jesus meets, and requests them to direct his disciples to depart into Galilee. (Matt. xxviii. 9—10.) This is his second appearance. The guards about this time leave the neighbourhood of the sepulchre, and inform the Jewish rulers of what had occurred within their knowledge. Matt. xxviii 11-15.) According to Paul (1 Corinth. xv. 5.) the third appearance is to Cephas; and the fourth, to the two who some time prior to this left their brethren, to proceed to Emmaus; who, immediately returning to Jerusalem, relate it to the other disciples, and are not credited. (Mark xvi. 12, 13. Luke xxiv. 13–36.) The last time of his being seen on the day of his resurrection being the fifth, was by the apostles, as they sat at meat, in the absence of Thomas (Paul 1 Corinth. xv. 5. Mark. xvi. 14—18. Luke xxiv. 36–49. John xx. 19-23.) This concludes the great and glorious transactions of the important day on which Jesus rose from the dead. About the eighth day after his resurrection, he again the sixth time appears to the disciples, when Thomas was present. (John xx. 24–29.) His seventh appearance occurs between the eighth and the fortieth day, at the sea of Tiberias, to his disciples, (Matt. xxviii. 16. John xxi. 1—24.) and his eighth, to them upon the mountain in Galilee. (Matt. xxviii. 16—20.) Paul (1 Corinth. xv. 6.) relates his having been seen of above five hundred brethren at once, many of whom, at the time of his writing this epistle, are living witnesses to this, the ninth appearance. His tenth is to James, and his final appearance, being the eleventh, is to the apostles, on the
ascension. (1 Corinth. xv. 7. Acts i. 3-12. Mark xvi.
19, 20. Luke xxiv. 50—53.) 434. John xxi. 25. And there are also many other things which
Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. The construction of this verse in our present translation is fully justified, in adducing from the Old Testament expressions of equal latitude, (See Exod. iii. 8. Judges vii. 12. 1 Kings x. 27, &c.) and which are not unusual in the magnificent luxuriance of an oriental style, though rarely occurring in the simple artless narrations of the apostles.
This text may, nevertheless, be considered in a sense somewhat different. The same Evangelist (John) frequently uses the word world, in a general sense, to denote its inhabitants, ch. viii. 26. and in other places, as ch. xv. 18, expressive of wicked and unbelieving men. The Greek word (xwew) here translated contain, is not only used in that sense, but when applied to the mind, denotes the reception and understanding of any thing, and in Matt. xix. 11–12. and Philem 15, is rendered by this construction. By adopting these observations, the text reads to this purport, “ I am persuaded the world itself would not receive the books that should be written.” (Doddridge's translation.) Whitby, Chandler, Harwood, with many others, have supported this construction, under the idea of greater propriety of application. In addition to whose opinion, it may be observed, that in this day, under the more extended diffusion of evangelical truth, the same disposition of undervaluing, and, in no small degree, rejecting these sacred records, seems lamentably prevalent, and bears strong testimony to the justness of John's assertion.
INDEX TO PARABLES.
of the rich man and}
125 Parable of the guest choosing
of the proposal for
building a tower
of a king going to war 239
of the salt having lost?
of the lost sheep 240
of the prodigal son 240
of the unjust steward 243
ofthemaster and servant 246
of the Pharisee and
of the ten pounds
133 of the repenting Son
or of the two
sons commanded to
of the cruel husband-
of the wedding gar-
of the fig tree putting
of the thief
of the man taking a?
of the faithful and
un faithful servant