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ever, one may have them by bushels for little; they make a pleasant drink, and I think not inferior to any peach you have in England, except the true Newington. It is disputable with me, whether it be best to fall to fining the fruits of the country, especially the grape, by the care and skill of art, or send for foreign stems and sets, already good and approved, It seems most reasonable to believe, that not only a thing groweth best, where it naturally grows, but will hardly be equalled by another species of the same kind, that doth not naturally grow there. But to solve the doubt, I intend, if God give me life, to try both, and hope the consequence will be as good wine as any European countries, of the same latitude, do yield.
VI. The artificial produce of the country, is wheat, barley,* oats, rye, pease, beans, squashes, pumpkins, water-melons, musk-melons, and all herbs and roots that our gardens in England usuaily bring forth.
VII. Of living creatures; fish, fowl, and the beasts of the woods, here are divers forts, some for food and profit, and some for profit only: for food, as well as profit, the elk, as big as a small ox; deer bigger than ours; beaver, racoon, rabbits, squirrels, and fome eat young bear, and commend it. Of fowl of the land, there is the turkey, (forty and fifty pounds weight) which is very great ; pheasants, heath-birds, pigeons, and partridges in abundance. Of the water, the swan, goose, white and grey ; brands, ducks, teal, also the snipe and curlew, and that in great numbers ; but the duck and teal excel, nor so good have I ever cat in other countries. Of fish, there is the sturgeon, herring, rock, shad, catlhead, sheepshead, eel, smelt, perch, roach; and in inland rivers, trout, fome fay,
* Note, That Edward Jones, son-in-law to Thomas Wynn, liv. ing on the Schuylkill, had with ordinary cultivation, for one grain of English barley, feventy stalks and ears of barley: and it is common in this country, from one bushel sown, to reap forty, often ffty, and sometimes fixty: and three pecks of wheat sows an acre beres
salmon, salmon, above the falls. Of shell-fish, we have oyf. ters, crabs, cockles, conchs, and muscles; some oysters fix inches long; and one sort of cockles as large as the stewing-oysters; they make a rich broth. The creatures for profit only, by skin or furr, and that are natural to these parts, are the wild cat, panther, otter, wolf, fox, fisher, minx, mulk-rat: and of the water, the whale for oil, of which we have good store; and two companies of whalers, whose boats are built, will foon begin their work, which hath the appearance of a considerable improvement. To say nothing of our reasonable hopes of good cod in the bay.
VIII. We have no want of horses, and some are very good, and shapely enough; two ships have been freighted to Barbadoes with horses and pipe-staves, since my coming in. Here is also plenty of cow-cattle, and some sheep; the people plow mostly with oxen.
IX. There are divers plants, that not only the Indians tell us, but we have had occasion to prove by swellings, burnings, cuts, &c. that they are of great virtue, suddenly curing the patient: and for smell, I have observed several, especially one, the wild myrtle; the other I know not what to call, but are most fragrant.
X. The woods are adorned with lovely flowers, for · colour, greatness, figure and variety : I have seen the
gardens of London best stored with that sort of beauty, but think they may be improved by our woods : I have sent a few to a person of quality this year for a trial.
Thus much of the country; next of the natives, or
XI. The natives I shall consider in their persons, language, manners, religion, and government, with my sense of their original. For their persons, they are generally tall, straight, well-built, and of singular proportion; they tread strong and clever, and mostly
er: imperfen oplied by the In the place hort-hand is
walk with a lofty chin: of complexion, black, but by design, as the gypsies in England. They grease themselves with bears-fat clarified ; and using no defence against sun or weather, their skins must needs be swarthy. Their eye is little and black, not unlike a straight-looked Jew. The thick lip and flat nose, so frequent with the East Indians and Blacks, are not common to them; for I have seen as comely Europeanlike faces among thein of both, as on your side the sea; and truly an Italian complexion hath not much more of the white, and the noses of several of them have as much of the Roman.
XII. Their language is lofty, yet narrow; but, like the Hebrew, in signification full; like short-hand in: writing, one word serveth in the place of three, and the rest are supplied by the understanding of the hear-, er : imperfect in their tenses, wanting in their moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections: I have made it my business to understand it, that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion: and I must say, that I know not a language spoken in Europe, that hath words of more sweetness or greatness, in accent or emphasis, than theirs : for instance, Ottocockon, Rancocas, Orieton, Shak, Marian, Poquefien; all which are names of places, and have grandeur in them. Of words of sweetness, anna, is mother; ifimus, a brother, netcap, friend, usque oret, very good, pane, bread, metsa, eat, matta, no, hatta, to have, payo, to come; Sepassen, Pasijon, the names of places; Tamane, Secane, Menanse, Secatereus, are the names of persons. If one alk them for any thing they have not, they will answer, Mattá ne battá, which to translate is, Not I bave, instead of, I have not.
XIII. Of their customs and manners, there is much to be said; I will begin with children: so soon as they are born, they wash them in water, and while very young, and in cold weather to chuse, they plunge them in the rivers to harden and embolden them. Having wrapped them in a clout, they lay them on a VOL. IV.
straight thin board, a little more than the length and breadth of the child, and swaddle it fast upon the board to make it straight; wherefore all Indians havo flat heads : and thus they carry them at their backs. The children will go very young, at nine months commonly; they wear only a small clout round their waste, till they are big; if boys, they go a fishing till ripe for the woods, which is about fifteen; then they hunt, and after having given some proofs of their manhood, by a good return of skins, they may marry, else it is a shame to think of a wife. The girls ftay with their mothers, and help to hoe the ground, plant corn, and carry burchens; and they do well to use them to that young, which they must do when they are old; for the wives are the true servants of the husbands; otherwise the men are very affectionate to them.
XIV. When the young women are fit for marriage, they wear something upon their heads for an advertisement, but so as their faces are hardly to be seen, but when they please : the age they marry at, if women, is about thirteen and fourteen; if men, feventeen and eighteen; they are rarely elder.
XV. Their houses are mats, or barks of trees, fet on poles, in the fashion of an English barn, but out of the power of the winds, for they are hardly higher than a man ; they lie on reeds or grass. In travel, they lodge in the woods about a great fire, with the mantle of duffils they wear by day wrapped about them, and a few boughs stuck round about them.
XVI. Their diet is maize, or Indian corn, divers ways prepared; sometimes roasted in the ashes, fometimes beaten and boiled with water, which they call homine ; they also make cakes, not unpleasant to eat: they have likewise several sorts of beans and pease, that are good nourishment; and the woods and rivers are their larder.
XVII. If an European comes to see them, or calls for lodging at their house, or wigwam, they give him
the best place, and firft cut. If they come to visit us, they falute us with an itab, which is as much as to say, Good be to you ; and set them down, which is mostly on the ground, close to their heels, their legs upright; it may be they speak not a word, but observe all passages : if you give them any thing to eat or drink, well, for they will not ask; and be it little or much, if it be with kindness, they are well pleased, else they go away fullen, but say nothing.
XVIII. They are great concealers of their own res fenements, brought to it, I believe, by the revenge that hach been practised among them : in either of these they are not exceeded by the Italians. A tragi. cal instance fell out since I came into the country : a king's daughter thinking herself sighted by her husband, in suffering another woman to lie down between them, rose up, went out, plucked a root out of the ground, and eat it, upon which she immediately died; and for which, last week, he made an offering to her kindred, for atonement, and liberty of marriage; as iwo others did to the kindred of their wives, that died à natural death: for till widowers have done so, they must not marry again. Some of the young women are said to take undue liberty before marriage, for å portion; but when married, chafte: when with child they know their husbands no more, till delivered ; and during their month, they touch no meat they eat but with a stick, left they should defile it ; nor do their husbands frequent them, cill that time be expired.
XIX. But in liberality they excel ; nothing is too good for their friend : give them a fine gun, coat, or other ching, it may pass twenty hands before it sticks :
most merry creatures that live, feast and dance perpetually; they never have much, nor want much : wealth circulateth like the blood, all parts partake; and though none shall want what another hath, yet exact observers of property. Some kings have fold, U 2