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others presented me with several parcels of land: the pay, or presents I made them, were not hoarded by the particular owners, but the neighbouring kings and their clans being present when the goods were brought out, the parties chiefly concerned consulted what, and to whom they should give them. To every king chen, by the hands of a person for that work appointed, is a proportion sent, so forted and folded, and with that gravity, that is adınirable. Then that king subdividech it in like manner among his dependents, they hardly leaving themselves an equal share with one of their subjects: and be it on such occasions as festivals, or at their common meals, the kings distribute, and to themselves last. They care for little, because they
them : in this they are sufficiently revenged on us; if they are ignorant of our pleasures, they are also free from our pains. They are not disquieted with bills of lading and exchange, nor perplexed with chancerysuits and exchequer reckonings. We sweat and toil to live: their pleasure feeds them; I mean their hunting, fishing, and fowling, and this table is spread every where: they eat twice a day, morning and evening; their seats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans came into these parts, they are grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially; and for it exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquors, they are restless till they have enough to sleep; that is their cry, Some more, and I will go to seep; but, when drunk, one of the most wretched fpectacles in the world. .
XX. In sickness, impatient to be cured, and for it give anything, especially for their children, to whom they are extremely natural : they drink at those times a teran, or decoction of some roots in spring, Water; and if they eat any flesh, it inust be of the female of any creature. If they die, they bury them with their apparel, be they man or woman, and the nearest of kin Aing in something precious with them,
as a token of their love: their mourning is blacking of their faces, which they continue for a year : they are choice of the graves of their dead; for left they should be loft by time, and fall to common use, they pick off the grass that grows upon them, and heap up the fallen earth with great care and exactness. i
XXI. These poor people are under a dark night in things relating to religion, to be sure the tradition of it ; yet they believe a GOD and immortality, without the help of metaphysicks; for they say, " There is a s great king that made them, who dwells in a glorious s country to the southward of them; and that the < souls of the good shall go thither, where they shall
live again. Their worship consists of two parts, sacrifice and cantico: their facrifice is cheir first-fruits ; the first and fattest buck they kill goeth to the fire, where he is all burnt, with a mournful ditty of him that perforineth the ceremony, but with such marvellous fervency, and labour of body, that he will even sweat to a foam. The other part is their cantico, performed by round dances, sometimes words, sometimes fongs, then fouts, two being in the middle that begin, and by singing, and drumming on a board, direct the chorus: their postures in the dance are very antick, and differing, but all keep measure. This is done with equal earnestness and labour, but great appearance of joy. In the fall, when the corn cometh in, they begin to feast one another: there have been two great festivals already, to which all come that will: I was at one myself; their entertainment was a great feat by a spring, under some shady trees, and twenty bucks, with hot cakes of new corn, both wheat and beans, which they make up in a square form, in the leaves of the stem, and bake thein in the ashes; and after that they fall to dance. But'they that go must carry a small present in their money, it may be fix-pence, which is made of the bone of a fish; the black is with them as gold, the white, filver ; they call it all wampum. . .
XXII. Their government is by kings, which they call Şachama, and those by succession, but always of the mother's side: for inttance, the children of him that is now king, will not succeed, but his brother by the mother, or the children of his fifter, whose fons (and after them the children of her daughters) will reign, for no woman inherits: the reason they render for this way of descent, is, that their issue may not be fpurious.
XXIII. Every king hath his council, and that consists of all the old and wise men of his nation, which perhaps is two hundred people; nothing of moment is undertaken, be it war, peace, selling of land or traffick, without advising with them; and, which is more, with the young men too. It is admirable to consider, how powerful the kings are, and yet how they move by the breath of their people. I have had occasion to be in council with them upon treaties for land, and to adjust the terms of trade: their order is thus : the king sits in the middle of an half moon, and hath his council, the old and wise on each hand; behind them, or at a little distance, sit the younger fry, in the fame figure. Having consulted and resolved their business, the king ordered one of them to speak to me; he stood up, came to me, and in the name of his king saluted me, then took me by the hand, and told me, "He was ordered by his
king to speak to me; and that now it was not he, s but the king that spoke, because what he should say, r was the king's mind.' He first prayed me, "To exocuse them that they had not complied with me the « last time; he feared there might be some fault in the
interpreter, being neither Indian nor English; be. < sides, it was the Indian custom to deliberaţe,' and < take up much time in council, before they resolve ;
and that if the young people and owners of the land had been as ready as he, I had not met with so ? much delay. Having thus introduced his matter, he fell to the bounds of the land they had agreed to
had been as, Having thus and they had a
dispose of, and the price; which now is little and dear, that which would have bought twenty miles, not buying now two. During the time that this person spoke, not a man of them was observed to whisper or smile; the old grave, the young reverent in their de. portment: they speak little, but fervently, and with elegance: I have never seen more natural fagacity, considering them without the help, (I was going to say, the spoil) of tradition; and he will deserve the name of wise, that out-wits them in any treaty about a thing they understand. When the purchase was agreed, great promises passed between us of kindness < and good neighbourhood, and that the Indians and < English must live in love, as long as the sun gave « light.' Which done, another made a speech to the Indians, in the name of all the fachamakers or kings; first to tell them what was done; next, to charge and command them « To love the Christians, and particu<larly live in peace with me, and the people under 'my government: that many governors had been in
the river, but that no governor had come himself to - live and stay here before; and having now such an ( one that had treated them well, they should never
do him or his any wrong. At every sentence of which they shouted, and said, Amen, in their way.
XXIV. The justice they have is pecuniary: in cafe of any wrong or evil fait, be it murther itself, they atone by feasts, and presents of their wampum, which is proportioned to the quality of the offence or person injured, or of the sex they are of: for in case they kill a woman, they pay double, and the reason they can render, is, " That she breedeth children, which i men cannot do.' It is rare that they fall out, if sober; and if drunk, they forgive it, saying, "It was (the drink, and not the man, that abused them.'
XXV. We have agreed, that in all differences be tween us, fix of each side shall end the matter: do not abuse them, but let them have justice, and you win them: the worst is, that they are the worse for
the the Christians, who have propagated their vices, and yielded thein tradition for ill, and not for good things. But as low an ebb as these people are at, and as glorious as their own condition looks, the Christians have not outlived their sight, with all their pretensions to an higher manifestation : what good then might not a good people graft, where there is so distinct a knowledge left between good and evil? I beseech God to incline the hearts of all that come into these parts, to outlive the knowledge of the natives, by a fixed obedience to their greater knowledge of the will of God; for it were miserable indeed for us to fall under the just censure of the poor Indian conscience, while we make profession of things so far transcending.
XXVI. For their original, I am ready to believe them of the Jewish race; I mean, of the stock of the Ten Tribes, and that for the following reasons; first, they were to go to a “ land not planted or known,” which, to be sure, Asia and Africa were, if not Eu. • rope; and He that intended that extraordinary judgmene upon them, might make the passage not uneasy to them, as it is not impossible in itself, from the eastermoft parts of Asia, to the westermost of America. In the next place, I find them of like countenance, and their children of so lively a resemblance, that a man would think himself in Duke's-place or Burystreet in London, when he seeth them. But this is not all; they agree in rites, they reckon by moons ; they offer their first-fruits, they have a kind of feast of tabernacles; they are said to lay their altar upon twelve stones; their mourning a year, customs of women, with many things that do not now occur.
So much for the natives ; next, the old planters will be considered in this relation, before I come to our colony, and the concerns of it.
XXVII. The first planters in these parts were the Dutch, and soon after them the Swedes and Finns, The Dutch applied themselves to traffick, the Swedes and Finns to husbandry. There were some disputes