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pendent provinces must not be esteemed a part of the body of the Roman beast, because they originally belong. ed to the Macedonian beast : then, in order that the scheme may be consistent with itself, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, must not be esteemed a part of the body of the Macedonian beast, because they previously belonged to the Medo-Persian beast. Or, to state the same argument in a somewhat different form : if the body of the Medo-Persian beast is to be confined within the strict limits of Media and Persia properly so called, as Sir Isaac supposes : then, in a similar manner, the body of the Macedonian beast must be confined within the limits of Macedon and Greece ; and the body of the Roman beast, within those of Italy : in which case it will be a vain labour to look either for the four heads* of the third beast, or for the ten horns of the fourth beast. The truth is, no less than two out of the four heads of the third beast, namely the Syrian kingdom of Seleucus and the Egyptian kingdom of Prolemy, sprung up within the limits of the Persian empire, after it had been subdued by Alexander : consequently, if a part of the Persian empire is to be included in the body of the third beast, forming his two most powerful heads ; there cannot be assigned any reason, why a part of the third beust, namely Greece and the eastern provinces which afterwards constituted the Romano-Constantinopolitan empire, should not be included in the body of the fourth beast. Hence I am reluctantly constrained to assert, that the scheme of separating the eastern empire from the body of the fourth beast, laid down by Sir Isaac Newton and adopted by Bp. Newton, must necessarily be erroneous : because, if allowed to be just, it will force us, in order to preserve the consistency of prophecy, to separate from the body of the Macedonian beast his two eastern heads of Syria and Egypt; inasınuch as both those countries were provinces of the Medo-Persian empire, before they became heads of the Macedonian empire.

In'preference then to Sir Isaac's scheme, I am rather inclined to think, that the four beasts are the four great empires, considered as respectively extending to their several utmost limits : so that the Medo-Persian empire comprehends not only Media and Persia, but likewise Chaldea, Assyria, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt ; the Macedonian empire, not only Greece, but likewise the former empire of Persia : and the Roman empire, by a parity of reasoning, not only Italy and the West, but likewise Greece, Egypt, and Asia as far as the Euphrates.*

* It is almost superfluous to remind the reader, that the four beads of the third beast in the vision of the four great beasts are the same as tbe four horns of the be-goat in the vision of the ram and the be-goat.

As for specifying what powers are now the ten horns, I cannot but consider it as absurd to attempt it. History has decidedly shewn, that the kingdoms, into which the Roman empire was divided, never continued long in the same state : nor is it at all necessary for the completion of the prophecy, that they should have done so. Two of the horns of the Macedonian he-goat were soon swallowed up by the most powerful of the other two horns ; and the great Latin city, exclusive I apprehend of those protestant powers which have come out of it, will eventually be divided into no more than three parts.f Still however the Roman beast is symbolically represented as having ten horns, because such was the original number into which his empire was divided ; as four was the original number into which the empire of the he-goat was divided. “ Though the kingdom of Alexander," says Bp. Newton, “ was divided into four principal parts, yet only two of them have a place allotted in Daniel's last prophecy of the things noted in the Scripture of truth, Egypt and Syria. These two were by far the greatest and most considerable : and these two at one time were in a manner the only remaining kingdoms of the four : the kingdom of Macedon having been conquered by Lysimachus and annexed to Thrace ; and Lysimachus again having been conquered by Seleucus,

original namn his empire was di was the original

• This will shew us the reason why the Roman beast is represented as being compounded of a lion, a bear, and a leopard. (Rev. xiii. 2.) His empire comprehended the greatest part of the dominions of the Babylonian lion, the Medo-Persian bear, and tbe Macedonian leopard; in addition to which he had ten borns or kingdoms in his peculiar sovereignty in the West. + See Rev. xvi, 19. Concerning this earthquake more will be said hereafter.

See Rev. xvij 16,

and the kingdoms of Macedon and Thrace annexed to Suria.* Such being the fate of two out of the four horns of the he-goat, I know not why some expositors should apparently think themselves bound to labour to discover ten horns for the Roman beast at any other pe. riod except that when his empire was originally divided.t. Machiavel, as we have seen, merely as a political historian, and without the least intention of supporting a favourite system, informs us, that the empire was broken by the northern nations into precisely ten primary kingdoms. This circumstance alone therefore is sufficient for the completion of the prophecy, that the ten horns of the fourth beast are ten kings that shall arise out of his kingdom ; just as the division of Alexander's empire into four kingdoms was alone sufficient for the completion of the prophecy, that four kingdoms should stand up out of his nation. The special badge of the he-goat is his four horns, and the special badge of the Roman beast is his ten horns ; although both these numbers afterwards varied. Hence we may just as reasonably expect, that the Macedonian beast should always have four horns during the whole period of his existence after their rise, because four horns are said to have sprung up out of him when his great horn was broken ; as that the Ro. man beast should always have ten horns during the whole period of his existence after their rise, because when his empire was divided exactly ten kings were to arise out of it. The two symbols are, in fact, each formed from , a view of the primary division of the Macedonian and

Roman empires ; nor was it designed, nor indeed was it possible, that they should be exhibited as perpetually varying with the ever varying revolutions of nations. On these grounds I think it of very little consequence to the completion of the prophecy to have discovered, that there were ten kingdoms in the year 1240 at the time of the diet of Ratisbon ; ten likewise at the Refor.

* Dissert. xvi. of Sir Isaac Newton very justly remarks, that, “ whatever was their number afterwards, they are still called the ten kings from their first number." Observ. on Daniel, C. vi. p. 73. Dan, vii. 24.

S Dan. vül. 22

mation; and ten also in the year 1706.* The ten horns of the Roman beast are certainly the ten primury kingdoms enumerated by Machiavel; and, since three of the first horns were to be plucked up before the little horn, we must seek for those three horns among the ten primary kingdoms : how the empire was afterwards divided is a matter of no great moment; its subsequent political revolutions affect not in the slightest degree the accuracy of the prophecy.


Concerning the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and the

little horn of the he-goat.

NEBUCHADNEZZAR's dream of the image, and Daniel's vision of the four beasts and the little horn of the fourth beast, contain predictions relative to the four great empires and the domineering tyranny of the Papacy. These matters so important to the Church having been clearly set forth, the Holy Spirit, now purposing to describe the exploits of another great enemy to Christianity ; recalls, in the vision of the ram and the hegoat, the attention of Daniel to the second and third empires, whose prophetic history had been already detailed, for the purpose of introducing another little horn, which was to come out of one of the principal horns of the Macedonian beast, as the former little horn sprung up among the ten horns of the Roman beast.

In Daniel's vision of the ram and the he-goat, the ram symbolizes the same power as the bear mentioned in the preceding vision; and the he-goat, the same power as the leopard. The ram therefore, standing before the river, is the Medo-Persian empire; and his two horns are the two kingdoms of Media and Persia : the higher onc, which came up last, being Persia, the head of the em. pire ; and the lower one, which came up first being Media, united with, though subjected to, Persia. The ram extended his conquests westward, northward, and southward : westward, as far as the extreme limits of Asia ; northward, over Armenia, and Cappadocia ; and southward, over Egypt, and as far as the Persian gulph. Eastward he made comparatively but little progress, being stopped by the vast deserts of Tartary, and the mighty empire of Hindostan.

* See Bp. Newton's Dissert. xiv.

In the plenitude of his power however, and at the very time when no other beast could stand before him, he was attacked by an unexpected enemy, the he-goat, or the Macedonian empire. Moving with unexampled rapidity from the West, the founder of this mighty sovereignty soon completely overthrew the ram, and broke his two horns. After this daring exploit, the he-goat “ waxed very great," extending his arms even into Hindostan, as well as subjugating Egypt and all the other dominions of the ram. But, notwithstanding this sudden and astonishing asquisition of power, his great horn was destined to be broken even in the very height of his strength. Accordingly, the imperial dynasty of the great horn lasted no more than fifteen years after the death of Alexander ; within which short space of time his successors, Philip Aridèus, Alexander Egus, and Hercules, were all murdered. After them the empire was divided into four kingdoms, typified by the four horns of the goat, and the four heuds of the leopard mentioned in the preceding vision. Cassander held Macedon and Greece ; Lysimachus had Thrace and Bithynia ; Ptolemy made himself naster of Egypt ; and Seleucus obtained Syria and the East. Thus exactly was fulfilled the prophecy, that four kingdoms should arise out of Alexander's empire, governed by princes of his own nation, though nei. ther of his own family, nor with power equal to that which he had possessed.

Hitherto all commentators are agreed ; but there has been the same discrepancy of opinion respecting the little horn of the he-goat, as the little horn of the fourth beast whose prophetic history we last considered. Bp. Newton

odoms, typ of the leopard.edon and Gree

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