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SE Base bees, with more propriety, couverted into soal barges to been ei ea a river, being so very ill adapted for sailing. Suck es ne s improperly termed tubs, by seamen, from the tandiness et ses progress and the peculiarity of the course in which they 37373 sa waich is directly opposite to the point whence the wind bus ; tu is to say, to leeward. How often do we find a whole war etised, and the voyage protracted, from the bad sailing of GER Dore transports! Nor is it to be attributed to bad trimming, er a fost bextom, but to the wretched and irremediable build of the se To this cause it is chiefly owing that so many transports drop to læn, or 2-stem, and part company, particularly in the night and in stormy weather; and, if they do not fall a prey to the enemy, the officers and men on board are thus exposed to privations, sufferings, and anxiety of mind, which they ought not to undergo.

* The next point to be considered is, perhaps, not less important than any one hitherto discussed ; namely, the soundness of the decks and upper works of the ship. To preserve the berths dry and comfortable below, it is absolutely necessary that every plank and seam above be perfectly water-tight, and, in particular, proof against rain. A leaky and damp state of the decks is a fault common to many transports: and, when this is the case, ships are generally unhealthy. Ships often become leaky from straining and opening their seams in bad weather ; but it is more commonly owing to bad calking or unsound timber. It is well known that the admission of rain between decks is more dangerous than that of sea-water; and too much care cannot be taken to exclude it also from the hatchways, by means of proper gratings, tarpaulings, &c.

- Boats. There is no subject, perhaps, on which complaints are more liable to be made by officers embarked on board transports than on that of boats; and these complaints are not so often founded on the deficiency of boats belonging to transports, as on the want of proper regulation on this point. From this reason, officers on first embarking, and when preparing for sea, are often much inconvenienced from not having a ready means of communicating with the shore, for the supply of their immediate wants, as well as of the requisites for a sea voyage. Whenever there is an agent for transports present, this officer frequently assumes the disposal of one boat of each transport at least; in either case the master commonly feels little hesitation in employing whatever boat or boats may be at hand, for his own individual convenience; or, perhaps, it is employed for the duty of the ship, so that it is not very unusual to see military officers, in conse quence of this irregularity, as effectually imprisoned for a time on board transports, while in harbour, as convicts are on board the prisonhulks in the river Thames.

* Besides the launch or long-boat, every transport should be re quired to have, at least, two boats kept always in complete repair, one of which should be appropriated to the duties of the ship exclusively; and the other should be placed at the disposal of the senior military officer on board ; who should, however, be held responsible that the boat so allowed is not employed for improper purposes, nor damaged by wantonness or neglect.”

The troops embarked on board vessels in the transport-service are provisioned at two-thirds of a seaman's allowance in the royal navy; and the following table exhibits the allowance for six soldiers, or four

seamen, for each day in the week. Women are provisioned at onehalf, and children at one-fourth, of a soldier's allowance, but receive no rúm.

PROVISION TABLE.

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lbs. Sunday ... 4 4

1 | 2 ber

odple Monday 4 4

1 Tuesday.... 4 4

be saint y

or 6lbs, of Wednesday

4 flour, or lb. 24 Thursday 4 4

suet, and Ub.

12 பப்பாம்

of raisins. Friday.... 4

24 Saturday .. 4 4 1, or as above

bol 730

TA The above are to be served out by full weights and measures; and on the master's passing his account, an allowance of one-eighth on each species, except beef and pork, will be made for waste and leakage.

When flour, suet, and raisins, are put on board, they are to be served out in equal proportions with beef, viz. half in beef, the other half in flour, suet, raisins, on each beef-day.

4lbs. of flour, or 3lbs. of flour with {lb. of raisins, (or lib. of currants,) and lb. of suet, are equal to 4lbs. of beef, or 2lbs. of pork, with peas, but are not to be issued in lieu of the latter, unless unavoidable, and then the quantities must be certified.

Half a pound of rice is considered as equal to a pint of oatmeal ; half a pound of sugar as equal to half a pound of butter; and llb. of rice as equal to llb. of cheese; one pint of oil as equal to llb. of butter, or 2lbs. of cheese; that is, a pint of oil for the proportion of butter and cheese.

A pint of-wine, or half a pint of brandy, rum, or arrack, is equal to a gallon of beer ; llb. of fresh beef is equal to llb. of salt beef; and i lb. of fresh beef is equal to llb. of pork.

No wine or spirits are to be issued to the troops while in port, nor at sea, till after all the beer is expended; and then, when wine or spirits are issued, no more is to be served out than the daily allowance, on any account whatever.

The master is to produce a certificate from the commanding officer of the troops on board, of the quantity expended. If any doubt be entertained of the provisions being of full weight, a cask inust be weighed in presence of the commanding officer, the master, and the mate ; and the master may, upon the certificate of the commanding officer, and the oath of the mate, issue as much beef and pork as will make up the deficiency.

The weight of each must be as follows: 14 pieces of beef, cut for eight pound pieces, taken out of the casks as they rise, and the salt shaken off, are to weigh 112 lbs. avoirdupois ; 28 pieces of pork, cut for four pound pieces, are also to weigh, under like circumstances, 112 lbs. “A more particular statement will be found at page 1043.

Articles as Stores not allowed to be shipped on board transports duty free, except British plantation Rum and Wine, but drawback will be allowed on them for the use of officers embarking on foreign service, upon application to Treasury, certified to by the said officers as being requisite for the voyage.—Treas. Order 11th and Min. 12th Jan. 1830.

See also a List of Goods allowed to be shipped from the Bonded Warehouses for the use of the Ship’s Crew, page 614.

CHAPTER VII

SLAVE TRADE.

From the time that this trade became an object of legislative consideration, various acts were passed to regulate it. At length its enormity and the cruelty exercised in transporting poor hapless negroes during a long voyage, manacled together, raised such a voice, and called so loud, that humanity could no longer remain deaf or indifferent to the subject.

Great Britain was the first to lead the way, and without regard to the interests of individuals, determined that the slave trade should be no more. Nor has she stopped here, for there is scarcely a kingdom on the continent that she has not entered into treaties with for the abolition of slave carrying, but has passed certain acts of parliament, viz. 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 54, “ An Act to carry into effect the Treaty with Sweden relative to the Slave Trade ;” and likewise a similar one, 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 74, with relation to the Emperor of Brazil. And at the end of this Chapter will be found a copy of a treaty with the King of the French on the same subject.

5 Geo. IV. c. 113. An Act to amend and consolidate the Laws relating to the Abolition

of the Slave Trade. All acts relating to the slave trade, and the erportation and importation of slaves repealed.-From and after the 1st of January, 1825, all the acts and enactments relating to the slave trade, and the abolition thereof, and the erportation and importation of slaves, * shall be and the same are hereby repealed, save and except in so far as they may have repealed any prior acts or enactments, or may have been acted upon, or may be expressly confirmed by this present act. § 1.

The purchase, sale, or contract for slaves declared unlawful; as also the erportation and importation of slaves; the shipping of slaves in order to exportation or importation ; the filting out vessels; making loans or guarantees; the shipping of goods, &c. or serving on board ships employed for any of the aforesaid purposes ; or the insuring of slave adventures. And it shall not be lawful (except in such special cases as are hereinafter mentioned) for any persons to deal or trade in, purchase, sell, barter, or transfer, or to contract for the dealing or trading in, purchase, sale, barter, or transfer of slaves, or persons intended to be dealt with as slaves; or to carry away or remove, or to contract for the carrying away or removing of slaves or other persons, as or in order to their being dealt with as slaves; or to import or bring, or to contract for the importing or bringing into any place whatsoever, slaves or other persons, as or in order to their being dealt with as slaves; or to ship, tranship, embark, receive, detain, or confine on board, or to contract for the shipping, transhipping, embarking, receiving, detaining, or confining on board of any ship, vessel, or boat, slates or other persons, for the purpose of their being carried away or removed, as or in order to their being dealt with as slaves; or to ship, tranship, embark, receive, detain, or confine on board, or to contract for the shipping, transhipping, embarking, receiring, detaining, or confining on board of any ship, vessel, or boal, slaves or other persons, for the purpose of their being imported or brought into any place whatsoever, as or in order to their being dealt with as slaves ; or to fit out, man, navigate, equip, despatch, use, employ, let, or take to freight or on hire, or to contract for the fitting out, manning, navigating, equipping, despatching, using, employing, letting, or taking to freight or on hire, any ship, vessel, or boat, in order to accomplish any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the objects, which objects and contracts have hereiubefore been declared uulawful; or to lend or advance, or become security for the loan or advance, or to contract for the lending or advancing, or becoming security for the loan or advance of money, goods, or effects, employed or to be employed in accomplishing any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the objects, which objects and contracts have hereinbefore been declared unlawful; or to become guarantee or security, or to contract for the becoming guarantee or security for agents employed or to be employed in accomplishing any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the objects, which objects and contracts have hereinbefore been declared unlawful; or in any other manner to engage or to contract to engage directly or indirectly therein as a partner, agent, or otherwise; or to ship, tranship, lade, receive, or put on board, or to contract for the shipping, transhipping, lading, receiving, or putting on board of any ship, vessel, or boat, money, goods, or effects, to be employed in accomplishing any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the objects, which objects and contracts have hereinbefore been declared unlawful; or to take the charge or command, or to navigate or enter and embark on board, or to contract for the taking the charge or command, or for the navigating or entering and embarking on board of any ship, vessel, or boat, as captain, master, mate, petly officer, surgeon, supercargo, seaman, marine, or servant, or in any other capacity, knowing ihat such ship, vessel, or boat is actually employed, or is in the same voyage, or upon the same occasion, in respect of which they shall so take the charge or command, or navigate or enter and embark, or contract so to do as aforesaid, intended to be employed in accomplishing any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the objects, which objects and contracts have hereinbefore been declared unlawful; or to insure or to contract for the insuring of any slaves, or any property, or other subject matter, engaged or employed, or intended to be engaged or employed, in -accomplishing any of the objects, or the contracts in relation to the

* The acts are not particularly recited.

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