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is the gift of God, and cometh of grace ;) and so it is an outward sign of his invisible faith which was before given him of God.''

His supposition' (Rastall's) is this, that all 'men which are baptized with material water are "very Christian men, and have the true faith, and are those which Paul affirmeth to be without spot, blame, or wrinkle. But thereto I say, Nay: for,

even as the outward circumcision made .not the * Jews the elect people, and children of salvation, so doth not the outward baptism make us the faithful members of Christ : but, as they were the children of God which were inwardly cir'cumcised, even so they that are washed inwardly

from the concupiscence of this world, are the • members of Christ.'2

Christ saith—"Except a mán be born again * from above, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” *He must have a regeneration: and what is this

regeneration? It is not to be christened in 'water, (as these firebrands expound it, 3) and no‘thing else. How is it to be expounded then i St.

Peter sheweth that one place of scripture declar

eth another. It is the circumstance and colla*tion of places that make scripture plain. Saith

St. Peter, “ We be born again.” How i “Not by a mortal seed, but by an immortal.” What is

* Treatise on baptism, written, 1553, by John Frith, martyr: FATHERS OF the English Church, vol. i. p. 384—386. The publication here referred to is of great importance to those who really desire to know the sentiments of the venerable reformers of our established church.

? A book on purgatory, in answer to Rastall and Sir Thomas More, by John Frith. Fathers, &c. vol. i. p. 408.

5 Meaning the Papists.

* this immortal seed: “By the word of the living * God:” by the word of God preached and opened. « Thus cometh in our new birth.'l

We mean of a second birth, which is spiritual ( whereby our inward man and mind are renewed

by the Holy Ghost, so that our hearts and minds • receive new desires, which they had not of their

first birth or nativity. And the second birth is by • the water of baptism, &c.'2 « St. Austin sheweth

the same to be true in the sacrament, both of baptism and of the Lord's body, which he saith . do profit only them that receive the same worthily. Therefore, as in baptism those who come

feignedly, and those that come unfeignedly, both * be washed with the sacramental water ; but both “ be not washed with the Holy Ghost, and clothed

with Christ : so in the Lord's supper both eat . and drink the sacramental bread and wine, but

both eat not Christ himself, and be fed with his “flesh and blood ; but those only which worthily 'receive the sacrament.' Whosoever cometh to • that water, being of the age of discretion, must • examine himself duly, lest if he come unworthily • (none otherwise than he would corne unto other 'common water, he be not renewed in Christ, 'but instead of salvation receive his damnation.'3

No doubt in Cranmer's writings, particularly those of his former years, there are many expressions which shew that he supposed the inward and spiritual grace to be generally attendant on the

Latimer, bishop and martyr. Ninth sermon preached before King Edward. Fathers &c. vol. ii. p. 654, 655..

· Archbishop Cranmer: Fathers, &c. vol. iii. p. 291, 491,492. a Cranmer, Fathers, &c. vol. iii. p. 535.

outward sign in baptism : especially in the case of infants ; but the quotations here adduced manifestly prove that he did not think that the outward baptism was regeneration, or in all cases inseparably connected with it.

In such only as worthily receive the same,' (baptism and the Lord's supper,) they have a 'wholesome effect and operation : and yet not that of the work wrought, as some men speak; which word as it is strange and unknown to holy

scripture, so it engendereth no godly, but a very ' superstitious sense : but they that receive the ' sacraments unworthily, purchase to themselves damnation, as St. Paul saith.' 2

“All the will and imagination of man's heart is only to evil, and altogether subject to sin and misery, and bond and captive to all manner of wickedness : so that it cannot once think a good thought, much less then do a good deed, as of his own work, pleasant and acceptable in the sight of * God; until such time as the same be regenerate . by the Holy Ghost and prevented by the grace

of God. For, as St. James saith, “ Every good and perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights.” And Christ saith " Without me ye can do nothing :" and Paul 'saith, that “ it is God which worketh in us both , the will and the deed, even of good will.” There. fore, until the Spirit of regeneration be given us

of God, we can neither will, do, speak, nor think

· Opus operatum.

? Art. xxvi. Edw. VI: On the sacraments. Fathers, &c. vol. ii. p. 334, 335.

II

• any good thing, that is acceptable in his sight.

Let us therefore always pray unto God, that he will make in us a clean heart, and renew in us an upright spirit.'__Did this good man deem no regeneration needful, or possible, except which is common to all baptized persons ?

Such as be baptized' (adults are meant,) 'must remember that repentance and faith precede this external sign; and in Christ the purgation was 'inwardly obtained before the external sign was

given. So that there are two kinds of baptism, and both necessary. The one interior, which is the cleansing of the heart, the drawing of the • Father, the operation of the Holy Ghost: and " this baptism is in man when he believeth and trusteth that Christ is the only actor of his salvation.'-Thus be the infants examined con

cerning repentance and faith before they be 'baptized with water ; at the contemplation of the which faith God purgeth the soul. Then is the exterior sign and deed, not to purge the heart but to confirm, manifest, and open unto the world, that this child is God's.'— A traitor may receive the crown, and yet be true king nothing the more: so a hypocrite and infidel may receive the external sign of baptism, and yet be no Christian man any the more ; as Simon Magus and others.'2

"A man that is regenerate and born of God, * (the which thing, that every one of us be, our

* Clement, who was preserved from being burned by dying in prison. Strype's Memorials. Fathers, &c. vol. iv. p. 296.

• Hooper, bishop and martyr : Fathers, &c. vol. v. p. 169—171,

: [B. II. “ baptism, the sacrament of regeneration, doth

require, under pain of damnation ; and therefore, • let every one of us, with the Virgin Mary, say, «« Be it unto me, O Lord, according to thy word”,

-according to the sacrament of baptism, wherein “thou hast declared our adoption ; ....) a man, I say, that is regenerate, consisteth of two men, (as a man may say,) namely, of the old man and of the new man.'2_Did this eminent divine consider baptism as the only regeneration; or as uniformly and inseparably connected with it: To 'require of us, on pain of damnation,' is far different from conferring it on us at the time.'

Some writers of the last century run into this 'new-fangled phrase, to denote conversion, or a

returning from a lapsed state, after a notorious 'violation of the baptismal covenant.'2

Whether the language here referred to, concerning regeneration, were 'new-fangled,' and invented by the writers of the seventeenth century; the reader, after duly considering the preceding quotations from much more ancient authors, must judge. The writers referred to, by no means considered the persons of whom they spake as ·lapsed' except as fallen in Adam: for they regarded them as mere nominal Christians, unbaptized in heart, unregenerate and needing regeneration quite as much as Jews and gentiles do. .

To these quotations from

the fathers of our

, Bradford, martyr: Fathers, vol. vi. p. 176
• Dr. Nichols, Note, Ref. 87, 88.

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