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Rom. ix. 3. I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh; who are Israelites—. 1 Tim. v. 4. let them learn first to show piety at home, and to requite their parents; for that is good and acceptable before God.
Even our enemies are not to be excluded from the exercise of our charity, inasmuch as they are not excluded from our prayers. Exod. xxiii. 4, 5. if thou meet thine enemy's or or ass going astray, &c. Prov. xxv. 21, 22. if thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he be thirsty, give him water to drink; for thou shall heap coals of fire upon his head, and Jehovah shall reward thee. See also Rom. xii. 14, 20. Matt v. 44. love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you—. Matt. vi. 15. if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. Luke xxii. 51. he touched his ear and healed him. xxiii. 34. Father, forgive them—. Rom. xii. 17. recompense to no man evil...for evil. v. 21. be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. 1 Thess. v. 15. see that none render evil for evil unto any man. 1 Pet. iii. 9. not rendering evil for evil. We are taught the same by the example of God himself. Matt. v. 44. love your enemies ..... that ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven. Rom. v. 8. God commendeth his love towards us, in that, while we were get sinners, Christ died for us. -
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The opposite of this virtue is, first, uncharitableness towards our
neighbour. James ii. 15, 16. if a brother or sister be naked, and desti
tute of daily food, &c. . . . - -
Secondly, hypocritical charity. Matt. vi. 2–4, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do—.
Thirdly, an excessive and preposterous love. "I Sam. ii. 29. thou honourest thy sons above me—. xvi. 1. how long wilt thou mourn for Saul, seeing I have rejected him 2. Matt. x. 37, he that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me. * - - - *
Fourthly, hatred of our neighbour. I John iii. 15. whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer. iv. 8. he that loveth not, knoweth not God, Jor God is love.
Fifthly, a meddling disposition. Prov. xxvi. 17. he that passeth by and meddleth with strife belonging not to him, is like one that taketh a dog by the ears.
Hatred, however, is in some cases a religious duty; as when we hate the enemies of God or the church." 2 Chron. xix. 2. shouldest thou love them that hate Jehovah & Psal. xxxi. 6. I have hated them that regard lying vanities. cxxxix. 21, 22. do I not hate them, O Jehovah, that hate thee? Prov. xxviii. 4. they that forsake the law, praise the wicked; but such as keep the law contend with them. ... xxix. 27. an unjust man is an abomination to the just. Jer. xlviii. 10. cursed be he that doeth the work of Jehovah deceitfully, and cursed be he that keepeth back his sword from blood. We are to hate even our dearest connections, if they endeavour to seduce or deter us from the love of God and true religion. Exod. xxxii. 27. slay every man his brother, and every man his companion. Deut. xiii. 6–8. if thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy Jriend which is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, &c. Luke xiv. 26. if any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, &c. . Thus Christ, notwithstanding his love for Peter: Mark viii. 33. get thee behind me, Satan.
Love towards our neighbour is absolute or reciprocal
Under absolute love are comprised humanity, good will, and compassion.
* “But ye will say, these (the prophets) had immediate warrant from God to be thus bitter; and I say, so much the plainlier is it proved, that there may be a sanctified bitterness against the enemies of truth.' Apology for Smectymnuus. Prose Works, I. 232.
HUMANITY consists in the performance of those ordinary attentions which man owes to man, whether living or dead, as the partaker of one common nature. Deut. xxii. 1, &c. thou shalt not see thy brother's or or his sheep go astray, &c.
Towards the dead humanity is shown by mourning for their loss, and by a decent sepulture.
Mourning is the appropriate mark of respect paid to the memory of all who are not utterly worthless. Gen. l. 3. the Egyptians mourned jor him threescore and ten days. 2 Sam. i. 12, they mourned and wept, and fasted until even, for Saul and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of Jehovah, and for the house of Israel, because they were Jallen by the sword. iii. 31, 32. the king wept at the grave of Abner, and all the people wept. Much more therefore to those of our own household. Thus the ancient patriarchs: Gen. l. 10, they mourned with a great and very sore lamentation. So also when believers are cut off. Acts viii. 2. devout men carried Stephen to his burial, and made great lamentation over him. Even on such occasions, however, our grief ought not to be immoderate. Lev. xxi. 2, 4, 5. he shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself; they shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corner of their beard; nor make any cuttings in their flesh. Deut. xiv. 1. ye are the children of Jehovah your God; ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. 1 Thess. iv. 13. sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.
Decent burial. Gen. xxiii. 8. that I may bury my dead out of my sight. xxxv. 20. Jacob set a pillar upon her grave. l. 2, &c. Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. 2 Chron. xvi. 14. they laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices, &c. To remain unburied is an indignity. Jer. viii. 2. they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, &c. xvi. 4, &c. they shall not be lamented, neither shall they be buried. Any place of sepulture which is consistent with decency, may be adopted without impropriety. Sarah, for instance, was buried in a cave, Gen. xxiii. 19. Rachel, not in Ephrath, but on the high road to that city, xxxv. 18. xlviii. 7. Samuel in his own house at Ramah, 1 Sam. xxv. 1. and Christ in a garden near the place of crucifixion. When Jacob and Joseph made it their especial request to be gathered unto the sepulchre of their fathers in the land of promise, this was in token of their reliance on the divine declarations, Gen. xlix. 29. l. 25. Josh. xxiv. 32. Heb. xi. 22. by faith, Joseph ...... gave commandment concerning his bones.
The opposite of humanity is, first, inhumanity; against which there are the severest prohibitions, Lev. xix. 14. thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind. Deut. xxvii. 18. cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander out of the way. Such was that of the Edomites towards the Israelites in their distress, Amos i. 6, &c. Psal. cxxxvii. 7, rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof. Such too was that of the priest and Levite in the parable, who passed by on the other side, when the traveller who had fallen among thieves was lying half dead and plundered, Luke x. 31, 32.
Secondly, an incautious and unadvised humanity; as for instance, when we become responsible for another without due consideration. Prov. vi. 1, 2, if thou be surety for thy friend, if thou hast stricken thy hand with a stranger, thou art snared with the words of thy mouth—. xi. 15. he that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it, and he that hateth suretyship is sure. xvii. 18. a man void of understanding striketh hands—. xx. 16. take his garment that is surety for a stranger. See also xxvii. 13. xxii. 26, 27. be not one of them that strike hands, &c.
Thirdly, an officious humanity. Prov. xxv. 17. withdraw thy foot from
thy neighbour's house, lest he be weary of thee, and so hate thee. 1 Kings
xiii. 15, 16. then he said unto him, Come home with me, and eat bread.
Lastly, an excess of humanity, which makes provision for the idle
and undeserving. 2 Thess. iii. 10, if any would not work, neither should he eat.
The second modification of love is Good will, which consists in wishing well to all men. Such was that of Titus, 2 Cor. viii. 16. which put the same earnest care into the heart of Titus for you ; and of the angels, Luke ii. 10. I bring you good tidings of great joy; and xv. 10. there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. Rom. xii. 15. rejoice with them that do rejoice.
The opposite of this is, first, envy, or a grudging disposition; which is shown in various ways. First, when a man cannot bear that others should participate in his good fortune; as in the instance of the labourers who were hired first into the vineyard, Matt. xx. 11, &c. and of the Jews who were unwilling that salvation should be extended to the Gentiles, as may be seen throughout the book of Acts. Secondly, when a man grudges another that which he cannot himself obtain; which is exemplified in the envy with which Satan regards the salvation of the human race;" in Cain's anger against his brother, because God had more respect unto him, Gen. iv.’ in Esau, xxvii. 41. in Joseph's brethren, Acts vii. 9. in Saul, 1 Sam. xviii. 7, 8. and in the princes of Persia, Dan. vi. Thirdly, when a man is jealous that any should be endued with the same gifts as one of whom he is himself an admirer or follower; which is exemplified in Joshua, Num. xi. 28. in John's
- - - - - - - - ... Aside the devil turn'd
- - - - - I reck not, so it light well aim’d,
" . . . . . Th' unjust the just hath slain,