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demneth the just, even they both are abomination to Jehovah. xxiii. 17. let not thine heart envy sinners. xxiv. 24. he that saith unto the wicked, Thou art righteous, him shall the people curse. Isai. v. 20. woe unto

them that call evil good—. xxxii. 5, 8. the vile person shall be no more called liberal—.

Allied to candour are simplicity, faithfulness, gravity, taciturnity, courteousness, urbanity, freedom of speech, and the spirit of admonition.

SIMPLICITY consists in an ingenuous and open dealing with our neighbour. Psal. cxvi. 6. Jehovah preserveth the simple. Matt. x. 16. be ge harmless as doves. xix. 14. suffer little children.....for of such is the Kingdom of heaven. Mark x. 15. whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. 1 Cor. xiv. 20. be not children in understanding; howbeit in malice be ye children. 2 Cor. i. 12. that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world. xi. 3.

I fear, lest by any means. . . . . . gour minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.

Opposed to this are, first, duplicity. Psal. v. 6. Jehovah will abhor the deceitful man. xii. 3. with a double heart do they speak. xxviii. 8, &c. which speak peace to their neighbours, but mischief is in their heart. cxx. 2. deliver my soul from lying lips, and from a deceitful tongue. Prov. iii. 29. devise not evil against thy neighbour. xvii. 20. he that hath a perverse tongue falleth into mischief. xxvi. 24, &c. he that hateth, dissembleth with his lips. v. 28. a lying tongue hateth those that

are afflicted by it. Matt. ii. 8. go and search diligently for the young child—.

Secondly, credulity. Prov. xiv. 15, the simple believeth every word.

FAITHFULNEss is shown in the performance of promises, and the safe custody of secrets. Psal. xv. 4. he that sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. Prov. xi. 13. he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth the matter. xx. 19. he that goeth about as a tale-bearer revealeth secrets, therefore meddle not with him—. xxv. 9. discover not a secret to another.

It has been made matter of inquiry, whether it be lawful to revoke a promise once made, or to recal a benefit once conferred. This would seem to be allowable, where the person on whom the promise or benefit was bestowed proves himself unworthy of our kindness. Thus the lord in the parable exacted the debt from his servant, in punishment for his cruelty towards his fellow-servant, although he had before forgiven it him; Matt. xviii. 27, 32, 34.

Opposed to this are, first, precipitancy in making a promise, without due consideration of circumstances. Matt. xxvi. 35. though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee.

Secondly, talkativeness. Prov. xi. 13. a tale-bearer revealeth secrets. Thirdly, treachery; of which Judas Iscariot is a signal instance.

GRAVITY consists in an habitual self-government of speech and action, with a dignity of look and manner, befitting a man of holiness and probity.” Prov. xvii. 24. wisdom is before him that hath understanding. Eccles. viii. 1. a man's wisdom maketh his face to shine—.

Opposed to this is levity. Prov. xvi. 22. the instruction of fools is folly. xvii. 24. the eyes of a fool are in the ends of the earth. Eccles. x. 2. a wise man's heart is at his right hand, but a fool's heart at his

!eft. * Richardson says that Milton ‘had a gravity in his temper, not melancholy, or not till the latter part of his life, not sour, morose, or ill-natured; but a certain severity of mind, a mind not condescending to little things." Remarks, p. xv. ‘ In his whole deportment, says Symmons, “there was visible a certain dignity of mind, and a something of conscious superiority, which could not at all times be suppressed or wholly withdrawn from observation. His temper was grave, without any taint of melancholy. Vol. VII. p. 512.

TACITURNITY preserves a due moderation in our speech. Prov. x. 19. he that refraineth his lips is wise. xiii. 3. he that openeth wide his lips, shall have destruction. xvii. 28. even a fool when he holdeth his peace is counted wise; and he that shutteth his lips is esteemed a man

of understanding.

Opposed to this are, first, loquacity. Prov. x. 14. the mouth of the foolish is near destruction. v. 19. in the multitude of words there wanteth not sin. xviii. 7. a fool's lips are the snare of his soul. xxix. 20. seest thou a man that is hasty in his words? there is more hope of a Jool than of him. James iii. 8. the tongue can no man tame.

Secondly, foolish talking. Matt. xii. 36. every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgement. Eph. v. 4. foolish talking.

Thirdly, excess of taciturnity. 2 Kings vii. 9. this day is a day of good tidings, and we hold our peace.

CourtTEoUsNEss consists in affability and readiness of access.” I Pet. iii. 8. be ye pitiful, courteous.

Opposed to this are, first, churlishness. 1 Sam. xxv. 17. he is such a son of Belial, that a man cannot speak to him.

* Compare on this head, and with the three next paragraphs, the following passages from Symmons. ‘Of this great man the manners are universally allowed to have been affable and graceful, the conversation cheerful, instructive, and engaging. His youngest daughter... affirmed that “he was delightful company; the life of the conversation, not only on account of his flow of subject, but of his unaffected cheerfulness and civility.' Isaac Vossius describes him as ‘comem, affabilem, multisque aliis praeditum virtutibus.' Burmann. Syll. III. 618. So also N. Heinsius; “Virum esse miti comique ingenio aiunt, quique aliam non habuisse se causam profitetur Scribonium acerbe insectandi, quam quod ille et viros e maximis celeberrimisque multos nihil benignius exceperit, et quod in universam Anglorum gentem conviciis atrocissimis injurius valde fuerit.' Burmann. Syll. III. 276. Salmasius is here alluded to under the name of Scribonius.

Secondly, frowardness. Prov. iv. 24. put away from thee a froward mouth. xiv. 3. in the mouth of the foolish is a rod of pride. xvi. 26. he that laboureth, laboureth for himself; for his mouth craveth it of him. xviii. 6. a fool's lips enter into contention, and his mouth calleth for strokes. xxvii. 22. though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart from him.

Thirdly, false or constrained courtesy; as that of Absalom, 2 Sam. xv. 3, 4. Psal. xii. 3. Jehovah shall cut off all flattering lips.

URBANITY comprehends not only the innocent refinements and elegances of conversation, but acuteness and appropriateness of observation or reply. Prov. xxiv. 26. every man shall kiss his lips that gireth a right answer. xxv. 11. a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in pictures of silver. I Kings xviii. 27. Elijah mocked them—. Col. iv. 6.

let your speech be alway with grece seasoned with salt, that ye may know how ye ought to answer every man.

Opposed to this are obscenity and double meanings. Eph. iv. 29. let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth. v. 4. neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting," which are not convenient. Col. iii. 8. but now ye also put off all these ; anger.......filthy communication out of your mouth. Obscenity, properly speaking, consists neither in word nor in action, but in the filthiness of his mind, who out of derision or wantonness perverts them from their proper import. Hence those expressions in the Hebrew Scriptures, for which the Jewish commentators substitute others in the margin which they esteem more decent, are not to be considered as obscene, but are to be attributed to

“evrparexia. “Nomen medium, proprie significat concinnam mutationem, et intra virtutes

morales ab Aristotele numeratur, urbanitas. Sed in Novo Testamento in malam partem

usurpatur pro scurrilitate. Eam vocem pro scurrilitate apostolus posuit, quod plerumque qui urbanitatem affectant, a medio virtutis aberrantes, ad scurrilitatem declinent. Qua in significatione etiam Pindarus poeta Graecam vocem usurpasse legitur. Itaque recte noster

interpres scurrilitatem vertit.' Estius in locum. See Leigh's Critica Sacra, Schleusner, Wetstein, Elsner, and Macknight.

the vehemence or indignation of the speaker." Neither are the words of Deut. xxii. 17.. to be regarded as indecent; they shall spread the cloth before the elders of the city.

FREEdom of speech consists in speaking the truth with boldness. Exod. xi. 8. all these thy servants shall come down unto me. Job xii. 3. I have understanding as well as you; I am not inferior to you: yea, who knoweth not such things as these ? 1 Sam. xiii. 13. Samuel said unto Saul, Thou hast done foolishly: thou hast not kept the commandment of Jehorah. Psal. cxix. 42. so shall I have wherewith to answer him that reproacheth me. Prov. xxvi. 5. answer a fool according to his folly. This virtue is exemplified in Elijah and Elisha, 2 Kings vi. 32. and in many others; in Hanani, 2 Chron. xvi. 7. in Zechariah, xxiv. 20. Isai. i. 10, 23. hear the word of Jehovah ...... thy princes are rebellious, and companions of thieves. Jer. xiii. 18. say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down. Ezek. xxi. 25. and thou, profane wicked prince of Israel–. Micah vii. 4. the best of them is a briar. Matt. iii. 7. O generation of vipers. John xiv. 4. it is not lawful for

• ‘The Spirit of God, who is purity itself, when he would reprove any fault severely, or but relate things done or said with indignation by others, abstains not from some words not civil at other times to be spoken, &c. &c.... whereas God, who is the author both of purity and eloquence, chose this phrase as fittest in that vehement character wherein he spake, otherwise that plain word might have easily been forborne: which the masoreths and rabbinical scholiasts not well attending, have often used to blur the margent with Keri instead of Ketiv, and gave us this insulse rule out of their Talmud, ‘that all words which in the law are written obscenely, must be changed to more civil words; fools, who would teach men to read more decently than God thought good to write.' Apology for Smectymnuus. Prose Works, I. 233. “Ask a Talmudist what ails the modesty of his marginal Keri, that Moses and all the prophets cannot persuade him to pronounce the textual Ketiv.' Areopagitica, Ibid. 300. “Tu fortasse, ut sunt fere hypocritae, verbis tetrici, rebus obscoeni, ne ipsum quidem Mosen ista noxa immunem abs te dimiseris; cum alibi saepius, tum etiam ubi Phineae hasta qua parte mulierem transfixerit, si qua fides Hebraeis, aperte narrat.... Non te Salomonis Euphemismi censorem, non prophetarum scripta tuam turpiculi immo nonnunquam plane obscoeni censuram effugerint, quoties Masorethis et Rabbinis, pro eo quod diserte scriptum est, suum libet Keri adscribere. Ad me quod attinet, fateor malle me cum sacris scriptoribus evöväpnuova, quem cum futilibus Rabbinis stay fuova esse.’. Auctoris pro re Defensio, W. 299.

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