Sivut kuvina

recommended to us by the churches, or by our brethren in the faith.
Deut. xxiii. 7, 8, thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother;
thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land.
Job xxxi. 32. the stranger did not lodge in the street— Rom. xii. 13.
distributing to the necessity of saints, given to hospitality. xvi. 2. that ye
receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in
whatsoever business she hath need of you, for she hath been a succourer
of many, and of myself also. Heb. xiii. 2, be not forgetful to entertain
strangers; for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. 1 Pet.
iv. 9. use hospitality one to another without grudging. 3 John 5, 6, &c.
beloved, thou doest faithfully whatsoever thou doest to the brethren, and
to strangers; which have borne witness of thy charity before the church.
The reward of a hospitable spirit is signally exemplified in the woman
of Sarepta, and in the Shunammite, who received prophets under their

Injury or oppression of guests or strangers was forbidden by various
laws, recorded Exod. xxii. 21, &c. Levit. xix. 33, 84. Deut. x. 18, 19.

Opposed to this is inhospitality. Deut. xxvii. 19 cursed be he
that perverteth the judgement of the stranger. Ezek. xxii. 29. they have
wered the poor and needy, yea, they have oppressed the stranger wrong-
Jully. 8 John 10 not content therewith, neither doth he himself receire
the brethren, and forbiddeth them that would, and casteth them out of the



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Hrthento we have treated of the private duties of man towards his
neighbour. Public duties are of two kinds, political and ecclesiastical,

Under political duties are comprehended the obligations of the
magistrate and the people to each other, and to foreign nations.

Exod. xxiii. 8. thou shalt take no gift, for the gift blindeth the wise:
xxxii. 11. Moses besought Jehovah his God, and said, Jehovah,
why doth thy wrath war hot against thy people? Lev. xix. 15, thou
shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the
mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour. Num. xi,
11, &c. wherefore have I not found favour in thy sight, that thou layest
the burden of all this people upon me? xiv. 13. Moses said into
Jehovah, Then the Egyptians shall hear it—. Deut. i. 9. I am not able
to bear you myself alone. xvii. 20. that his heart be not lifted up above
his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment to the
right hand or to the left. 1 Kings ii. 3. keep the charge of Jehovah thy
God—. iii. 8–10. give thy servant an understanding heart to judge thy
people—. See also 2 Chron. i. 10. 1 Chron. xiii. 2. David said unto all
the congregation of Israel, If it seem good unto you, and that it be of
Jehovah our God, let us send abroad unto our brethren every where—.
xxviii. 2. hear me, my brethren, and my people. 2 Chron. xix. 6, he
said to the judges, Take heed what ye do, for ye judge not for man, but

CHAP. xvii.

jor Jehovah, who is with you in the judgement. Psal. lxxii. 2. he shall

judge thy people with righteousness, and thy poor with judgement. lxxv.2.

when I shall receive the congregation, I will judge uprightly. lxxxii. 3.
defend the poor and fatherless. Prov. xi. 14. where no counsel is, the
people fall; but in the multitude of counsellors there is safety. xvi. 12.
it is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness, for the throne is esta-
blished by righteousness. xxix. 4. the king by judgement establisheth the
land, but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it. xviii. 17. he that is
first in his own cause seemeth just, but his neighbour cometh and searcheth
him. xx. 8. a king that sitteth in the throne of judgement scattereth away
all evil with his eyes. xxiv. 23. it is not good to have respect of persons
in judgement. xxxi. 1–10. the words of king Lemuel, &c. Jer. xxi. 12.
thus saith Jehovah... Erecute judgement in the morning. xxii. 3, 4. eaecute
ye judgement and righteousness. Neh. v. 14. from the time that I was
appointed to be their governor...... I and my brethren have not eaten
the bread of the governor. Matt. xx. 25–27. ye know that the princes
of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great
erercise authority upon them ; but it shall not be so among you; but
whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister. See also
Mark x. 42, &c. Luke xxii. 25, &c. Rom. xiii. 3, 4. rulers are not
a terror to good works, but to the evil...... jor he is the minister of God
to thee for good.

In the matter of reward and punishment. Psal. ci. 4, &c. a fro-
ward heart shall depart from me...... mine eyes shall be upon the
jaithful of the land. Inordinate punishment is forbidden. Deut. xxv. 3.
..forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed. 1 Kings ii. 26. thou
art worthy of death, but I will not at this time put thee to death,
because, &c.

The right of the magistrate as regards the sword. Gen. ix. 6.

whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed. Job xii. 18.

he looseth the bond of kings. Psal. lxxv. 6. promotion cometh neither

jrom the east, nor from the west, nor from the south. Prov. viii. 15, 16.


by me kings reign. Dan. ii. 21. he changeth the times and the seasons. iv. 17. that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men. v. 18–20. the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, &c....... but when his heart was lifted up...... he was deposed from his kingly throne. Rom. xiii. 1, &c. let every soul be subject unto the higher powers ...... Jor he beareth not the sword in vain ; if therefore not in vain, much less for the injury of the good.” I Pet. ii. 13, 14. as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil doers.

Of the election of magistrates, see Exod. xviii. 21. thou shalt pro

wide out of all the people able men, ...... and place such over them. Numb. xi. 16, 17, 25. gather unto me seventy men—. Deut. i. 13, &c. take you wise men and understanding—. 1 Sam. xi. 15. compared with

xii. 1. all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king...... behold, I have hearkened unto your voice in all that ye said unto me, and have made a king over you. 2 Sam. ii. 4. the men of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah.

The following texts show what is contrary to the duties of the magistrate. Psal. xxvi. 10, their right hand is full of bribes. xciv. 20. shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee ? Prov. xvii. 23. a wicked man taketh a gift out of the bosom to pervert the ways of judgement. xxi. 7. they refuse to do judgement. xxviii. 15, 16. as a roaring lion and a ranging bear, so is a wicked ruler over the poor people. xxix. 4. he that receiveth gifts overthroweth the land. v. 12. if a ruler hearken to lies, all his servants are wicked. Eccles. iv. 13. better is a poor and wise child, than an old and foolish king who will no more be admonished. x. 5, 6. there is an evil which I have seen under the sun, as an error, which proceedeth from the ruler; folly is set in great dignity—. v. 16, 17. woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning. Isai. i. 23, thy princes are rebellious and companions of thieves, every one loveth gifts, and followeth after rewards, they judge not the fatherless, neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them. iii. 4. I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them. v. 12. as for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. v. 14. Jehovah will enter into judgement with the ancients of his people—. v. 23. which justify the wicked for reward. x. 12. I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria. Ezek. xxix. 3. behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, &c. Amos v. 7. ye who turn judgement to wormwood—. See also vi. 12. Micah iii. 11. the heads thereof judge for reward—. vii. 3. the prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward.

* “Definiendo enim explicat, nequis errare et opiniones hinc stolidas aucupari possit, qui sint magistratus potestatis hujus ministri, et quam ob causam subjectos esse nos hortetur; ‘Magistratus non sunt timori bonis operibus, sed malis; boni a potestate hac laudem adipiscentur; magistratus minister est Dei nostro bono datus; non frustra gladium gerit, vindex ad iram ei qui malum facit.” Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio. Prose Works, V. 87.

The licentiousness of courts is exposed, Gen. xii. 15, the princes

also of Pharaoh saw her and commended her before Pharaoh. Prov. xxv. 5. take away the wicked from before the king, and his throne shall be established in righteousness. 2 Chron. xxiv. 17. after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, &c. Isai. xxii. 15, 16. get thee unto this treasurer, even unto Shebna, which is over the house, &c. 1 Kings xxi. 7. Jezebel his wife said unto him, Dost thou now govern the kingdom of Israel?. Esth. iii. 6. he thought scorn to lay hands on Mordecai alone—. v. 9. if it please the king, let it be written that they may be destroyed. Dan. vi. 7. all the presidents of the kingdom ...... have consulted together to make a royal decree—.

It is especially the duty of the magistrate to encourage religion and the service of God (public worship in particular), and to reverence the church. Isai. xlix. 23. kings shall be thy nursing fathers, and their queens thy nursing mothers; they shall bow down to thee with their face toward the earth, and lick up the dust of thy feet. That the church, however, does not stand in need of the superintendence of the magistrate, but that, if left in peace, she is fully qualified, in the exercise

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